2023 will be the European Year of Skills. Understanding how technological change and digitalisation, particularly new intelligent automation or Industry 4.0 technologies (e.g. advanced robotics, artificial intelligence, 3D printing), is reshaping the worlds of work and learning is key for translating skills policy ambitions into achievements. Cedefop’s European skills and jobs survey (ESJS) already showed in its first wave that about 14% of EU jobs were likely to be fully automated, with such automation risks disproportionally affecting low-skilled people in routine jobs that offer little, if any, vocational training. The COVID-19 pandemic, which accelerated the proliferation of digital working and learning, has accentuated these trends.

Digitalisation has become a game changer, and its role in shaping the future of work, skills and learning now tops EU and national policy agendas. Scientifically sound data and analysis are crucial for evidence-based policy-making to accompany and shape change brought about by digital technology, the challenges linked to the pandemic and the ongoing green transition.

Fielded in summer 2021 in all EU27 Member States and Norway/Iceland (EU+), Cedefop’s second European skills and jobs survey (ESJS2) collected information from a representative sample of about 46 000 adult workers on how digitalisation affects them, their skills match with their jobs and their readiness to invest in continuous vocational training to adapt to technological change.

Please find the video recordings in the Links section below.

Conference aims

The main aim of the conference was to discuss with the European policy and expert community, social partners and a wider group of stakeholders and participants the main findings of Cedefop’s second ESJS focused on digitalisation and skill mismatches in Europe. With the European Year of Skills coming up and a focus on digitalisation, digital skills, skills use, skills formation and skill mismatches, Cedefop aims to stimulate evidence-informed debates on how to shape a human digital transition in Europe. As part of the conference, Cedefop involved expert and other participants in reflecting on the implications of the findings for up- and re-skilling, vocational education and training (VET) and skills policies.

At the conference, Cedefop:

  • launched the new Cedefop ESJS2 indicator online web tool;
  • collected feedback from participants on the ESJS2 findings they consider most relevant from a policy perspective;
  • reflected, jointly with social partners and stakeholders, on the implications of digitalisation for changing skill needs and VET policies;
  • presented findings from research and analyses exploring the implications of digitalisation for skill mismatch;
  • showcased good practices of VET and skills policies aimed at digital skills development and/or skills matching.


photo Pissarides for Dec22Sir Christopher Pissarides is the 2010 Nobel Prize laureate in economics, the Regius Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics and the Professor of European Studies at the University of Cyprus.

He is a macroeconomist who specialises in the economics of labour markets, economic growth and structural change, especially as they relate to obstacles to free market clearing.

Nicolas Schmit took up office as European Commissioner responsible for Jobs and Social Rights in December 2019.

Prior to this, and following a long career of public service in his native Luxembourg, he took up duty as Permanent Representative of Luxembourg to the EU in 1998 for a six-year term.

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In 2004, he was appointed Minister Delegate for Foreign Affairs and Immigration. From 2009 to 2018, he held the position of Minister for Labour and Employment in the Luxembourgish government.

He served as a Member of the European Parliament for the social-democratic Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei following his election in May 2019.

Nicolas Schmit holds a Doctorate in International Economic Relations and a Masters in French Literature from the University of Aix-Marseille.

Jürgen Siebel ,Executive Director of Cedefop, joined Cedefop from the private sector in September 2019.

As Executive Director, he is responsible for managing the Agency’s operations in accordance with the strategic direction of its tripartite Management Board.

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Jürgen has a background in human resources management with particular emphasis on learning and education, the strategic development and roll-out of work-based vocational education and training programmes, as well as related corporate social responsibility initiatives.

In this context he has also collaborated with institutional actors at national, European and global levels.

Before joining Cedefop in Thessaloniki, Jürgen served for 20 years in various leading operational and strategic HR roles in Siemens AG, mostly as senior manager with global governance or business partner responsibilities.

Jürgen earned his MSc in economics at the University of Hamburg, and a PhD in business administration from the University of Vienna.

Konstantinos Pouliakas is an Expert on Skills and Labour Markets at Cedefop.

He leads the Agency’s Skills and Work team and is principal research manager of its Digitalisation and Future of Work and Skill Mismatch projects. His proudest achievement is the development of two waves of the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs Survey.

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He has been scientific advisor and author on skills anticipation and skill mismatch for the European Commission, the World Economic Forum, ILO and the Greek Ministry of Labour and is regular instructor for the ILO-ITC.

He is currently a core member of the scientific committee of Greece’s National Skills Commission.

Before joining Cedefop he held posts at the University of Aberdeen and the University of Cyprus and worked for the Bank of Greece and HM Treasury. He has been invited Professor at the Universita Degli Studi Roma TRE and Visiting Research Scholar at the International Monetary Fund (IMF). He is Honorary Senior Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen Business School and IZA Research Fellow. He holds an M.Phil from the University of Oxford (St. Antony’s College) and a D.Phil from the Scottish Graduate Program in Economics.

He has published widely in peer-reviewed economics journals (e.g. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Oxford Review of Education, Economica, Journal of Economic Surveys, Research in Labor Economics, Education Economics, International Labour Review).

photo BancalMarie Bancal is Director of Partnerships, Development and legal affairs at Pix.

Pix is a digital public service created to help everyone assess and improve their digital skills — essential in everyday life, to boost employability or to exercise citizenship — and certify them with an official certificate.

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She is responsible for the deployment of Pix in companies, governmental bodies and training organizations, in France and also for the deployment of international activities.

photo Centeno for Dec22Clara Centeno has, since 2001, carried out evidence-based socio-economic research on developments in the information society and the role of ICT and digital skills for socio-economic inclusion.

This work has focused on vulnerable groups and supported the development of EU’s long-term care policies, integration of migrants, youth, digital and social inclusion and education.

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Her current research work focuses on digital skills gaps, on the role of digital competences and of the European Framework on Digital Competences for citizens (DigComp) for employability, and, more recently, on the feasibility study of the European Digital Competences Certificate, in support of the implementation of the Digital Education Action Plan (2021-2027).

photo Enica for Dec22Stefan Enică works as a Projects and Policy Officer at SGI Europe, being responsible for topics related to skills, vocational education and training, and migration.

He coordinates European projects such as ‘’Green Skills in VET’’ which analysis the skills and training aspects of the twin transition. Stefan holds a master’s degree in European labour studies from the Catholic University of Louvain.

photo Fouarge for Dec22Prof.dr. Didier Fouarge is director of the Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA), Maastricht University, and programme director of the Labour Market and Training research programme at ROA.

He holds a Chair of “Dynamics of skills allocation” at the School of Business and Economics at Maastricht University.

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He studied economics at the Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix (FUNDP) in Namur, Belgium. He holds a PhD from Tilburg University on the topic of poverty dynamics and social policy in Europe.

He has been working at ROA since 2007, and has been a member of ROA’s Management Team since 2014. His main research interests reside in scientific and applied research on occupational and educational choice, labour market dynamics, and human capital and skills formation.

photo GuerraValentina Guerra is Policy Adviser for Social Affairs and Training at SMEunited, the European Employers’ organisation representing Crafts and SMEs.

Valentina is responsible for issues concerning social affairs, education and skills, social dialogue and migration.

photo HippeRalph Hippe is an expert in the Department for VET and skills at Cedefop, the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, since 2021.

Before joining Cedefop he was a scientific officer in the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, leading its work on the self-reflection tool SELFIE for the VET area.

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Moreover, he has worked for the London School of Economics and Political Science, Sciences Po Strasbourg and University of Tübingen, and has been a consultant for the World Bank and a visiting researcher at IDDRI/Sciences Po Paris.

Hippe holds a PhD in economics from University of Strasbourg, BETA/CNRS and University of Tübingen (summa cum laude). He was awarded four dissertation awards for his PhD thesis on human capital and economic growth. He also holds Master’s degrees in business administration and management from Ecole de Management Strasbourg and University of Tübingen.

image Wayne HolmesWayne Holmes (PhD, University of Oxford) is an Associate Professor in the UCL Knowledge Lab at University College London.

His research takes a critical studies perspective to the teaching and application of Artificial Intelligence in educational contexts (AI&ED), and their ethical, human, and social implications. Wayne is leading the Council of Europe’s project: Artificial Intelligence and Education.

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A critical view through the Lens of Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law; he is also Consultant for the Technology and AI in Education unit at UNESCO, for which he co-wrote AI and Education: Guidance for Policy-makers; and he is Senior Researcher in AI&ED for IRCAI (the International Research Centre on Artificial Intelligence under the auspices of UNESCO).

Wayne has also co-written Artificial Intelligence in Education. Promise and Implications for Teaching and Learning, Citizens Interacting with AI Systems (for the EU JRC), State of the Art and Practice in AI in Education, and The Ethics of AI in Education. Practices, Challenges and Debates. He has given invited keynotes about AI&ED in countries around the world.

Photo KarachaliosGeorge Karahalios is a Deputy Governor at the Greek Public Employment Service (DYPA), responsible for Active and Passive Labour Market Policies, Digital Transition and Administrative Support.

He is a PhDc at the Department of Political Science and International Relations from the University of Peloponnese and holds a MSc in International European Economics from the Athens University of Economics and Business.

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He also holds a Bachelor in PA from the Panteion University and a Diploma from the National School of Public Administration and Local Government.

He has published a number of articles related to public administration and public policy with a strong focus on employment policies and has had working experience both in private and in public sector.

photo Korpi for Dec22Tomas Korpi is Professor of Sociology at the Swedish Institute for Social Research at Stockholm University.

His work is located at the intersection between sociology and economics, and encompasses questions related to mobility and inequality on the labor market.

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This includes the influence of macro level events such as industrial restructuring and globalization as well as micro level processes such as the psychology of unemployment and skill match. It also covers the relationship between inequality and public policy, primarily in the form of education and labor market programs.

He has published extensively, inter alia in journals ranging across the disciplines economics, industrial relations, sociology, social policy and social welfare.

His current research includes analyses of local public policies directed at youth not in employment, education or training (NEETs) in Sweden and the other Nordic countries, educational expansion and changing skill requirements on European labor markets, the system of higher education financing and educational outcomes in the OECD as well as changes to industrial relation systems and wage inequality in the OECD.

photo Darko MaliDarko Mali is a Curricula Development and VET System Expert at the National Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for VET (CPI Ljubljana).

Since 2000, he has participated in different system and curricula development projects in Slovenia and the Balkans. He currently coordinates evaluation and research activities at the Institute and leads some international projects among others the project Blended learning in VET (BlendVET - KIPSI).

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His point of interest is the flexibilization of curricula, vocational education didactics and the quality of VET provision. He develops different solutions at the level of national and school curricula, also for the apprenticeship path.

In the last years, he concentrates on the integration of transversal competencies and technology-enhanced learning in VET. He was active in the EQAVET and ECVET networks. Currently, he takes part in the Cedefop Apprenticeship experts’ group and coordinates the Referent activities in Slovenia.

Seamus McGuinnessSeamus McGuinness is a Research Professor and the Research Area Co-ordinator for labour market research at the Economic and Social Research Institute.

Prior to joining the Institute, he held posts at Queens University Belfast, the Northern Ireland Economic Research Centre and the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic & Social Research (University of Melbourne).

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He obtained his PhD in Economics from Queens University Belfast in 2003. His published research covers the areas of labour economics and the economics of education.

He has also published research in the areas of industrial relations, small business economics, regional economics, and the economics of constitutional change in Ireland.

He is a research fellow in the Institute of Labour Studies (IZA) in the University of Bonn and an Adjunct Professor in the department of economics at Trinity College Dublin.

Robert Plummer is a senior adviser responsible for issues concerning migration and mobility, education and skills, social dialogue and the European Labour Authority.

Prior to joining BusinessEurope, Robert worked as a political adviser for the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) party.

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He attended Keele University in the UK and holds a Ph.D in industrial relations and human resource management, focusing on a comparative study of the demand for EU migrant workers in Sweden and the UK.

He also has an MA in European industrial relations and human resource management and a BA in human geography and human resource management.

Photo PrinaManuela Prina is Head of the Skills Identification and Development Unit, within the Knowledge Hub department of the European Training Foundation (ETF), the EU Agencies supporting countries outside the European Union (EU) in the area of human capital development, life-long learning policies and skills identification and development.

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As Head of Unit, Manuela is responsible for steering ETF’s work in the area of skills relevance and anticipation, development of skills and validation, leading the knowledge co-creation and sharing across ETF partner countries, with the EU and the international community.

Manuela joined ETF in 2008 and in her career at the ETF covered several assignments, including being responsible for the area of governance, the implementation of several projects in the area of monitoring and assessment of VET systems and human capital development policies, and leading in 2018-19 the development of the ETF’s strategy 2027.

Prior to working at the ETF, Manuela served as social sector specialist at the Asian Development Bank, and as a Junior Professional at the World Bank.

Manuela holds a PHD in International Political Economy – and two Master degrees, in Economics and international relations, and in Educational sciences. She is an alumni of the Indian Institute of Management (IIMC) of Calcutta (2000), and a graduate of the executive course on Foresight and vision building of the University of Manchester (2017) and of the Business Coaching Academy of Business Coaching Italia (2020).

Antonio Ranieri is Head of Department for VET and Skills at Cedefop.

He manages a team of European experts investigating skills trends and changes in the worlds of work and support the development and implementation of the Union policy in the field of vocational education and training. The Department work encompasses a wide range of research and policy analysis in two Cedefop strategic areas of operation, namely skills and labour market and learning and employability.

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An economist by training, Antonio has taught regional economics at the University of Rome since 2002. He also lectured at the National High School of Public Administration on cost-benefit analysis and public expenditure.

Prior to joining Cedefop, in 2010, he was Head of Research and Studies at the public services authority of the Municipality of Rome. Until 2007, he was Head of Area at CLES, an independent centre of studies on labour market and economic development based in Rome.

Agnes Roman has been a senior policy coordinator on education policy issues at the European Trade Union Committee of Education (ETUCE) since 2010 while she has been advising also the European Trade Union confederation (ETUC) on lifelong learning and VET policy since 2012.

She is representing the European trade unions in several bodies and groups of the European Commission and agencies, eg. CEDEFOP Management Board, ACVT, DGVT, EQF, EQAVET.

Giovanni Russo holds a position as Expert at Cedefop, where he works on the issues of skills development, skills mismatch, and skills utilisation. With a background in Labour and Behaviour Economics, he joined Cedefop in 2010, after more than 15 years of career in academia.

Previously he was Associate Professor at Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics. He has published in various international journals.

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He holds a PhD in Economics from the Free University of Amsterdam.

photo Santangelo for Dec22Giulia Santangelo is an Expert on Skills and Labour Markets at the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), since 2022.

Before joining Cedefop, from 2013 to 2022, she worked as researcher at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, in the Competence Centre on Microeconomic Evaluation (CC-ME). There she has been the coordinator of the Centre for Research on Impact Evaluation (CRIE) for four years.

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She has been a visiting research fellow at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, and a lecturer at the Doctoral School of Economics at Sapienza University of Rome.

She obtained a M.Sc. in Statistical Sciences and a Ph.D. in Economic Sciences at Sapienza University of Rome. Her main research interests lie in the fields of labour economics, applied micro-econometrics, and policy evaluation.

photo Souto-Otero for Dec22Manuel Souto-Otero is Professor at the School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University and Senior Professorial Fellow at the Singapore University of Social Sciences.

He has published widely in the areas of education and labour markets, and is currently researching a variety of aspects related to digitalisation and the future of work.

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He was been involved in the preparation of Cedefop's ESJS2 and is currently Co-Principal Investigator in the project "Digital Disruption and the Future of Work: Reimagining Education, Skills and Employability" an in international research programme dedicated to understanding the future prospects for human augmentation, social inclusion and shared prosperity, funded by Skills Futures Singapore.

He has previously undertaken a large number of research projects on education issues for European institutions (the European Commission, European Parliament, Cedefop), the OECD, national governments internationally, think-tanks and third sector organisations. He is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Education and Work.

Dr. Jasper Van Loo is coordinator of Cedefop’s department for VET and Skills.

He currently coordinates the labour market and skills analysis work of the agency. He is also part of the team investigating EU skills trends using online job vacancies.

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He has a master degree in quantitative and general economics and holds a Ph.d. in social sciences. As a researcher and project manager at the Dutch research centre for education and the labour market (ROA) Jasper led research projects on labour market issues, skills, employability and obsolescence of knowledge.

He also worked on HRD and HRM, taking an economic perspective to human resources issues. Jasper started working for Cedefop in 2007. He led the centre’s early work on skill mismatch, coordinated the centre’s work on national VET systems and policies for several years, and led the centre’s skills governance work.

Patricia Wruuck has worked as an Economist in the Economics Department of the European Investment Bank and is currently seconded to the Federal ministry for economic affairs and climate action in Germany.

Her research has focused on skills, investment in human capital, and regional development topics. Prior to joining the EIB, she has worked at Deutsche Bank Research and Google. Patricia holds a Master’s degree from Freie Universität Berlin, a doctoral degree from Mannheim University and an Executive Master’s degree from LSE.


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Na prevzatie

Agenda 9-14 December 2022


Worker transitions in the digital economy (C. Pissarides - DAY 1)


Digital transitions, job quality and skill mismatch (K. Pouliakas - DAY 1)


Automation, digital skills and learning (D. Fouarge - DAY 1)


Digital disruption at work (M. Souto-Otero - DAY 1)


Priority groups for digital competence training and EU digital competence tools (C. Centeno - DAY 2)


Artificial intelligence in education? (W. Holmes - DAY 2)


Rethinking public employment services in a digital era (G. Karachalios - DAY 2)


Project BlendVET: Digital and pedagogical competences of teachers hand in hand (D. Mali - DAY 2)


Setting Europe on course for a human digital transition - New evidence from Cedefop's ESJS2 (K. Pouliakas - DAY 3)


Skill mismatches, concepts, measurement and policy approaches (S. McGuinness - DAY 4)


Corporate training and skill gaps - Did Covid-19 stem EU convergence in training investments? (P. Wruuck - DAY 4)


A skill match approach to lifelong learning (T. Korpi - DAY 4)


Educational requirements, educational mismatch, and skills (G. Russo - DAY 4)



Konstantinos Pouliakas
Béatrice Herpin