Please cite as: Cedefop (2020). Inventory of lifelong guidance systems and practices - Netherlands. CareersNet national records. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/inventory-lifelong-guidance-systems-and-practices-netherlands
Contributor: Thea Van den Boom
Acknowledgements: Karien Coppens, Senior researcher/consultant Euroguidance Netherlands.
Reviewed by: Cedefop
Copyright: Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged.
Disclaimer: Translations of titles/names for entities, country policies and practices are not to be considered as official translations.

Introduction

Several years of cutbacks, decentralisation and market-oriented reform processes have had an impact on career guidance policy and provision. This has resulted in a situation in which career guidance is offered by various institutions, both public and private, within four main domains described below:

  1. the education system;
  2. the public employment sector;
  3. employers and trade unions;
  4. private-sector organisations, with private, combined with government, financing.

Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders

The education system

Guidance in the education system is coordinated by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science). Most important stakeholders for implementation are the schools, given that they have a threefold task: qualification, socialisation and personal development. Through education students prepare for qualification/transition to higher levels of education, participation in society (citizenship), and exercising a profession. By law (also see P2, access to guidance), general secondary and VET-schools are obliged to invest in the development of career guidance competences of pupils and students. Career development is part of the examination and certification. The schools in each education sector are organized in an association. For VET the MBO Raad (VET council) represents all public financed VET-schools and the NRTO (Dutch council for training and education) the private VET-schools. In the primary sector the PO Raad and general sector the VO Raad represent their schools. Other important stakeholders are:

SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market)

As required by WEB (Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education, 1995), SBB works together with VET schools and the labour market on the following legal tasks:

  1. accredit and supervise work placement companies;
  2. maintain the vocational education and training qualification structure;
  3. provide information on the labour market, practice placements and apprenticeships, and the efficiency of training programmes.

SBB also advises the minister of OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) and the minister of EZK (Economic Affairs and Climate Policy) on linking vocational education with the job market.

Inspectorate of Education

The Dutch Inspectorate of Education is responsible for inspecting and reviewing schools and education institutions. The Inspectorate stimulates schools and other education institutions to maintain and improve the quality of education offered, while also assessing the quality of career education and guidance in general primary and secondary education and in vocational education.

Expertise Centre CGE (in Dutch: Expertisepunt LOB)

The Expertise Centre Career Guidance and Education supports schools, from secondary education to VET and the first year of higher vocational education, in improving career orientation. The centre informs, organises and facilitates. It makes information and tools about guidance available on its website and organises knowledge-sharing meetings both nationally and regionally. Schools can also contact the centre with questions about the implementation of guidance, quality assurance, and professionalisation.

The approach is partly national, as in the collection and dissemination of as many good practices as possible, proven products and methods, and the organisation of knowledge-sharing meetings; it is also partly regional, with advisors in the region for the guidance of schools and supporting school partnerships. The expertise centre is project-based and is financed by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) (see section Quality assurance).

Euroguidance Netherlands

Euroguidance supports OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) and other stakeholders in promoting guidance and shaping policy. As part of the Dutch policy plans, Euroguidance developed an overview of education and training opportunities for (future) career guidance professionals. It also produced the notable Dutch framework for career professionals, resulting from extensive consultation where representatives of all relevant stakeholders were involved. The framework is now one of the elements in the ministry’s plans and ambitions, with regard to strengthening career education and guidance (CEG) in education.

Student and youth organisations

There are four major youth and student associations in the Netherlands; namely, Landelijk Aktie Komitee Scholieren (National Pupils Action Committee, LAKS), Jongeren Organisatie Beroepsonderwijs (Youth Organisation for Vocational Education, JOB), the Landelijke Studentenvakbond (National Student Trade Union, LSVb), and Interstedelijk Studentenoverleg (Interurban Student Consultation, ISO). All are organisations of and for students. They contribute to policy documents and provide activities related to career guidance.

The public employment sector

Guidance in the public sector is coordinated by SZW (The Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment). SZW finances improvement programmes for career education and guidance within schools for preventing early school leaving, creating better positions for migrants, lifelong learning (e.g. individual learning and development budget) and sustainable employability (e.g. mobility and reintegration).

UWV (Employee Insurance Agency)

The Ministry commissions the UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) – an autonomous administrative authority – to implement employee insurances (referring to both unemployment and disability benefits). Dutch employee insurances are provided through laws such as:

  1. the WW (Unemployment Insurance Act);
  2. the WIA (Work and Income according to Labour Capacity Act), which contains the IVA (Full Invalidity Benefit Regulations) and the WGA (Return to Work (Partially Disabled) Regulations);
  3. the Wajong (Disablement Assistance Act for Handicapped Young Persons);
  4. the WAO (Invalidity Insurance Act);
  5. the WAZ (Self-employed Persons Disablement Benefits Act);
  6. the Wazo (Work and Care Act)
  7. the Sickness Benefits Act.

The UWV organisation is structured around five divisions and two main live departments (further information can be found here). One division of the UWV is UWV WERKbedrijf, the public employment service of the Employee Insurance Agency, which is engaged in job placement and reintegration. The UWV also provides labour market and data services for the Ministry and publishes national and regional labour market forecasts each year on their website.

The regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten, see below) are part of the UWV. Service centres are established in all labour market regions, as partnerships between organisations in the region who are involved in learning and working: public employment service, municipalities, education and training institutes, employers, knowledge centres and labour market institutions. Together, they develop activities, services, and products with the goal of improving the transfer from education to labour market. Career guidance is one of the instruments used.

Dutch policy increasingly focuses on the self-reliance and responsibility of all job seekers within the Netherlands. The services resulting from this policy will be increasingly based on online self-service. UWV online services are available to all job seekers through www.werk.nl (see section ICT in lifelong guidance).

Regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten)

The Learning and Working programme has existed since the end of 2009 and aims to strengthen the connection between education, training, the labour market and labour market opportunities. To this end, regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) have been set up in all labour market regions, which are financed both by SZW (the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment) and by regional partners. Regional partners are municipalities, UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) education and training institutes, and employers. The national Learning and Working programme serves as the taskforce for coordination. The centres provide information about and access to life-long learning for employers, employees and the unemployed, which includes those who have finished or are about to finish school. The centres are open to any individual looking to receive free advice on learning and working opportunities. The policies and action plans of these centres vary per region, depending on the regional labour market and partners.

The activities of the regional service centres pay attention to the screening of clients, guidance activities, validation services, support activities and education and training activities. Two service models are operational: a model for youth (pupils, students), employees and job seekers, and a model for employers. In both service models, the outcomes of the services offered by the desks play a major role in the linkage between validation and guidance; this is because when validation and guidance-services are interlinked, they create more power, transparency and opportunities in the learning and working fields than as stand-alone services. The main gains from the linkage between validation and guidance for the beneficiary/client, organisations involved are that it opens up more opportunities for acquiring a qualification, applying for a job, upgrading a function level or anti-cyclical strategies for personnel policy.

VNG/Divosa

Since 2015, the Participatiewet (Participation Act) is in place. This act has replaced acts such as the act on work and assistance Act and a part of the Wajong (see above). This has consequences for those entitled to social assistance, people with a Wajong-benefit and people in the social employment system. Anyone who is able to work but cannot make it on the labour market without support, falls under the Participation Act. The law must ensure that more people find work, including people with a disability. Municipalities (which is responsible for all people who can work but need support. Municipalities (which are united in the VNG) are expected to offer support to this growing target group so that they can get to work. Divosa is the organisation for municipality directors of social services; they support municipalities by developing and exchanging knowledge with the aim of enabling people to participate actively in society.

Employers and trade unions

There are several important stakeholders among employers and trade unions, beginning with SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market) described above. Other stakeholders directly involved with employers and trade unions are described below.

VNO-NCW (Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers)

VNO-NCW is the largest employers' organisation in the Netherlands. VNO-NCW represents the interests of Dutch business and industry and provides a range of services to its members.

MKB Nederland (SME Netherlands)

The Royal Association MKB-Nederland is the largest entrepreneurs’ organisation in the Netherlands and represents the interests of Dutch SMEs.

Trade Unions

There are three major unions in the Netherlands: the Christian-democratic Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond (CNV), the social-democratically oriented Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging (FNV) and the union for professional and managerial staff Vakcentrale voor professionals (VCP). All are federations of sector-based labour unions. Trade-unions offer career guidance services for their members. FNV, for example, has an extensive careers service and programmes for career guidance. FNV and CNV also have youth divisions which are involved in career guidance and contribute to policy documents.

Private sector organisations (combined private and government financing)

Many foundations in the Netherlands offer career guidance or similar services, mostly for dedicated target groups; and are (co)funded by the government. In addition, many private companies and private counsellors offer career guidance to individuals, schools and reintegration programmes. A few important examples are listed below.

NVS-NVL (Dutch Association of Student and Career Counsellors) is an association for career professionals involved in developing career guidance in schools, IVET and CVET. It also includes all the organisations involved in providing placements and career guidance.

VVsL (Association of School Deans and Career Counsellors) is an association for career professionals in secondary education (mostly senior general and pre-university), but also private counsellors, professional and study choice agencies and coordinators from the universities (of applied sciences).

The National Association of Study Advisers (LVSA) is a professional association for, and represents the interests of, Dutch university study advisors. The LVSA informs its members about developments in CGE (career guidance and education), stimulates the professionalisation of its members by offering courses and professionalisation days, promotes knowledge and information sharing via various platforms, invests in its (international) network, and looks after the interests of its members. The association also stimulates its members to conduct their own research on guidance.

NOLOC (Association for Career professionals) is the Dutch association for career professionals and job coaches in the private market.

ZAT’s (Zorg Advies teams, The Care-Advise Teams) are established by and in schools following the law on ‘adequate education’ (Wet Passend Onderwijs, August 2014). In this law, the duty of care is put forward as a central focus point of schools. The care-advise teams are active in primary, secondary and VET school and include representatives from schools, health services, psychologists, and the police. The aim of the teams is to provide access to career guidance and preventive measures for at-risk students with behavioural difficulties.

Diverse cooperation between the career development services and stakeholders like employers, trade unions, the media, NGOs, and professional organisations exists both at national and regional levels. In 2016, cooperation between the social partners, PES, municipalities, and the education and development funds of the industries was prompted by SZW (the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment) to support adequate services for the unemployed and to prevent unemployment (DWSRA-pilots). In certain areas, there is close cooperation between stakeholders at both national and regional levels, for example within the technology and health sectors.

 

Sources

Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond (CNV). https://www.cnv.nl/

Divosa. https://www.divosa.nl/over-divosa

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Euroguidance Netherlands (2017). Framework for career  guidance for young  people. https://www.euroguidance.nl/_images/user/instrumenten/Euroguidance_Publicatie_RaamwerkVoorLOBJongeren_Engels_def.pdf

Euroguidance Netherlands. https://www.euroguidance.nl/default.aspx

Expertisepunt LOB (Expertise Centre CGE). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/

Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging (FNV). https://www.fnv.nl/

Federation of Managerial and Professional Staff Unions (MHP). Archived page. https://web.archive.org/web/20070109190822/http://www.vakcentralemhp.nl/home.asp

Interstedelijk Studentenoverleg (Interurban Student Consultation, ISO). https://www.iso.nl/

Jongeren Organisatie Beroepsonderwijs (Youth Organisation for Vocational Education, JOB). https://www.jobmbo.nl/

Landelijk Aktie Komitee Scholieren (National Pupils Action Committee, LAKS). https://www.laks.nl/

Landelijke Studentenvakbond (National Student Trade Union, LSVb). https://lsvb.nl/

Landelijke Vereniging van Studieadviseurs LVSA (National Association of Study Advisers). https://lvsa.nl/

Laws and regulations. https://wetten.overheid.nl/

Leerwerkloketten (Learning and working desks). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

MBO Raad (VET council). https://www.mboraad.nl/english

Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-economic-affairs-and-climate-policy

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (n.d.). Inspectorate of Education. https://english.onderwijsinspectie.nl/

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-social-affairs-and-employment

NOLOC (Association for Career professionals). https://www.noloc.nl/english

NRTO (Dutch council for training and education). https://www.nrto.nl/

NVS-NVL (Dutch Association of Student and Career Counsellors). https://nvs-nvl.nl/

PO Raad (primary education council). https://www.poraad.nl/

Royal Association MKB-Nederland. https://www.mkb.nl/over-mkb-nederland/english

SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market). https://www.s-bb.nl/en

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Vakcentrale voor professionals (VCP). https://www.vcp.nl/english/

VNG (Association of Dutch municipalities). https://vng.nl/  

VNO-NCW (Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers). https://www.vno-ncw.nl/over-vno-ncw/english

VO Raad (secondary education council). https://www.vo-raad.nl/ 

VVsL (Association of School Deans and Career Counsellors): https://www.vvsl.nl/home

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

Access to guidance

The career guidance system is decentralised and involves diverse public and private career providers. Relevant information on studies, quality aspects, professions and labour market information can be found at many different organisations and platforms. Access to guidance is governed according to each domain (see Introduction), both the education system and the public employment sector, and in terms of the activities of employers and trade unions as well as private-sector organisations, with private, and government financing (see section Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders).

Guidance activities within the education system

Career guidance and education (CGE) is partly enshrined in laws and regulations, but differently for different educational sectors. Career guidance in secondary education is regulated by the 'Regulations on Examination Programmes for Secondary Education' (Regeling examenprogramma’s voortgezet onderwijs) and in VET by the Examination and qualification decisions within the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education (Examen- en kwalificatiebesluit beroepsopleidingen WEB). Supervision by the Inspectorate follows established regulations. Career guidance in higher education is not regulated by law but only by regulation, and supervision is done by the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO).

In November 2017, institutions engaged in secondary education and VET committed themselves to ambitious goals to improve career guidance by establishing official Career guidance agendas for secondary and VET-education (LOB Ambitieagenda mbo and Kwaliteitsagenda vo).

Guidance in secondary education, vocational, and higher education is organised according to different lines of support provided by:

  1. teachers/mentors (first line support);
  2. career teachers/coordinator (second line support);
  3. remedial teachers (second/third line support);
  4. external private parties (third line support).

As mentioned, education institutions are required by law and regulations to deliver support in career guidance to students, to develop career competences and to prepare students for the labour market or further education. However, laws and regulations vary per educational sector. Moreover, schools are free to implement CGE within the scope of these laws and regulations in accordance with the vision and policy of their own school. Contents vary substantially in terms of the objectives and aims each school formulates. These objectives can cover a wide spectrum, such as socio-emotional guidance, tutoring, reflection on students’ own abilities and motivation, training and work exploration programmes. Some schools design activities to allow students to experience how well they fit into different professional cultures, for example by interviewing parents or organising ‘speed-dating’ with companies. The guiding methodological principle is based on concrete experiences with work, whereby pupils draw on these experiences to enter into dialogue with their mentor or their parents. There is a variety of school approaches to CGE, and quality can also differ since there are no clearly defined standards at present.

The project CGE equal opportunities of VET services (VET Council) prepares students – those in need, especially minority groups – for their future internship, work or follow-up study by training teachers and students, and guiding them in the use of specific assignments. The project supports VET schools in improving their CGE policy, with the aim of making a positive contribution to the equity of young people. This involves working with all career competences but focusing on work exploration, networking and career guidance. The ultimate goal is to embed the activities in the school's regular CGE policy and work towards upscaling and sustainability. The project ended by December 31st 2019, it is currently being explored how this is to be followed up.

Guidance activities of public employment sector

Public employment sector guidance activities are targeted at adults and youngsters at risk. Services are provided by the UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) and service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) (see section Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders), commissioned by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment at national and regional levels, and by municipalities at regional and local levels. Learners can use portals with independent career information on vocational and higher education (see section ICT in lifelong guidance).

Guidance activities of employers and trade unions

Guidance activities are provided to employees by employers and trade unions; private-sector organisations provide services targeting practically all groups.

Guidance activities of private sector organisations

Certain activities and services arranged by private-sector organisations are supported by combined private and government financing, such as the work of many foundations offering career guidance or similar services, mostly for dedicated target groups. Example projects, measures and services are:

  1. the guidance services of the UWV public employment service (division of Employee Insurance Agency, UWV Werkbedrijf) focus on targeting at risk students and unemployed adults;
  2. mobility centres of big companies where employees have their competences assessed and the opportunity to be promoted or change position inside the company, or be placed in a different company.

 

Sources

Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO). https://www.nvao.net/en

Ambitie/Kwaliteitsagenda LOB. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-agendas 

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Examen- en kwalificatiebesluit beroepsopleidingen WEB  (Examination and qualification decisions within the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education). https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0027963/

Leerwerkloketten (Learning and working desks). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (n.d.). Inspectorate of Education. https://english.onderwijsinspectie.nl/

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-social-affairs-and-employment

Project LOB-Gelijke Kansen (Project CGE Equal Opportunities). https://www.mboraad.nl/platforms-projecten/lob-gelijke-kansen

Regeling examenprogramma’s voortgezet onderwijs ('Regulations on Examination Programmes for Secondary Education'). https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0022061

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Quality assurance

Due to the decentralised structure of the system, including the provision of services and systems of career guidance, it is not possible to present an overall view of policy on quality assurance in this area. It is more helpful to focus on quality assurance instruments in education and in other related sectors.

According to law (see section Access to guidance), the quality of CGE in secondary education and VET sectors is monitored by the Inspectorate of Education (see section Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders). The results of the annual report are published. The monitoring can sometimes include thematic research. Apart from these quality-assurance activities, schools have their own independent methods of monitoring. Quality assurance of CGE in higher education is not set by law, however within Higher Education the Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO) assures the quality. One of the criteria on which existing and new programmes in higher education are assessed is whether tutoring of and provision of information to students are conducive to study progress and tie in with the needs of students.

Quality assurance is specifically addressed in the ambition agenda of OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) for CGE (2016 and 2017). The agenda and development of improvements are monitored by an independent organisation (AO Consult). The initial measurement took place in 2018 (further information can be found here). A second and final measurement is carried out in spring 2020.

Higher education institutes do not offer dedicated degrees in career counselling, but some offer education and training related to CGE, such as human resource development (HRD). The lack of higher education programmes reflects the fact that there are no specific regulations for the categories of career guidance professional, counsellor or similar (see section Training and qualifications).

A variety of institutions offer dedicated (in-service) training. These commercial or public organisations are characterised by open registrations. Whether or not training starts depends on the number of registrations

There are several well-known professional associations and certification bodies in the Netherlands. NOLOC (Association of Career Professionals and Job Coaches) is the Dutch association for career professionals, with about 2.700 members, who are employed as career coaches, outplacement consultants, reintegration specialists or vocational counsellors (see section Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders). More than 50% of them are independent workers or entrepreneurs, while the other members are employed in-house in company career centres, (semi-) public organisations (e.g. schools) or in consulting firms. Members must abide by the NOLOC code of ethics and submit themselves to an independent complaints council in the event of a client complaint.

In July 2020 NOLOC will merge with the Career Management Institute (CMI). CMI aims to promote and increase professionalism in career guidance; this implies guaranteeing formal recognition for Dutch career professionals.

Register BKA (Stichting Register Beroepskeuzeadviseurs) registers qualified career professionals, promotes quality and integrity, and strives for optimal communication with professionals and users of vocational guidance.

OVAL is an organisation for vitality, activation and career (merger of NOBOL and BoaBorea). Oval is involved in reintegration after unemployment, job coaching, guidance in the workplace, making people fit for work and guiding them to work, reintegration in case of illness, outplacement and integration.

Some other quality assurance monitoring instruments and activities are relevant to CGE:

  1. UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) service emphasises quality and outcomes. Various instruments are used to measure and improve the services, such as a customer panels;
  2. the Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA), Maastricht University School of Business and Economics, aims to improve understanding of the relationship between education and the labour market. The overarching research theme of ROA is the acquisition and depreciation of human capital over the life course in relation to the dynamics of the labour market, with one line of research dedicated to education and occupational career. The focus of this programme is twofold, consisting of published studies on the development of competences during education and the transition from school to work, as well as subsequent occupational careers;
  3. The JOB-Monitor is a biannual publication of the VET Student Interest Organisation (JOB), measuring student satisfaction; CGE is one of the focus areas;
  4. Expertise Centre CGE supports schools in secondary and VET education in improving student career orientation and guidance. The expertise centre is financed through external projects as well as by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science). The centre focuses on quality development in three main areas of CGE: secondary education (prevocational and upper secondary), VET (all levels), and transitional periods, especially from prevocational to upper secondary education (VET).

 

Sources

Career Management Institute CMI. https://cminl.nl/

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Expertisepunt LOB (Expertise Centre CGE). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/

Jongeren Organisatie Beroepsonderwijs (Youth Organisation for Vocational Education, JOB). https://www.jobmbo.nl/

MBO Raad (2018). Startmeting Monitor LOB: scholen betrekken jongeren bij lob-beleid. https://www.mboraad.nl/nieuws/startmeting-monitor-lob-scholen-betrekken-jongeren-bij-lob-beleid

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (n.d.). Inspectorate of Education. https://english.onderwijsinspectie.nl/

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

NOLOC (Association for Career professionals). https://www.noloc.nl/english

NVAO. https://www.nvao.net/en

OVAL. https://www.oval.nl/

Register BKA (Stichting Register Beroepskeuzeadviseurs). https://www.beroepskeuze.nl/

Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA). Maastricht University School of Business and Economics. https://roa.maastrichtuniversity.nl/

Career management skills

There is a strong theoretical foundation supporting career management competences (loopbaancompetenties) in the Netherlands, as expressed in five competences identified by Marinka Kuijpers PhD. The competences are clarified in regulations governing secondary education and VET institutes: reflection on capacities; reflection on motives; work exploration; career control; and networking. The research of Kuijpers led to the publication Career compass (2011).

At regional level, schools, VET institutions and higher education cooperate with companies in developing career guidance activities focused on career management skills. Some example practices and tools are described below.

MentorProgramma Friesland is a practice aiming to increase access to career guidance services for VET students through mentorship programmes. The services focus on career planning, self-understanding and self-awareness. The mentors are representatives from companies, both employers and employees.

The www.werk.nl website has been developed by the government with the aim of increasing access to online career information, labour market information, and education, training and working opportunities.

The Expertise Centre CGE created a database with up-to-date materials, containing CGE assignments, methods, and examples.

KiesMBO (Choose VET) is a portal for study and career choice specifically aimed at the possibilities offered by secondary vocational education (VET). KiesMBO shows young people, their parents and teachers how VET works, the possibilities it offers, and helps them make a choice for their future. KiesMBO was commissioned by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) to be developed by the SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market), in collaboration with the VET and secondary education sectors, the organised business community and youth organisations.

Studiekeuze 123 (Study choice 123) is a foundation established by students, the higher education sector and OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) to collect and disseminate objective information on studies in higher education. Studiekeuze123 manages information about the recognised study programmes at universities (of applied sciences) and carries out the annual national student survey.

The service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) are currently building a new website containing various tools and services for jobseekers, employees, pupils, students and employers.

The Move21 research project aims to gain better understanding of various skills that are important for future citizens and employees: 21st century skills, career competences, and citizenship skills. For VET students, teachers and education developers alike, making development of these skills visible is essential. KOMPAS21 (Knowledge of my personal attitudes and skills21) helps VET students to understand their 21st century skills and shows them where they can go (development) and where they are now (level). Like a real compass, KOMPAS21 will show the student both the direction they want to go in (development) and where they are now (level).

 

Sources

Expertise Centre CGE (n.d.). LOB-materialen. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/materialen/lobmaterialen

Expertisepunt LOB (Expertise Centre CGE). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/

KiesMBO. https://www.kiesmbo.nl/

KOMPAS21 (Knowledge of my personal attitudes and skills21). https://www.kompas21.nl/

Leerwerkloketten (Learning and working desks). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

MentorProgramma Friesland. https://www.mentorprogrammafriesland.nl/pageid=681

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Move21. https://www.nwo.nl/en/research-and-results/research-projects/i/05/28805.html

SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market). https://www.s-bb.nl/en

Studiecentrum voor Bedrijf en Overheid (SBO). https://www.sbo.nl/

Studiekeuze 123. https://www.studiekeuze123.nl/

van Deursen, P.; van de Wijdeven, F. (2011). Career compass: a toolkit for career professionals. Euroguidance Netherlands. http://www.euroguidance.nl/_images/user/publicaties/Career%20Compass_web.pdf

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

Evidence, monitoring and assessment

The Inspectorate of Education evaluates career guidance and education (CGE) in annual general education research (Staat van het Onderwijs).

The evaluation from 2015/16 shows a high level of quality in career guidance services and activities (Staat van het Onderwijs, 2017). According to the study, general schools inform students sufficiently on programmes and their own progress. CGE takes into account various guidance needs of students and assists them in making the right study choices, particular for students from vulnerable groups. CGE helps young people discover their qualities and passions and can contribute to reducing inequality of education opportunities. A critical comment is that CGE could be more versatile, for example in covering key curricular themes such as reflection on capacities and motives, work exploration and networking. The 2016/17 evaluation states that at some institutions, CGE has clearly gained a prominent place in education policy, but institutions can enhance the value of CGE by making it more visible (Staat van het Onderwijs, 2018).

Much vocational education includes elements of career guidance in its core learning approach, notably work experience and support for the initial transition to the labour market. In practice, not all vocational programmes immediately determine a career, nor do all vocational learners find what they want, or are able, to pursue their initial vocational ideas beyond the course (Kuijpers & Meijers, 2012).

Examples of evaluation studies

Studies on VET student satisfaction with career guidance services and career management skills have been developed. A year after the graduation of a VET student, the school receives a report with data about their ESLs’ (Early school leavers) situation. These data are collected within the school leaver survey of the Research Centre on Education and the Labour Market.

NRO (Netherlands Initiative for Education Research) brings a lot of research into CGE together and answers questions of educational professionals regarding CGE based on scientific research. It also shows that available Dutch research (further information can be found here) focuses primarily on the design and organisation of CGE; it only partly covers effects, mainly as reported by those involved. The research shows that the interpretation of CGE varies greatly and is still in full development, which makes it difficult to make statements about its effectiveness and about active elements. Some large-scale impact studies carried out in the Netherlands are listed below, but they do not give insight into the longer-term effects.

In 2006, a large-scale study was conducted into learning careers and career learning in prevocational secondary and intermediate vocational education (Kuijpers & Meijers, 2009). The study shows that traditional career guidance which not involves dialogue does not contribute to the development of a career identity, learning motivation and a match between capacities and study and work career choices. A quantitative study investigating the impact of guidance and career learning within vocational education on the development of career management skills and career outcomes including 3,499 students and 166 teachers, showed that guidance, where it was based on dialogue, contributed to motivation, decision-making and career outcomes conducted (Meijers, Kuijpers & Gundy, 2013). It also demonstrated a positive relationship between career management skills and career outcomes. A study on the use of portfolios or personal development plans to support students’ career development concluded that teachers, career counsellors and students found portfolios were useful when used to complement and provide a focus for wider career conversations (Mittendorff, Jochems, Meijers, & den Brok, 2008). Where they were not used as part of a broader career learning process, they were generally not seen as useful.

Warps (2013) conducted research among first-year students in higher education, examining the effect of the career guidance and education students had received in secondary education. The results show that a solid offer of CGE does not guarantee that students make the right choice, though it does seem that offering CGE can make a considerable difference. Results of the large-scale Startmonitor - which maps the study choice process and the start and integration of students in their study programme and traces the determinants of study success and dropout in the first year of study – were also published in this article, describing the importance of the CGE in the context of study success.

In 2015, two evaluation studies were carried out by Motivaction in connection with the termination of a specific CGE project in VET. This research (Eigenfeld, De Graaf & Aid Moha, 2015) shows that the basic principles of CGE potentially fit in well with what concerns students. CGE creates room for young people to reflect on their motives and qualities; however, for various reasons CGE does not yet seem to have the desired impact.

Specific assessments/studies conducted

The knowledge centre of UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) (see section ICT in lifelong guidance) analysed the effectiveness of services for reintegration into the labour market during 2008-11. This study showed that the services provided by UWV led to a substantial increase in the chance of resuming work and a reduction of the period in which jobseekers receive unemployment benefits. It is shown that the services provided by UWV are net-effective and cost-effective. This study also showed that face-to-face services increase the chance of resuming work significantly. The knowledge centre of UWV also showed that the Work Profiler 2.0, an electronic diagnosis tools (see section ICT in lifelong guidance), forecasts correctly for 70% of the clients whether they will resume work within 1 year.

KiesMBO was only launched in 2018, and no visitor information is yet available. However, its predecessor had 249,000 visitors in 2014, falling slightly to 226,000 users in 2015, rising again to 234,000 in 2016. Studiekeuze123.nl had more than 917,000 unique visitors in 2016 and over 1,109,000 in 2017.

Evaluations of private-public collaboration where career guidance was utilised included the Phillips company training for certain at-risk groups. Those who follow the learning/working route (study while working) (see section Guidance for early leavers) receive counselling or coaching from the reintegration service during the training programme. Evaluations show that it is an effective employment scheme (further information can be found here).

 

Sources

Eigenfeld, M., De Graaf, M. & Aid Moha, A. (2015). Special Mbo’ers aan het woord over LOB. Motivaction Internationaal. Woerden: MBO Diensten.

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Inspectie van het onderwijs (2017). De staat van het onderwijs 2015/2016 (The State of Education in the Netherlands 2015/2016). https://www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/onderwerpen/staat-van-het-onderwijs/documenten/rapporten/2017/04/12/the-state-of-education-in-the-netherlands-2015-2016-kopie

Inspectie van het onderwijs (2018). De staat van het onderwijs 2016/2017 (The State of Education in the Netherlands 2016/2017). https://www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/onderwerpen/staat-van-het-onderwijs/documenten/rapporten/2018/11/14/the-state-of-education-in-the-netherlands-2016-2017

Inspectie van het onderwijs (n.d.). De Staat van het Onderwijs (The State of Education). https://www.onderwijsinspectie.nl/onderwerpen/staat-van-het-onderwijs

Kennisrotonde. (2017). Welke effecten heeft loopbaanoriëntatiebegeleiding (LOB) op loopbanen van vo-leerlingen en wat is de relatie tussen vormgeving en effecten? (KR. 152). https://www.nro.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/152-Antwoord-Effecten-LOB.pdf

KiesMBO. https://www.kiesmbo.nl/

Kuijpers, M. & Meijers, F. (2009). Leeromgeving voor loopbaanleren; onderzoek naar relaties tussen de leeromgeving en loopbaancompetenties van vmbo- en mbo-leerlingen. Pedagogische Studiën, 84 (3), 93-109.

Kuijpers, M., & Meijers, F. (2012). Learning for now or later? Career competencies among students in higher vocational education in the Netherlands. Studies in Higher Education, 37(4), 449-467.

Meijers, F., Kuijpers, M., & Gundy, C. (2013). The relationship between career competencies, career identity, motivation and quality of choice. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 13(1), 47-66.

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (n.d.). Inspectorate of Education. https://english.onderwijsinspectie.nl/

Mittendorff, K., Jochems, W., Meijers, F., & den Brok, P. (2008). Differences and similarities in the use of the portfolio and personal development plan for career guidance in various vocational schools in The Netherlands. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60(1), 75-91.

NRO (Netherlands Initiative for Education Research). https://www.nro.nl/en/   

Philips (n.d.) Feiter & cijfers over werkgelegenheidsplan (Facts and figures about employment plan). https://www.philips.nl/a-w/about-philips/duurzaamheid/werkgelegenheidsplan/over-wgp/feiten-en-cijfers.html

ResearchNed (2014). Bewezen relatie tussen LOB en studiesucces. Effect LOB: Een Derde Minder Uitval. VO-Magazine, 4. http://www.researchned.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/VO-Magazine-januari-2014-LOB-en-studiesucces.pdf

Studiekeuze 123. https://www.studiekeuze123.nl/

UWV (2018). Werkverkenner 2.0 (Work Profiler 2.0). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/kennis-cijfers-en-onderzoek/kennis-onderzoeken/werkverkenner-2-0.aspx

Warps, J. (2013). LOB en studiesucces. Onderzoek naar de opbrengst van LOB op basis van de Startmonitor 2012-2013. Nijmegen: ResearchNed. http://www.lob-vo.nl/kennisbank/instrumenten-voor-scholen/onderzoek-lob-en-studiesucces

ICT in lifelong guidance

To make it easier for employers and employees to find each other and to make the labour market more transparent UWV WERKbedrijf (public employment division of Employee Insurance Agency) (see section Access to guidance) investigates trends and developments in the labour market. UWV collects and compiles monthly data on job seekers and employers per profession, sector and region. The information in the public database offers insights into the dynamics and functioning of the labour market. Each year UWV publishes national and regional labour market forecasts, which contain the outlook for demand and supply, employment and the job market.

An increasing amount of information and tools is available for students. For example, Studiekeuze123 (studychoice 123) is financed by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) and provides independent and reliable data on all higher education studies in the Netherlands. Several websites with independent information on vocational education have been developed and will be integrated in the online mbo portal KiesMBO (Choose VET). The following websites are integrated in KiesMBO portal:

  1. the former website www.beroepeninbeeld.nl is integrated in www.kiesmbo.nl and provides an overview of occupations and their requirements. The website was developed by SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market), commissioned by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science);
  2. MBO City (MBO Stad) was a website developed by the MBO Raad (VET Council), designed for young people in secondary education looking for information on vocational education opportunities.

In addition, two main online websites are available for career professionals in education:

  1. Expertise Centre CGE supports schools in secondary education and VET in improving career orientation programmes and guidance, and guidance of students. The approach is partly national, partly regional. The expertise centre is project-based and is partly financed by OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science) (see sections Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders and Quality assurance);
  2. the equal opportunities website (LOB - Gelijke Kansen) supports schools and professionals in enabling equal opportunities for students.

Selected ICT guidance resources

The www.werk.nl has been developed by the government with the aim of increasing access to online career information, labour market information, and education, training and work opportunities (see sections Coordination and collaboration among stakeholders and Quality assurance).

UWV (Uitvoeringsinstituut Werknemersverzekeringen) is the national Employee Insurance Agency. Among other activities, it maintains an online portal addressing public policy makers, job seekers and employers. Almost all the staff have one or more social media accounts, e.g. at LinkedIn, Twitter or Yammer. Every time a new report is published, it is announced on social media, as well as labour market information from other sources. Beyond this, a dedicated tool Work profiler 2.0 (see below) is used by UWV counsellors working with employers and employees. 

The programme Leren en werken, which is behind the Regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) also has a portal with a lot of information about career orientation, learning and working, based on a step-by-step plan. Depending on the situation or phase people are, they can take different steps.

The Work Profiler 2.0 is a diagnosis tool, supporting UWV, the national employment agency, in providing tailored advice to its clients on unemployment benefits. A client fills in a short questionnaire online. Based on this information and UWV administration data, the tool provides two results: one assesses the client’s chance of resuming work within one year, and a second provides a brief diagnosis based on 11 predictive factors for work resumption (personal obstacles and opportunities). These factors need attention in supporting the client in increasing the chances of reintegration into the labour market.

Tiptrack.  Tiptrack is a personal and interactive online tool for workers and employers developed by the AWVN (General employers' association Netherlands). The tool is built on the five pillars of sustainable employability: work, development, health, finance and work-life balance. Tiptrack encourages users to take control of their own careers and gives them insight into their own situation; now and in the future. They can immediately purchase products and services such as training, coaching and testing.

InCtrl deploys an interoperable (interchangeable) ePortfolio for the exchange of labour market data which guarantees the ownership of the individual. InCtrl's e-portfolio is broader than just certificates: it allows people to map out their (work) experience and present evidence to make clear which competences they have based on this (work) experience.

The ACT in LOB toolkit consists of a number of innovative tools for career orientation and guidance. The target group consists of guidance professionals in secondary education and the transition to higher education. An important source of inspiration for the toolkit is ACT: acceptance and commitment therapy. This approach helps in making informed choices and promotes mental health and flexibility. Another source of inspiration is the theory of Gati and Osipow about the difficulties in choosing study and career path. This is the basis of the Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), a validated measuring instrument that offers student insight into personal position in the choice process and what important points of attention are.

Career compass, developed in 2011 by Euroguidance, is based on research and practical experiences and is a practical tool for career counsellors and managers in the education sector or in the business community. The Career compass reduces essential career questions to career competences as identified by Marinka Kuijpers. It consists of several tools and questionnaires.

OCW commissioned a research for the best options for a digital national portal for information on education and lifelong development for citizens. The study (ikwilverderleren.nl) was published in November 2019. The government is developing a policy based on the results of this research to come to such a national portal on learning opportunities.

 

Sources

ACT in LOB. https://www.act-in-lob.eu/home

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Euroguidance Netherlands. https://www.euroguidance.nl/default.aspx

Expertisepunt LOB (Expertise Centre CGE). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/

InCtrl. https://www.inctrl.nl/

Leren en werken. https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/aan-de-slag-met-je-loopbaan

MBO Raad. https://www.mboraad.nl/

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Project LOB-Gelijke Kansen (Project CGE Equal Opportunities). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-en-gelijke-kansen

SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market). https://www.s-bb.nl/en

Studiekeuze 123. https://www.studiekeuze123.nl/

Tiptrack.  https://tiptrack.nl/

UWV (2018). Werkverkenner 2.0 (Work Profiler 2.0). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/kennis-cijfers-en-onderzoek/kennis-onderzoeken/werkverkenner-2-0.aspx

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

van Deursen, P.; van de Wijdeven, F. (2011). Career compass: a toolkit for career professionals. Euroguidance Netherlands. http://www.euroguidance.nl/_images/user/publicaties/Career%20Compass_web.pdf

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

Training and qualifications

Various education and initial training programmes have been developed for career guidance practitioners and related occupations or supporting fields, at bachelor and master levels, although only a few institutions offer a specialisation in career counselling. BA level career guidance programme curricula include courses with content on human resources, job placement and career guidance. At present, BA level degrees are offered in Human Resource Management (HRM) and Applied Psychology. Both programmes are offered by different universities of Applied Sciences in the country. In the national consultation/meeting of these programmes agreements were made about the content and intended results. Within this framework, each institution gives its own colour and focus to its own programmes. A limited number of HRM programmes focus on guiding and coaching (young) adults on their way to or on the labour market.

In addition to the bachelor programmes, there is a postgraduate master programme in educational needs offered by various institutions. Fontys Opleidingscentrum Speciale Onderwijszorg (OSO) offers various modules in supervision, aimed at career orientation and supervision. In combination with practice-oriented research on this theme, a differentiation mentioning career guidance, employment guidance on the certificate is possible. There are also three master programmes at university level for career professionals who want more (substantial) depth and background, and/or want to carry out more research or policy tasks:

  1. master career management;
  2. master psychology, specialisation work and organisation psychology;
  3. master psychology, specialisation life course psychology.

Within the programme group Work and Organisational Psychology of the University of Amsterdam there is a research focus on determinants of people's fit perceptions, self-regulation during unemployment, career development, organisational justice and health, norm violation, leadership, and career coaching.

Within the research group Innovative and Effective Education at Saxion University of Applied Sciences there is a professorship in study career guidance that covers the quality of career guidance, the quality of reflection in education, teacher professionalisation, study yield and intake.

The Knowledge Centre Talent Development at Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences has a professorship Parents in Rotterdam South, including proven methods for better collaboration with parents in CGE. It is intended for prospective, new and experienced teachers and social professionals.

There is a professorship Learning environment and careers in preparatory and secondary vocational education, within the Welten Institute (research centre for learning, teaching and technology) of the Open Universiteit of the Netherlands.

There are also various post-initial training courses and training opportunities with a career component, based on open registration. These can be categorised by:

  1. training provision from government-funded institutions;
  2. courses offered by guidance associations;
  3. training offer from commercial institutions and parties.

Employing extensive stakeholder consultation, Euroguidance produced a report containing an overview on education and training opportunities for career guidance practitioners and related fields, including some of the information listed above. This report will be updated in 2020. The Expertise Centre CGE publishes and manages the overview, which can be found here.

Also, in 2017, at the request of OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science), Euroguidance drafted a competence framework (CGE framework) for different categories of career counsellors. The framework provides information on expected professional knowledge, skills and competences at different school levels (secondary and VET colleges), in four focus areas: vision and policy, orientation and guidance, organisation and cooperation. The centre has developed this framework further into a scan. The framework and scan can be found at the website of the Expertise Centre.

 

Sources

Expertise Centre CGE (n.d.). LOB taken en deskundigheid. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-taken-en-deskundigheid

Expertise Centre CGE (n.d.). Professionalisation possibilities. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/professionalisering 

Fontys Opleidingscentrum Speciale Onderwijszorg (OSO). https://fontys.nl/Over-Fontys/Fontys-Opleidingscentrum-Speciale-Onderwijszorg.htm

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Funding career guidance

UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) is commissioned by, and receives a budget from, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (SZW). The Regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) are jointly financed by the Ministry of SZW and regional parties, such as municipalities and VET schools.

The public employment division of UWV (UWV WERKbedrijf) is also commissioned by, and receives a budget from, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. The development and implementation of the Work Profiler 2.0, an electronic diagnosis tool supporting UWV (see sections Evidence, monitoring and assessment and ICT in lifelong guidance), is financed by their budget.

As of 2020, the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment subsidies initiatives aimed at stimulating learning and development in SMEs and in large companies in the agriculture, catering and recreation sector with the SLIM-regeling. Initiatives can range from research education and training needs in a company to  development of career advice for employees in the company.

Various funding mechanisms are in place in the education sector. Current and former improvement programmes include the projects Equal opportunities CGE (Project LOB Gelijke Kansen) and Expertise Centre CGE (Expertisepunt LOB), which are partly funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.

The better the cooperation with companies, the more VET students gain experience, and the greater the chance that they will find work quickly after their studies. Since 2014, the Dutch government has allocated € 25 million each year via the Regional investment fund for VET schools to improve this cooperation.

Every worker aged 45 or over could apply for advice from a career advisor in 2019 and 2020. It is intended both for workers who are at risk of losing their job and for people who are satisfied with their current job. SZW (Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment) has instigated a subsidy scheme Development advice for all people over 45. The Development Advice is a temporary subsidy scheme as part of the Action Plan ‘Perspective for people over the age of fifty’. Career advisers can give development advice to working people over forty-five and apply for a subsidy. The aim of the Development Advice is to encourage participants to take control of their own careers. The advice should provide insight into the future perspective of the participant's current work, competencies and future career opportunities. This involves participants actively thinking about how they can reach their retirement age while at work and how they can prevent absenteeism due to illness or unemployment.

New ways of policy and funding Lifelong Development and Career guidance. The Dutch government is developing a new policy on Lifelong Development and Career guidance to achieve a breakthrough in the field of Lifelong Development (LLO), including a new way of funding. The main lines of this approach are set out in a first letter to Parliament (2018). A second letter (2019) describes the progress made. The starting point is that the government wants to encourage people to take control of their own careers and their lives, so that they can continue to develop and make their own choices make. Lifelong Development plays an important role in this. People have access to resources that can be used for training and development so that they remain sustainably employable at the labour market. The government is working on a scheme for a public learning and development budget, the so-called 'STAP budget', which will give people the (financial) possibility to take steps in their development. Moreover, the (financial) feasibility of a digital overview of training opportunities is being explored in order to support development. In addition, there are regional pilots to provide starting points for improving support for those in work, jobseekers and employers (pilots Leerwerkloketten).

 

Sources

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Expertisepunt LOB (Expertise Centre CGE). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/

Leerwerkloketten (Regional service centres on education and working). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-social-affairs-and-employment

Ontwikkeladvies 45+. https://www.uitvoeringvanbeleidszw.nl/subsidies-en-regelingen/tijdelijke-subsidieregeling-ontwikkeladvies-voor-vijfenveertigplussers/over

Project LOB-Gelijke Kansen (Project CGE Equal Opportunities). https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-en-gelijke-kansen

SLIM-regeling. https://www.uitvoeringvanbeleidszw.nl/subsidies-en-regelingen/slim/over

UWV (2018). Werkverkenner 2.0 (Work Profiler 2.0). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/kennis-cijfers-en-onderzoek/kennis-onderzoeken/werkverkenner-2-0.aspx

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Career guidance for school pupils

Guidance activities within the education system include career guidance in secondary schools, are regulated by the 'Regulations on Examination Programmes for Secondary Education' (Regeling examenprogramma’s voortgezet onderwijs) and in VET by the Examination and qualification decisions within the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education (Examen- en kwalificatiebesluit beroepsopleidingen WEB). Supervision by the inspectorate follows established regulations. In higher education career guidance is regulated differently and supervision is done by the NVAO (Nederlands Vlaamse Accreditatie Organsiatie – Dutch Flemish Accreditation Organisation).

In November 2017, institutions engaged in secondary education and VET committed themselves to ambitious goals to improve career guidance. Guidance in secondary, vocational and higher education is organised according to different lines of support provided by:

  1. teachers/mentors (first line support);
  2. career teachers/coordinator (second line support);
  3. remedial teachers (second/third line support);
  4. external private parties (third line support).

Education institutions are required by law and regulations to deliver support in career guidance to students, to develop career competences and to prepare students for the labour market or further education. Schools are given the power to determine how career orientation and guidance in education is organised, which depends largely on the governance of the schools and the school counsellors. Contents vary substantially in terms of the objectives and aims each school formulates. These objectives can cover a wide spectrum, such as socio-emotional guidance, tutoring, reflection on students’ own abilities and motivation, training and work exploration programmes. Some schools design activities to allow students to experience how well they fit into different professional cultures, for example by interviewing parents or organising ‘speed-dating’ with companies. The guiding methodological principle is based on 'experience', whereby pupils draw on these experiences to enter into dialogue with their mentor or their parents. There are a variety of school approaches to career orientation and guidance, and the quality of career guidance can also differ since there are no clearly defined standards at present.

ZAT’s (Zorg Advies teams, The Care-Advise Teams) are established by and in schools following the law on ‘adequate education’ (Wet Passend Onderwijs, August 2014). In this law the duty of care is put forward as a central focus point of schools. The care-advise teams are active in primary, secondary and VET school and include representatives from schools, health services, psychologists, and the police. The aim of the teams is to provide access to career guidance and preventive measures for at-risk students with behavioural difficulties.

VHTO is the national expertise bureau for girls/women and STEM and is committed to increasing the participation of girls and women in STEM.

LOB-scan VO (CGE-scan for secondary education) was developed in 2010 and is intended for people who are involved in CGE in secondary schools. It provides professionals with a practical tool for self-assessment and the development of plans for improving CGE. In addition to supporting the student in the choice of sector/profile, subject package and further education, the focus is now more on guiding 'a flexible career throughout life', because careers in society are subject to change and unpredictability. The scan consists of four parts: vision and policy; orientation and guidance; organisation; and collaboration.

 

Sources

Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO). https://www.nvao.net/en

Examen- en kwalificatiebesluit beroepsopleidingen WEB  (Examination and qualification decisions within the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education). https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0027963/

LOB-scan. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-themas/lob-scan

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (n.d.). Inspectorate of Education. https://english.onderwijsinspectie.nl/

Regeling examenprogramma’s voortgezet onderwijs ('Regulations on Examination Programmes for Secondary Education'). https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0022061

VHTO. https://www.vhto.nl/

Guidance for VET participants

The Care-advise teams (Zorg Advies teams, ZAT) (see section Career guidance for school pupils) are active in primary, secondary and VET schools and include representatives from schools, health services, psychologists, and the police. The aim of the teams is to provide access to career guidance and preventive measures for at-risk students with behavioural difficulties.

MentorProgramma Friesland is a practice aiming to increase access to career guidance services for VET students through mentorship programmes. The services focus on career planning, self-understanding and self-awareness. The mentors are representatives from the companies, both employers and employees.

The Gilde Loopbaancentrum (Gilde Career Centre) is part of Gilde Opleidingen (VET) and stimulates and supports adults and young people in the Central and North Limburg region to determine the direction of their (study) careers themselves. They want to contribute to the 'knowledge economy' in which adults and young people continue to develop and are prepared for the future. To this end, they want to share their knowledge and offer specific services. The services of Gilde Career Centre are offered (usually free of charge) on location, online, via activities and via their networks. Examples of their services are career consultation hours, workshops and training, personal support, coaching, EVC.

LOB-scan mbo (CGE scan for VET) is a conversation tool that aims to investigate, together with employees of VET schools, the state of affairs regarding CGE at the time of completion. With the results of the scan, schools can discuss what the desired situation is for the renewal/improvement of CGE in the short and long term. By examining the current state of affairs within a programme, department or institution together, the desire or urgency for possible improvement of CGE becomes visible. The scan consists of four parts: vision and policy; orientation and guidance; organisation; and collaboration.

Loopbaancoach (career coach) is an app for pupils, students and professionals for an online career file, developed by Prof. Dr. Marinka Kuijpers and consisting of:

  1. building up an individual profile that helps with career choices (for education or work);
  2. starting point for discussion with dean, mentor or family, through insight into career experiences;
  3. creation of a CGE examination file and transfer document (e.g. to further and higher education).

In Career coach, the student records his or her experiences, reflects on those in either a conversation with someone or via simple questions in the app. Insights are linked to the career competences in the individual profile. Finally, the student determines a suitable next step to gain new experience. Over time, this follow-up step has become an experience that is reflected upon.

SBB provides information about the chance of an internship, apprenticeship and work for the various training courses and UWV labour market regions. Further information can be found here.

 

Please see the description of VET system in Netherlands here.

 

Sources

Cedefop; ECBO – Centre for Expertise in Vocational Education and Training (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Netherlands [From Cedefop; ReferNet. Vocational education and training in Europe database]. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/vet-ineurope/systems/netherlands

Gilde Loopbaancentrum. http://www.gildeloopbaancentrum.nl/

Kans op stage, leerbaan en werk. https://www.s-bb.nl/kans

Loopbaancoach. https://loopbaangroep.nl/online-loopbaandossier/

LOB-scan. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-themas/lob-scan

MentorProgramma Friesland. https://www.mentorprogrammafriesland.nl/pageid=681

Guidance for higher education students

Most higher education institutions have central career centres, services and events, and entrepreneurship centres and virtual business games. For example, the Career Centre of the University of Delft which organises networking activities, meetings with employers, and career workshops. There are sometimes also special services for specific target groups. The Radboud University Nijmegen, for example, has a job finder for students with a disability.

The Kies Actief toolkit started in 2009 and is meant to help people who want to study in higher education. It focuses primarily on those who want to move on to and within a bachelor degree programme. The use of the toolkit is most effective if it is embedded in a (study) career guidance programme for VET participants, pre-university students and higher professional education students. The aim of the toolkit is to provide the best possible support for the development of the student's competence in the (study) career process.

LoopbaanFit consists of two parts: an online career file and personal workouts. The online career file helps students (secondary, further and higher education) to record their experiences and reflect on them. The personal workouts are for students, teachers, mentors, deans and parents. They stimulate and advise in two minutes to encourage the student to take action for their career. These app and mini e-learnings work on PC, tablet and mobile.

 

Sources

Career Centre of the University of Delft. https://www.tudelft.nl/en/student/counselling/career-counselling-services/career-centre/

Job finder Radboud University Nijmegen. https://www.ru.nl/careerservice/studenten/studenten-functiebeperking/  

Kies Actief toolkit. https://www.kiesactief.nl/

Guidance for adult learners

House of Skills Amsterdam is a public-private partnership. Industry, sector organisations, employee and employer organisations, knowledge institutions, education and administrators from the region work closely together to transform the current labour market into a more skills-oriented labour variant, where inter-sectoral mobility is facilitated, and lifelong development is the norm. They develop/provide assessments and competence scans, career advice, skill training courses, matching based on skills and a platform where employers and employees can find each other. Products and services are meant for those with lower secondary education working in a sector threatened by job losses or who have been unemployed for less than a year.

LEO Loopbaan. Leo is a development program, initiated by the Province of Limburg, with an open structure. This means that partners can continuously join, based on the objectives of the programme and possible projects and/or activities that contribute to those objectives. LEO Loopbaan is for everyone in the province of Limburg who is working on his or her career (ranging from just starting a training course, looking for work or already working for a long time).

At the Regional service centres on education and work (Leerwerkloketten) students, working people, jobseekers and employers can get independent advice about training, EVC and learning while working.

This UWV site www.werk.nl contains links to various other websites with tests for people to discover what they are good at, what they want, what work suits them and how they should approach applying.

 

Sources

House of Skills Amsterdam. https://houseofskillsregioamsterdam.nl/

Leerwerkloketten (Learning and working desks). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

LEO Loopbaan. https://leo-loopbaan.nl/

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

Guidance for the employed

Big companies set up mobility centres where employers have their competences assessed and have the possibility to advance to other position inside or outside the company.

Blik op Werk is an independent quality institute, who guides employers to approved service providers, proven methodologies and practical knowledge about sustainable labour participation and integration.

James Loopbaan was founded by the trade union CNV and aims to contribute to career awareness and competences of workers and jobseekers. It helps them to react in time when their work changes or when they change themselves. They do this through research, career guidance, awareness campaigns and training and by working with social partners to ensure agreement on development and careers.

 

Sources

Blik op werk. https://www.blikopwerk.nl/index

Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond (CNV). https://www.cnv.nl/

James Loopbaan. https://jamesloopbaan.nl/

Guidance for unemployed adults

The guidance services of the UWV public employment service (division of Employee Insurance Agency, UWV Werkbedrijf), which focus on targeting at risk students and unemployed adults and services for jobseekers, are increasingly based online. On their service portal (www.werk.nl) every unemployed person has access to his/her own individual digital environment which is called Work Folder. This is a personal file of the jobseeker where he or she finds online modules that aid in the search for work such as webinars, an e-learning tool on how to write successful application letters, make a curriculum, how to prepare a job interview, and how to search vacancies matching their profile.

It also serves as a communication channel with the counsellors at the unemployment office. Up to now, the tool has been introduced in 11 of 35 unemployment offices across the country. Work Profiler 2.0, an online tool accessed through the site, offers a quick diagnosis of the most important obstacles in returning to work. An independent company guides practitioners in using the tool (see section ICT in lifelong guidance) and provides specific recommendations how to improve their services.

 

Sources

UWV (2018). Werkverkenner 2.0 (Work Profiler 2.0). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/kennis-cijfers-en-onderzoek/kennis-onderzoeken/werkverkenner-2-0.aspx

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

WerkWijzer. https://www.werkwijzerbv.nl/

Guidance for older adults

Every worker aged 45 or over could apply for advice from a career advisor in 2019 and 2020. It is intended both for workers who are at risk of losing their job and for people who are satisfied with their current job. SZW (Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment) has instigated a subsidy scheme Development advice for all people over 45. The Development Advice is a temporary subsidy scheme as part of the Action Plan ‘Perspective for people over the age of fifty’. Career advisers can give development advice to working people over forty-five and apply for a subsidy. The aim of the Development Advice is to encourage participants to take control of their own careers. The advice should provide insight into the future perspective of the participant's current work, competencies and future career opportunities. This involves participants actively thinking about how they can reach their retirement age while at work and how they can prevent absenteeism due to illness or unemployment.

Sources

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-social-affairs-and-employment

Ontwikkeladvies 45+. https://www.uitvoeringvanbeleidszw.nl/subsidies-en-regelingen/tijdelijke-subsidieregeling-ontwikkeladvies-voor-vijfenveertigplussers/over

Guidance for early leavers

The government, schools and municipalities try to prevent early school leaving and try to ensure that ESL still obtain a basic qualification. Schools and municipalities are responsible for reducing early school leaving. A bill on regional cooperation on early school leaving and young people in vulnerable situations was passed in June 2018 (amending, amongst others, the Act on Adult and Vocational Education). Act on Adult and Vocational Education) making this cooperation compulsory. Together they have to decide which measures to use. The agreements on this are laid down in a regional plan. They can use various measures, such as using coaches for young people who have lost their jobs; special classes for young people who are in doubt about their choice of study; and warm transfer of VET students from secondary vocational education.

The Philips employment scheme (WPG) offers early school leavers work experience for a period of one year; those who successfully complete the company programme are provided with a nationally recognised certificate. Participants who follow the learning/working route (initially unskilled with no VET education, about half of those selected) receive counselling or coaching from the reintegration service during the training programme. Participants have to be unemployed for at least six months, and there are other contracts for those who completed VET and have a job certificate. The work experience also includes individual-oriented educational training, training on the job, in-production traineeships and general training.

Originally, the scheme targeted unemployed early school leavers; at a later stage, however, further groups of people encountering difficulties to enter or return to the labour market were included in the initiative, such as women returning to work and the disabled. Today, participants have to be unemployed for at least six months. Other selection criteria for the Philips Employment Scheme are dependent on the type of work experience being sought (see section Evidence, monitoring and assessment).

 

Sources

Philips employment scheme (WPG). https://www.philips.nl/a-w/about-philips/duurzaamheid/werkgelegenheidsplan.html

Wetsvoorstel regionale samenwerking voortijdig schoolverlaten en jongeren in een kwetsbare positie (Bill on regional cooperation on early school leaving and young people in vulnerable situations). https://www.eerstekamer.nl/wetsvoorstel/34812_regionale_samenwerking

Guidance for NEET

The Buzinezzclub, introduced in 2013, is a programme that coaches young people between 17 and 27 years old, who are out of work and school, and motivates them to start/complete their education, start an internship, or a job. Another goal is to stimulate young people towards entrepreneurship. Buzinezzclub empowers disadvantaged young people through a programme of workshops, personal coaching, and internships. Each participant receives personal coaching and connection to a volunteer network of entrepreneurs, who share their knowledge with the beneficiaries. There are both paid and volunteer coaches, who receive ongoing training. The club is financed by the municipality and in partnership with financial institutions and Qredits (microfinance). The no-cure no-pay model makes it easy for cities to start up a Buzinezzclub as they only pay a Buzinezzclub after they saved more than double the amount they pay to the Buzinezzclub. The programme is present in three cities.

According to the programme's reporting, about 20% of the participants (re)start their education, 35% find employment, and 5% start their own company. Furthermore, research indicates that 40% of the youth participants stop receiving unemployment benefits after completing the programme in the short run and up to 70% in the long run, although it is difficult to link results 6 months after leaving the programme to the intervention alone (Davelaar, Tan & Spies, 2015).

 

Sources

Buzinezzclub. https://buzinezzclub.nl/

Qredits. https://qredits.nl/

Davelaar, M., Tan, S., & Spies, H. (2015). WP7 Case Study: Innovative Practice ‘Buzinezzclub Rotterdam’. Rotterdam. http://www.citispyce.eu/sites/default/files/15%20Rotterdam_%20Buzinezzclub.pdf .

Guidance for young people at risk

There is a desire to reduce the number of students sitting at home nationwide through the law on ‘adequate education’ (Wet Passend Onderwijs, August 2014). With this, every child gets a school career with the right help at the right time. The national Thuiszitterspact of 2016 also applies; ministries and other national parties agreed that in 2020 no child will be at home for more than three months without an appropriate offer of education or care. Part of the pact is the 'perseverance force', with which municipalities and partnerships agree which party determines which education or care place is appropriate for a child.

The guidance services of the UWV Public Employment Service (division of Employee Insurance Agency, UWV WERKbedrijf) focus on targeting at-risk students and unemployed adults (see section ICT in lifelong guidance).

 

Sources

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; Ministry of Health, welfare and Sport; Ministry of Justice and Security (2016). Thuiszitterspact. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/publicaties/2016/06/13/thuiszitterspact/thuiszitterspact-13-6-2016.pdf

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Guidance for special needs and disabilities

The recent policy focus of UWV (Employee Insurance Agency) has shifted to guiding the unemployed who suffer from a long-term illness back to work, emphasising the need to accept lower level jobs within the UWV WERKbedrijf.

Cozima (Competenties zichtbaar Maken - making competences visible) started in 2015 as an international project in the framework of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Commission. Participants are schools and expertise centres from Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands. In this project, recommendations are developed for a lifelong digital portfolio and instruments and methods are developed, tested and described. They assist young adults in a vulnerable position (learning and behavioural problems) in collecting supporting material for entry to vocational education training and the labour market.

Boris is an approach that helps students from secondary special education and the practical education system to find their place in the labour market. The approach is based on the system of working to learn from secondary vocational education. For 10,000 young people per year this is the most important route to work and for the business community it is the most important way to recruit new personnel from the target group. Important elements within the approach are orientation on profession and career, a tailor-made training programme and learning in a company, before ending up with a practical declaration and a job. There is also a pilot on VET-level Pilot Praktijkleren. Based on the demand of the work placement company and the personal needs and possibilities, someone obtains parts of a VET programme. He/she will receive a practical statement for the skills he/she acquired.

The transition from education to work is a vulnerable phase in the careers of young people with a disability. Thousands of young people with a disability and need for support in VET have a hard time. They receive extra support at school, but in the transition to work they are often on their own. In the project 'From education to work', nine VET institutions, together with KBA Nijmegen and the MBO Council, have worked on practical approaches and a new vision for a continuous transition from education to work. The project has led to practical examples and instruments that can be used in supporting young people: The Transitieroute.

Kinnes is an initiative of the REA College. Based on their experience in coaching employees with disabilities, managers and direct colleagues, they help employers and employees at difficult but very important moments in their careers by offering support according to the needs of employer or employee in relation to training, personal development or career guidance.

 

Sources

Boris. https://www.borisbaan.nl/het-project.html

Competenties zichtbaar Maken (Cozima). https://www.cozima.eu/

Employee Insurance Agency Netherlands (UWV). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/index.aspx

Kinnes. https://kinnes.nl/over-kinnes/

Pilot Praktijkleren: https://www.s-bb.nl/onderwijs/kwalificeren-en-examineren/pilots-praktijkleren-met-de-praktijkverklaring-in-het-mbo

Transitieroute: https://www.kbanijmegen.nl/transitieroute.html

Guidance for other groups

VluchtelingenWerk Nederland supports refugees with the project Refugees invest in participation (VIP) to make a good start in the Dutch labour market. In this way they can participate fully and sustainably in Dutch society. With VIP2, 2,000 participants learn skills that are necessary to find a job or training in the Netherlands. In the VIP project, special methodology has been developed in the past two years that will continue in the follow-up project.

The Foundation for Refugee Students (UAF) has existed since 1948. The UAF advises highly educated refugees on their choice of study and assists them during their studies and in finding a job that matches their capacities. In the initial phase, advisors help to develop language and study skills. In order to increase the chances of a job, the UAF offers a job application training course and network meetings at the end of the study. Throughout the entire course, a UAF student has the opportunity to receive additional guidance from a mentor in addition to the support he or she receives from the UAF. The UAF supports refugees with donations and loans, so that they can follow higher education. This money is intended exclusively for tuition fees, language courses, books, computers, travel expenses and other study costs. Since April 2017, the UAF also offers a number of services in VET for refugees who are able to obtain a diploma at VET level 3 or 4, or to go to work at that level; VET is a promising route to work for many refugees (middle and higher educated).

In 2017, OCW (Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science), LECSO, DJI and Youth Care in the Netherlands developed a guide to support the realisation of future prospects for young people in seclusion by means of continuous learning and development. This provides tools for improving connections and strengthening local networks. The guide contains three diagrams:

  1. the 'scheme connection' that provides tools for shaping a good connection with the young person's subsequent place of work;
  2. the 'habitat scheme' that provides tools for a good connection per habitat;
  3. the 'network diagram' that provides tools for shaping cooperation with the network.

In collaboration between the Free University Amsterdam, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Rotterdam university of applied sciences, the Vidivers project has developed video instruments for teacher training courses on cultural diversity. The reason for this is that the study success of foreign students, compared to native students, is not the same on a number of points (study progress, study results and drop-out). Culture sensitive lecturers and study programme leaders are one of the necessary conditions for increasing the study success of foreign students. Video cases have been developed about individual conversation situations and (work) group situations, which trigger discussions about how to deal with diversity in teacher training courses. Video reflection was also carried out: teachers systematically looked back at the way in which they deal with diversity by means of video recordings of their own lessons (or role-plays).

 

Sources

Foundation for Refugee Students (UAF). https://www.uaf.nl/en/

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science

Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science; LECSO; DJI; Youth Care (2017). Handreiking bij realiseren toekomstperspectief jongeren in geslotenheid. https://www.lecso.nl/nieuws/345494-handreiking-bij-realiseren-toekomstperspectief-jongeren-in-geslotenheid

Project VIP 2 (Vluchtelingen Investeren in Participeren). https://www.vluchtelingenwerk.nl/wat-wij-doen/onze-projecten/project-vip-2-vluchtelingen-investeren-participeren

Vidivers project. http://vidivers.hro.nl/

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Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO). https://www.nvao.net/en

ACT in LOB. https://www.act-in-lob.eu/home

Ambitie/Kwaliteitsagenda LOB. https://www.expertisepuntlob.nl/lob-agendas 

Blik op werk. https://www.blikopwerk.nl/index

Boris. https://www.borisbaan.nl/het-project.html

Buzinezzclub. https://buzinezzclub.nl/

Career Centre of the University of Delft. https://www.tudelft.nl/en/student/counselling/career-counselling-services/career-centre/

Career Management Institute CMI. https://cminl.nl/

Cedefop; ECBO – Centre for Expertise in Vocational Education and Training (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Netherlands [From Cedefop; ReferNet. Vocational education and training in Europe database]. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/vet-ineurope/systems/netherlands

Christelijk Nationaal Vakverbond (CNV). https://www.cnv.nl/

Competenties zichtbaar Maken (Cozima). https://www.cozima.eu/

Davelaar, M., Tan, S., & Spies, H. (2015). WP7 Case Study: Innovative Practice ‘Buzinezzclub Rotterdam’. Rotterdam. http://www.citispyce.eu/sites/default/files/15%20Rotterdam_%20Buzinezzclub.pdf .

Divosa. https://www.divosa.nl/over-divosa

Eigenfeld, M., De Graaf, M. & Aid Moha, A. (2015). Special Mbo’ers aan het woord over LOB. Motivaction Internationaal. Woerden: MBO Diensten.

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James Loopbaan. https://jamesloopbaan.nl/

Job finder Radboud University Nijmegen. https://www.ru.nl/careerservice/studenten/studenten-functiebeperking/  

Jongeren Organisatie Beroepsonderwijs (Youth Organisation for Vocational Education, JOB). https://www.jobmbo.nl/

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Kies Actief toolkit. https://www.kiesactief.nl/

KiesMBO. https://www.kiesmbo.nl/

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Kuijpers, M., & Meijers, F. (2012). Learning for now or later? Career competencies among students in higher vocational education in the Netherlands. Studies in Higher Education, 37(4), 449-467.

Landelijk Aktie Komitee Scholieren (National Pupils Action Committee, LAKS). https://www.laks.nl/

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Landelijke Vereniging van Studieadviseurs LVSA (National Association of Study Advisers). https://lvsa.nl/

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Leerwerkloketten (Regional service centres on education and working). https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/leerwerkloketten

LEO Loopbaan. https://leo-loopbaan.nl/

Leren en werken. https://www.lerenenwerken.nl/aan-de-slag-met-je-loopbaan

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Loopbaancoach. https://loopbaangroep.nl/online-loopbaandossier/

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MBO Raad (VET council). https://www.mboraad.nl/english

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NRO (Netherlands Initiative for Education Research). https://www.nro.nl/en/  

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OVAL. https://www.oval.nl/

Philips (n.d.) Feiter & cijfers over werkgelegenheidsplan (Facts and figures about employment plan). https://www.philips.nl/a-w/about-philips/duurzaamheid/werkgelegenheidsplan/over-wgp/feiten-en-cijfers.html

Philips employment scheme (WPG). https://www.philips.nl/a-w/about-philips/duurzaamheid/werkgelegenheidsplan.html

Pilot Praktijkleren: https://www.s-bb.nl/onderwijs/kwalificeren-en-examineren/pilots-praktijkleren-met-de-praktijkverklaring-in-het-mbo

PO Raad (primary education council). https://www.poraad.nl/

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Project VIP 2 (Vluchtelingen Investeren in Participeren). https://www.vluchtelingenwerk.nl/wat-wij-doen/onze-projecten/project-vip-2-vluchtelingen-investeren-participeren

Qredits. https://qredits.nl/

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Register BKA (Stichting Register Beroepskeuzeadviseurs). https://www.beroepskeuze.nl/

Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA). Maastricht University School of Business and Economics. https://roa.maastrichtuniversity.nl/

ResearchNed (2014). Bewezen relatie tussen LOB en studiesucces. Effect LOB: Een Derde Minder Uitval. VO-Magazine, 4. http://www.researchned.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/VO-Magazine-januari-2014-LOB-en-studiesucces.pdf

Royal Association MKB-Nederland. https://www.mkb.nl/over-mkb-nederland/english

SBB (Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education, Training and the Labour Market). https://www.s-bb.nl/en

SLIM-regeling. https://www.uitvoeringvanbeleidszw.nl/subsidies-en-regelingen/slim/over

Studiecentrum voor Bedrijf en Overheid (SBO). https://www.sbo.nl/

Studiekeuze 123. https://www.studiekeuze123.nl/

Tiptrack.  https://tiptrack.nl/

Transitieroute: https://www.kbanijmegen.nl/transitieroute.html

UWV (2018). Werkverkenner 2.0 (Work Profiler 2.0). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/kennis-cijfers-en-onderzoek/kennis-onderzoeken/werkverkenner-2-0.aspx

UWV Werkbedrijf (UWV Public Employment Services). https://www.uwv.nl/overuwv/wat-is-uwv/organisatie/detail/onderdelen/werkbedrijf

Vakcentrale voor professionals (VCP). https://www.vcp.nl/english/

van Deursen, P.; van de Wijdeven, F. (2011). Career compass: a toolkit for career professionals. Euroguidance Netherlands. http://www.euroguidance.nl/_images/user/publicaties/Career%20Compass_web.pdf

VHTO. https://www.vhto.nl/

Vidivers project. http://vidivers.hro.nl/

VNG (Association of Dutch municipalities). https://vng.nl/  

VNO-NCW (Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers). https://www.vno-ncw.nl/over-vno-ncw/english

VO Raad (secondary education council). https://www.vo-raad.nl/ 

VVsL (Association of School Deans and Career Counsellors): https://www.vvsl.nl/home

Warps, J. (2013). LOB en studiesucces. Onderzoek naar de opbrengst van LOB op basis van de Startmonitor 2012-2013. Nijmegen: ResearchNed. http://www.lob-vo.nl/kennisbank/instrumenten-voor-scholen/onderzoek-lob-en-studiesucces

Werk.nl. https://www.werk.nl/werkzoekenden

WerkWijzer. https://www.werkwijzerbv.nl/

Wetsvoorstel regionale samenwerking voortijdig schoolverlaten en jongeren in een kwetsbare positie (Bill on regional cooperation on early school leaving and young people in vulnerable situations). https://www.eerstekamer.nl/wetsvoorstel/34812_regionale_samenwerking

Country-specific report details