VET in Sweden starts at 16, after compulsory education, and is offered at upper secondary, post-secondary and higher levels. There are school-based and apprenticeship programmes, both with work-based learning elements.
In 2021, 9 in 10 upper secondary VET graduates were employed, compared to an EU-27 average of 8 in 10. Sweden had the highest participation in lifelong learning in the EU (34.7%).
In other areas, non-formal adult education, a tradition in the country, is skills-oriented and supports labour market integration; learners have the right to financial assistance irrespective of background or life situation; and, while skills mismatch persists, it is addressed by improving links between education and work.
National goals and learning outcomes are defined centrally in the Swedish structure, but implementation is decentralised.