The 39 countries monitored (28 EU Member States, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey) are developing and implementing 43 national qualifications frameworks. Most NQFs are comprehensive – covering all levels and types of formal education and training qualifications and promoting learning outcomes perspectives – and trigger reform. They have contributed to reinforced and more consistent use of learning outcomes in qualifications, made higher VET (EQF levels 5 to 8) more visible, and supported more systematic implementation of validation of non-formal and informal learning. However, their visibility and use by the labour market is still limited. Sustainability, visibility to end-users, stakeholder involvement, ownership of the process, and consensus-building are among the conditions critical to successful NQF use and impact.