European and national policies on Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be informed by sound and internationally comparable statistical evidence. The VET country statistical overviews are concise, descriptive and user friendly statistical reports. For each country, they quantify and compare key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.
VET indicators for Romania for the last available year
Index numbers (EU=100)
NB: The index numbers are derived from data summarised in the table. Data in the table have been rounded to one or two decimal places. The calculation of index numbers is instead based on not rounded data.
Romania’s performance on a range of indicators selected to monitor progress in VET and lifelong learning across the European Union (EU) is summarised below. The chart compares the situation in Romania with that of the EU, based on the most recent data available (this differs by indicator). Data in the chart are presented as an index where the EU average equals 100. If the index for a selected indicator for Romania is 100, then its performance equals the EU average. If the index is 90, its performance is 90% of (or 10% below) the EU average. If the index is 200, Romania’s performance is twice (or 200%) the EU average. For some indicators, such as early leavers from education and training, a country is performing better if its score is below that of the EU average.
Data on which the index is calculated are presented in the table, which also shows developments over time. A technical definition of each indicator is provided in the annex.
Access, attractiveness and flexibility
Students in IVET programmes account for a relatively high share of all upper secondary students (56.3% compared with 47.3% in the EU in 2015). At 88.4%, the share of upper secondary IVET students in programmes giving direct access to tertiary education is higher than the EU average (at 66.7%). Also, the percentage of young VET graduates in further education and training in Romania (at 48.2%) is well above the EU average (at 32.8%).
Adult participation in lifelong learning is 1.2%, much lower than the EU-average of 10.8% (data for 2016). Data from CVTS 2010 indicate the extent to which employees and enterprises engage in CVET. In 2010, 24% of employers reported providing training compared with 66% in the EU; 18% of employees undertook employer sponsored CVT courses compared with 38% in the EU. A smaller share of employees engaged in on-the-job training: 10% in Romania and 20% in the EU.
Skill development and labour market relevance
Public expenditure on IVET as a percentage of GDP in Romania is (at 0.04%) particularly low, as compared the EU average (at 0.54%, 2014 data). Enterprise total monetary expenditure on CVT as a proportion of total labour costs (0.4%) is half that for Europe as a whole (data for 2010). The average number of foreign languages learned in upper secondary IVET education is relatively high (two compared with one in the EU overall). The percentage of graduates in STEM subjects from upper secondary IVET (46.3%) is also above the EU average (30.8%)
The employment rate for IVET graduates (aged 20-34) at ISCED levels 3-4 (76.0%) is slightly below the EU average of 78.1%. Their employment rate is 7.3 percentage points higher than for graduates from general education (above the EU average premium of 5.7 and 18.7 percentage points higher than for graduates with lower-level qualifications (below the EU average premium of 23.4). All these employment figures relate to 2016 and exclude young people in further education and training.
Overall transitions and labour market trends
In this section all data refer to 2016 unless otherwise stated.
The share of early leavers from education and training in Romania is 18.5%, much higher than the EU average of 10.7%, the Europe 2020 average target (10%) and the national target (11.3%). While the percentage of 30 to 34 year-olds with tertiary-level education has increased significantly (from 18.3% in 2010 to 25.6% in 2016), it is below the EU average of 39.1% and the Europe 2020 average target (40%) and still a little below the national target (26.7%).
The employment rate of recent graduates (69.3%) is lower than in the EU (78.2%); this rate is also 1.9 percentage points below its level in 2010. The NEET rate (21.9%) is higher than in the EU overall (15.2%), but the unemployment rate of 20 to 34 year-olds (9.3%) is lower (11.8% in the EU). The employment rate of 20 to 64 year-olds in Romania, at 66.3%, is below the rate for the EU as a whole (at 71.0%). But the employment rate of those with a low level of educational attainment (at 52.3%) is closer to the EU average (at 53.6%).
Score on VET indicators in the Romania and in the EU, 2010,
last available year and recent change
EU refers to EU-28, unless otherwise specified. Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative change. Arrow → indicates: no change.
(A) UOE back reconstruction of 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 not yet available. (B) AES 2011, used as proxy for 2010 baseline. (C) 2014 b flags in Eurostat online tables ignored on the basis of other relevant Eurostat metadata. (D) Forecast made in 2016. (E1) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for NL. (E2) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for EL, ES, NL, PL, RO. (E3) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for IT, NL. (E4) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E5) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E6) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for DK, EL, NL. (E7) Based on 25 countries (missing: HR, IT, UK), with partial information for BE, CZ, DK, DE, EE, EL, LU, NL, PL, SE. (E8) Based on 25 countries (missing: IE, FR, UK), with partial information for BE, EL, LU. (E9) Based on 26 countries (missing: IE, UK), with partial information for DK, DE. (E10) Based on 28 countries. (b) Break after 2010, therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: ‘low reliability’. (z) Eurostat: ‘not applicable’. (e) Eurostat: ‘estimated’.