The Spanish framework (Competencia Digital Docente, CDD 2.0) is based on the European framework for digital competence for citizens (DigComp 2.0), which identifies the main elements of digital competence grouped in five areas: information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, safety, and problem solving.
CDD 2.0 proposes competence descriptors in three levels (A-basic, B-intermediate and C‑advanced), subdivided into six levels (A1-C2) for each competence included in the five areas. It is complemented by an online tool for teachers where teachers can create a digital competence passport by continuously self-assessing, updating and listing digital competences gained throughout their professional life until they reach higher standards.
The process started in 2012, with the intention of offering a descriptive reference to be used for training purposes and in evaluation and accreditation processes. It reflects work undertaken by the ministry with the participation of the regions and external experts, such as the IPTS-JRC.
According reports from TALIS (2009) and the European survey of ICT schools in education (2013), Spain was ranked first in ICT training hours per teacher. However, in relevant surveys, teachers assessed their training as insufficient to integrate all available technological means. This paradox suggested the need to rethink the efficacy of teacher ICT training and how best to apply ICT in the classroom.
The importance of digital competence was recognised by the European Parliament and by the European Council recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning (2006) when it identified digital competence as one of eight key competences essential for all individuals in a knowledge-based society.