This study of EQF level 5 qualifications on the basis of learning outcomes reveals much greater complexity, diversity and dynamism than previously assumed.

But where they fit within the spectrum of education and training is not always clear. Typical level 5 qualifications are provided by short-cycle higher education programmes; yet the study finds that half of learning outcomes at this level are vocational education and training or outside the formal system.

The more accurate picture of level 5 qualifications provided by the study demonstrates how policy-makers can use the EQF to identify gaps in their education and training systems.