Systematic use of training management tools in enterprises helps identify training needs, boosts participation and improves training effectiveness.

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The new EU 2020 strategy for sustainable growth and jobs aims at an inclusive high employment society where citizens can acquire the skills needed to move into new growth areas and where life-long learning is more accessible. (1) Employer-provided continuing vocational training (CVT) is at the heart of this process.


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Cedefop has carried out in depth analysis of the third European Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS); the most relevant source on employer-provided CVT. In addition to the volume and cost of training, it provides policy-relevant data about employers’ training policies and the use of management tools to implement training. Tools range from demand analysis and professional training provision to assessing training results.

Cluster analysis results distinguish four groups of enterprises with different levels of using training management tools. The first two groups make intensive use of such tools, distinguished only by the use of a training centre. A third group is more selective with focus on training evaluation whereas the fourth group makes little use of such tools.

The indicator in the graph shows the share of employees participating in CVT courses (participation rates) for these four different groups of enterprises.


Key points

  • Training participation rates are higher in enterprises that make intensive use of training management tools; in all seven countries for which microdata are available.
  • In five countries, participation rates are highest in those enterprises that are intensive users of training management tools and do not have an own training centre (‘intensive user/ no training centre’); rates range from 51 % in Italy to 79 % in the Czech Republic.
  • France and especially Romania have the highest training participation rates when enterprises also have their own training centre (‘intensive user/own training centre’); rates are 49 % and 48 % respectively.
  • Participation rates in enterprises that make more selective use of training management tools are lower. Other results reveal that small enterprises are largely in this group. They have a high interest in training results and are characterised by a strong focus on evaluation.
  • Small enterprises are also predominantly in the group where only a minority of enterprises uses training management tools (‘minimalists’). Results suggest that small enterprises require specific and adequate training management tools to foster CVT provision.

Note: Data presented are based on the analysis of anonymised national microdata that originate from the third European Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS3; 2005) and are subject to its methodology.


(1) Contribution from the President of the European Commission to the informal meeting of Heads of State and Government of 11 February 2010.

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