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Credit systems and qualifications frameworks are pivotal to modernisation of VET and qualifications systems.

This study reviews the development of those tools in the context of the Copenhagen and the Bologna processes (ECVET, ECTS, EQF-LLL, EHEA-QF) and across a sample of European and non-European countries (Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Scotland, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, the UK-EWNI (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and the UK-Scotland.

It analyses development initiatives and reforms of credit systems and qualifications frameworks. The articulation between both tools reveals difficulties and opportunities. This analysis leads to grounded insights in the functioning of credits systems and qualifications frameworks concerning learning pathways (transfer and progression), governance of education and training systems, and qualifications policies, especially qualification designs and awarding procedures.

This international comparative study invites debate on possible futures for European tools within the European education area.

Publication details


Linking credit systems and qualifications frameworks

EN 1.63 MB