European and national policies on Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be informed by sound and internationally comparable statistical evidence. The VET country statistical overviews are concise, descriptive and user friendly statistical reports. For each country, they quantify and compare key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.
VET indicators for Luxembourg for the last available year
Index numbers (EU=100)
NB: The index numbers are derived from data summarised in the table. Data in the table have been rounded to one or two decimal places. The calculation of index numbers is instead based on not rounded data.
Hungary’s performance on a range of indicators selected to monitor progress in VET and lifelong learning across the European Union (EU) is summarised below. The chart compares the situation in Hungary with that of the EU, based on the most recent data available (this differs by indicator). Data in the chart are presented as an index where the EU average equals 100. If the index for a selected indicator for Hungary is 100, then its performance equals the EU average. If the index is 90, its performance is 90% of (or 10% below) the EU average. If the index is 200, Hungary’s performance is twice (or 200%) the EU average. For some indicators, such as early leavers from education and training, a country is performing better if its score is below that of the EU average.
Data on which the index is calculated are presented in the table, which also shows developments over time. A technical definition of each indicator is provided in the annex.
Access, attractiveness and flexibility
The share of all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Hungary (23.2%) is a little below half the EU average (47.3% in 2015). This should be interpreted with caution, being related to the characteristics of the VET system, on the one hand, and interpretation and implementation of internationally agreed definitions on the other hand. All students who are working towards a vocational qualification in Hungary, are engaged in combined work- and school-based programmes (in the EU this is 28.4%). The share of students of upper secondary IVET enrolled in programmes providing direct access to tertiary education (0.9%) is markedly below the EU average (66.7%). The percentage of young VET graduates participating in further education and training is lower than the EU average (23.1% in Hungary and 32.8% for the EU in 2016).
Data for 2016 on the share of adults participating in lifelong learning reveal a relatively low score (6.3% compared with 10.8% in the EU). Older people (3.9%) and those with relatively low-level education (2.7%) are also much less likely to be in receipt of lifelong learning in Hungary than in the EU as a whole. At 6.3%, the share of adults in lifelong learning is well below the EU target of 15%.
At 49%, the share of employers providing training is smaller than the EU average of 66%, and only 19% of employees benefit from employer-sponsored CVT courses (only 11% for employees of small firms), compared to 38% in the EU (25% for small firms) (CVTS 2010 data).
Skill development and labour market relevance
Public expenditure on IVET as a percentage of GDP in Hungary (0.56%) is near the EU average (0.54%) (2014 data for ISCED levels 3-4). The amount spent per student (6 200 PPS units) is lower than average (8 400 PPS units). Graduates from short-cycle VET programmes account for a relatively small share of first-time graduates from tertiary education (4.4%), as compared to the EU average (9.0%).
The employment rate for IVET graduates (aged 20-34) at ISCED levels 3-4 (81.8%) is above the EU average (78.1%). Their employment rate is 3.0 percentage points higher than for graduates from general education at the same ISCED levels (this is lower than the EU average premium of 5.7); their employment rate is also 30.0 percentage points higher than that for graduates with lower-level qualifications (above the EU average premium of 23.4). All these employment figures relate to 2016 and exclude young people in further education and training.
Overall transitions and labour market trends
In this section all data refer to 2016 unless otherwise stated.
The percentage of early leavers from education and training in Hungary (12.4%) is above the EU average (10.7%); it is higher than the Europe 2020 average target and the national target (both at 10%). The share of 30 to 34 year-olds who have completed tertiary-level education is 33.0%. It is lower than the EU average (at 39.1%), but has increased by 6.9 percentage points between 2010 and 2016. This is still short of the Europe 2020 average target (40%), but over the national target (30.3%). The percentage of adults with low-level education is comparatively low (16.6% versus 23.0% in the EU).
The employment rate for 20 to 64 year-olds (71.5%) is near the EU average (71.0%), but has increased in Hungary by 11.6 percentage points between 2010 and 2016. This trend is even more pronounced for the employment rate for 20 to 64 year-olds with a lower level of educational attainment, which increased by 14.6 percentage points in the same period. The unemployment rate for 20 to 34 year-olds (7.0%) is below the EU average (11.8%) and has fallen by 7.7 percentage points between 2010 and 2016. The NEET rate is slightly lower compared with the EU (14.2% versus 15.2%).
Score on VET indicators in Hungary and in the EU, 2010,
last available year and recent change
EU refers to EU-28, unless otherwise specified. Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative change. Arrow → indicates: no change.
(A) UOE back reconstruction of 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 not yet available. (B) AES 2011, used as proxy for 2010 baseline. (C) 2014 b flags in Eurostat online tables ignored on the basis of other relevant Eurostat metadata. (D) Forecast made in 2016. (E1) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for NL. (E2) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for EL, ES, NL, PL, RO. (E3) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for IT, NL. (E4) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E5) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E6) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for DK, EL, NL. (E7) Based on 25 countries (missing: HR, IT, UK), with partial information for BE, CZ, DK, DE, EE, EL, LU, NL, PL, SE. (E8) Based on 25 countries (missing: IE, FR, UK), with partial information for BE, EL, LU. (E9) Based on 26 countries (missing: IE, UK), with partial information for DK, DE. (E10) Based on 28 countries. (b) Break after 2010, therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: ‘low reliability’. (z) Eurostat: ‘not applicable’. (e) Eurostat: ‘estimated’.