For European companies, correctly assessing skills and competence is a crucial factor in recruitment and human resource management. But enterprises do not focus equally on all staff. Competence assessment practices predominantly target executives and technical specialists, and company size influences the way assessments are carried out. Moreover, outcomes of such assessments are mainly used for internal company purposes; validating employee skills within the company is thus of limited help to people seeking alternative employment or further learning. Based on a survey of 400 enterprises, 20 in-depth case studies and interviews with human resource experts in 10 countries, this report analyses the main purposes of competence assessment, the standards and methods applied, the employee groups targeted and the way results are documented and used.