This publication addresses how nine EU Member States organise certification and how this at different stages and in different ways is supported by quality assurance.

Awarding a qualification requires that assessment has been carried out in a reliable way, that standards are validly applied and that those involved in the different stages are appointed in a balanced and credible way.

All these steps are necessary to ensure that learners have attained the level of knowledge, skills and competence expected and required of them, regardless of when, where and how these learning outcomes were acquired.