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This report presents a holistic approach to understanding and comparing vocational education and training (VET) systems.

The approach has been developed jointly by a group of interdisciplinary VET researchers over a 5-year period as part of Cedefop's research on the future of VET and has been reviewed several times. The framework introduces 50 dimensions for analysing VET systems, as well as parts of them, structured according to three overlapping main perspectives: epistemological and pedagogical, education system, and socioeconomic or labour market. The framework is particularly suited to ‘clearing the ground’ for policy work and provides a model for how research can support policy. This model can be flexibly adapted and applied in any comparative research or international policy learning activity related to VET.

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Cedefop (2023). The future of vocational education and training in Europe: 50 dimensions of vocational education and training: Cedefop’s analytical framework for comparing VET. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Cedefop research paper, No 92. http://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2801/57908

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