European countries are looking at redefining VET to respond promptly to such challenges and take advantage of the opportunities ahead. They are reforming to modernise their VET systems and strengthen the relevance of their national qualifications in an international context. This publication explores national responses to globalisation in 15 countries and five economic sectors. It aims to understand how European and international initiatives help VET renewal across Europe. It shows how countries’ reactions are embedded in their national traditions but also depend on their interactions with European, sectoral and multinational players that provide training and award qualifications.