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This Cedefop study seeks to provide a comprehensive and robust evidence base in relation to low-skilled adults in the European Union. It analyses trends in low skills among adults as well as characteristics, determinants and risks of being low skilled.

Publication details


Investing in skills pays off

EN 3.15 MB

Investitionen in Kompetenzen zahlen sich aus: Zusammenfassung

DE 980.75 KB

Investing in skills pays off: executive summary

EN 704.21 KB

Rentabilité de l’investissement dans les compétences: résumé

FR 984.65 KB