The ‘Guidelines for Teachers – P2Peer Tutoring’ handbook is aimed at practitioners in secondary VET.  The guidelines include “do’s and don’ts” and similar practical information to assist practitioners in their daily communication with learners.


Practitioners in secondary VET. The guidelines are to be used as a source of inspiration to improve their communication skills.

Country/ies or organisation that developed the tool


Date of creation of toolkit and periodicity of updates


Purpose of the toolkit

Guidance on what works (to help improve the design of policies and practices).

“To act as a stimulus for reflection and personal paths that lead to a change in the communication style, resulting in an improvement of the educational activity.”

Description of each of the tools

The tool is a handbook divided according to the following skills:

  • Self-efficacy and Human agency - the concept of self-efficacy refers to how much we are convinced of our ability to determine the success or failure of our performance.
  • Coping (facing and solve problems) – how to deal effectively with new, difficult, frustrating or rewarding situations.
  • Social skills – how to initiate and manage effective interactions, know behavioural styles, but also the prejudices and stereotypes characterising educational and social interaction.
  • Decision making.

Each section provides an overview of the concept addressed as well as guidelines as to how the concept can be fostered positively by the practitioner. The guidelines include ‘do’s and don’ts’ and similar practical information to assist practitioners in their daily communication with students.

Type of indicators used in the identification of learners at risk of early leaving

There are indicators in relation to the section on ‘coping’ to help identify young people suffering from stress which can be a contributing factor towards early school leaving (ESL). Different indicators are provided for children and adolescents, and for the latter they are divided according to the context (home, school and community):

  • Children:
    • propensity to cry/scream
    • physical/verbal aggressiveness
    • apprehension
    • poor concentration
  • Adolescents:
    • home:
      • anxiety
      • need to please
      • conflicts with brothers/sisters
    • School:
      • bullying/Antisocial behaviour
      • anger
    • Community:
      • Alcohol addiction
      • Tobacco dependence
      • Drug addiction

Type of guidance given to users

Guidelines describing the skills contained in the various chapters and providing insights/ tips as to how one can improve these skills. For example, the tool provides clear and understandable “dos and don’ts” such as the following:

Source of information of the different tools

The guidelines are based on the socio-cognitive model and on Soresi/Nota studies at Padua University, Italy. 

Link/s to the toolkit and further information


Guidelines for Teachers - P2Peer Tutoring


Related intervention approaches