Description

Timespan

2007 - present

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The focus is on training for green skills/jobs.

Policy goal

The problems addressed are the lack of skills for green jobs and environmental problems. The policy goal is to provide skills for green jobs to promote the greening of the economy and employability of workers. The final policy goal is to promote employment and competitiveness of the private sector through environmental transformation and greening. Thus, the instrument has three linked goals (environmental, economic and social). The programme was initially (2007-2013) focused on employed workers, but on the new ESF period (2014-2020) focuses on unemployed workers as well. In addition, the programme includes support to green entrepreneurs.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The objective of the project is to provide skills that are needed by the labour market for the development of green activities.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Biodiversity Foundation, a public body embedded in the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Food and the Environment.

Stakeholders

European Social Fund: Co-funding and monitoring.
UAFSE (Ministry of Employment and Social Security), Management Authority of the ESF in Spain: Control and monitoring.
Training providers: Provide training in skills for green jobs.
Companies, associations and NGOs: design, application and implementation of projects.

Funding

In 2007-13 period, the budget reached €44.1 million.
In 2014-20 period, the budget reached €67 million.
The source of these funding is the ESF and the Biodiversity Foundation, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Food and the Environment. ESF co-funding ranges 50%-80%, depending on the level of income of the regions where the projects are implemented, following ESF co-funding criteria.

Intended beneficiaries

Direct beneficiaries are the entities that apply for projects. The final beneficiaries are the workers that receive training, the companies that employ these workers and local communities that benefit from a process of green development. The environment and the society as a whole are also final beneficiaries.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Project beneficiaries (companies, associations, NGOs) design the project, identifying the skill gaps to address through training. Often beneficiaries are business associations linked with one sector of activity in one concrete region. On a broad sense, the programme priorities are set in line with the government strategies for environment.

Financial schemes

Subsidies based on calls are open to entities who apply for projects.
The programme is co-funded by the ESF and by the Biodiversity Foundation, through the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, Food and the Environment.

Frequency of updates

The content of the programme is updated constantly as ongoing projects finish and new ones begin. On a broad sense, the programme design is updated every 7 years through the ESF programming periods. The programme has been updated between the 2007-13 and the 2014-20 periods.

Development

The programme has been in action during two ESF periods: 2007-13 and 2014-20. In the new period, improvements have been introduced, such as to pay more attention to the participation of unemployed workers, to blue economy projects (environmentally responsible activities in the sea), focus on Natura 2000 sites, support social innovation projects and exchange experiences and knowledge among EU green entrepreneurs.

Barriers

There are barriers of environmental awareness and of administrative complexity in some projects.
The lack of investment to carry out a green transformation of companies has also been identified as a barrier.
The economic crisis has also reduced the potential for greening.

Success factors

The design of projects comes directly from beneficiaries, who have a deep knowledge of the sectoral and environmental situation at the local level.

Monitoring

The main indicators are the number of participants, jobs created and start-ups created.
At the project level, each project is followed up and publishes a memory of activities.
At the programme level, the programme follows the ESF monitoring requirements. The development of programme actions appear in the Annual Implementation Reports of the ESF 2014-2020 Operational Programme of Education, Training and Employment of Spain.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The policy is innovative, as it focuses on skills gap from emerging sectors, such as green economy. In addition, universities often participate in projects, providing technologically advanced knowledge. At the project level, the template for the memory of each project includes a chapter about the innovativeness of each project.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Around 60,000 employed workers (32% women) from 24,000 entities (94% SMEs, 3% large companies and 3% NGOs) received training between 2007 and 2015. In addition, the programme contributed to the creation of 3,500 direct jobs and contributed to the creation of 2,600 green start-ups and businesses. These results were above the targets set in 2007, which were to support 50,000 participants and the creation of 1,000 green start-ups and businesses.
No definitive results for the 2014-2020 period are available yet as the period is currently ongoing.
There have been positive impacts on environmental awareness, improvement of biodiversity and of fertility of soil.

Engagement of stakeholders

At the project level, Emprende Verde has included a network, Red Emprendeverde, which promotes the creation and consolidation of green start-ups and green businesses. In addition, the website of Emplea Verde disseminates projects that have been carried out.
At the programme level, Biodiversity Foundation holds regular communication with ESF Managing Authority within the ESF framework.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The structure of the programme could be implemented in other EU member states. Indeed, it is a ESF funded project, which has shaped the programme design and makes it more transferrable to other countries that are beneficiaries of ESF. In addition, many of the concrete projects funded by Emplea Verde can be a source of inspiration for projects in other EU regions that share similar climate conditions, environmental challenges and skills environment.

Sustainability

The instrument has been positively assessed at the national and at the international level. It responds to a strategic field of skills shortages (green economy), where it is a reference instrument in Spain. The programme has already funding for the current ESF 2014-2020 period and it is likely that it will be funded in future ESF periods.

Description

Timespan

June 2008 - May 2011

Stage
No longer operational

The instrument was linked to the ESF 2007-2013 period.

Foundations

Policy area

The project offered guidance and training to job seekers.

Policy goal

The instrument’s goal is to offer an upgrade of skills to the more disadvantaged groups of job-seekers in Barcelona, so that they can improve their employability. What is more important, in terms of the attention on skill mismatch, is that the attention of the policy is particularly focused on those skills that are important for the socio-economic development of Barcelona, such as new technologies and environmental skills. The rationale of the intervention is to improve the employability of vulnerable unemployed through guidance and training in strategic sectors.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

The action was part of a broad strategy of Barcelona Activa for the improvement of local workers’ skills, in order to increase their employability levels through responding to labour market demands. The strategy also aims to raise the potential for socio-economic development of Barcelona. Within this broad context, the initiative explicitly focused on concrete skills to be covered through specific training.

Administrative level
Local
Main responsible body

Local council of Barcelona, through "Barcelona Activa", a local development agency.

Stakeholders

ESF 2007-2014: Funding of the project.
UAFSE (Ministry of Employment and Social Security): Management Authority for the ESF 2007-2014 period in Spain.

Funding

Total funds: €2,310,000. ESF allocation: €1,155,000

Intended beneficiaries

Beneficiaries are the disadvantaged groups of job-seekers. They benefit through an improvement of their employability through acquiring new skills, which are relevant for the labour market demands. Thus, they increase their probabilities to participate in the labour market.
On a broader sense, the whole society of Barcelona benefits as well, as the skills that training was provided for were also chosen for being important for the socio-economic development of Barcelona, such as new technologies, environmental skills.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The local council has identified strategic sectors of employment through their knowledge of the local situations. These sectors have been the care sector and the care for people with special needs, as well as retail and hospitality sector.

Financial schemes

The initiative is co-funded through ESF. Co-funding provided by ESF reached 50% of total budget.
Participants did not pay for the courses and enjoyed the incentive to participate in a course for free.

Frequency of updates

The project was completed and not updated.

Development

No information regarding adjustments of the policy instrument during its implementation have been found out.

Barriers

The difficult economic situation was one important barrier for the labour market insertion of participants. In spite of this barrier, 70% of participants found a job after their participation in the programme.

Success factors

The project included training in skills that are relevant for the socio-economic development of the city, such as new technologies, environmental education and education for diversity.

Monitoring

Participants; contracts; employed participants.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

The project includes training in skills that are important for the socio-economic development and are beneficial to develop a more innovative society, such as new technologies or environmental skills.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

900 people participated and 800 labour contracts were signed (several participants probably signed more than one labour contract, although it is not specified). The benefits have been very positive, as 70% of participants have found a job.

Engagement of stakeholders

The local employment agency Barcelona Activa has been carrying out similar projects to promote employability and socio economic development at the local level. Materials, methodologies and lessons learnt from this project have been useful to facilitate the design and the implementation of similar projects by Barcelona Activa afterwards.

Transferability
Easily transferable

This project could be transferred to cities with a similar situation to Barcelona in the 2008-2011 period: ageing population, high demand in the tourism and retail sector and high unemployment. The whole project design could be transferred: the identification of strategic sectors by local authorities, the organization of training courses for vulnerable unemployed on these sectors and the provision of guidance. Similarly, the attention of other projects can also be focused on those skills that are important for the socio-economic development of Barcelona, such as new technologies or environmental skills.

Sustainability

The project did not continue after 2011. However similar projects have been carried out by local employment agency Barcelona Activa.

Description

Timespan

The identification of training needs of occupations is summarized into an annual report on forecasting and identification of skill needs (Informe annual de prospección y detección de necesidades formativas). This report has been published since 2015. However, the Observatory of Occupations was created in 1988, with the name of permanent observatory of the occupations evolution (Observatorio Permanente del Comportamiento de las Ocupaciones).

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The instrument consists mainly of qualitative research, in order to identify the skills that are demanded for concrete occupations in the labour market.

Policy goal

The instrument addresses the problem of skills mismatch in the labour market. The policy goal is that the training delivered within a ALMP framework is correctly matched with labour market demands. Thus, the final goal is to improve workers' employability and competitiveness in the economy. The rationale is to carry out qualitative research about selected occupations in order to identify skill shortages and the main changes in skill demands (due to technological change, changes in regulation, etc.). This information should be taken into account for the design of training provision, within ALMP. Training provision within ALMP is structured through training courses for unemployed and professional certificates (VET managed by the PES).

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

It is the main goal of the Observatory.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Ministry of Employment and Social Security, through the Central PES (SEPE). SEPE’s information brochure about the observatory in English is available here.

Stakeholders

Ministry of Employment and Social Security: Main responsible body; provides funding for the Central PES.
Central PES: Responsible body (the observatory is a department within Central PES); funding (allocation of resources across departments).
Regional PES: takes into account the information provided by the Observatory to implement training actions.
General Employment Council: follows the observatory conclusions to design training for employed and unemployed workers (as stated by Art 2 de RD 694/2017).
Foundation for Training and Employment (Government body responsible for life long training for employed workers): takes into account the information provided by the Observatory to implement its training strategies (together with other sources of skills intelligence).
Education authorities (General Council of Vocational Training): takes into account the information provided by the Observatory to update the VET provision (together with other sources of skills intelligence).
Social partners: plays a role in advising and consulting about the skills that are needed for the researched occupations.
Training providers: adapts the training courses that they offer to the findings published by the Observatory of Occupations.
Education centres (universities and reference centres of VET): plays a role in advising and consulting about the skills that are needed for the researched occupations.
Universities: takes into account the information provided by the Observatory to update the contents of their diplomas.
Qualified workers and Human Resources managers: plays a role in advising and consulting about the skills that are needed for the researched occupations.

Funding

The source of the funds is the budget of Central PES, which is within the budget of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security. No concrete data is available at the moment about the exact share of the Central PES budget that is delivered to the Observatory of Occupations. The Observatory has a team of around 70 workers. 10 work full time on Central PES HQ at Madrid, while the remaining 60 work part time at the regional network distributed across all Spanish provinces.

Intended beneficiaries

Beneficiaries are workers that receive training within the ALMP framework. University and VET students are indirect beneficiaries, as the design of their diplomas should be improved through the findings of the Observatory.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

<p>Approximately 200 occupations that are growing at a quick pace are selected every year, using quantitative data of contracts. Other occupations are selected as well following sectoral research reports carried out by the observatory. The skill gaps of these approximately 200 selected occupations are analysed by regional groups of the regional network of the observatory, who contact experts from the observatory network. Experts include: employers, HR managers, trades unions and business associations representatives, high skilled workers, excellence centres of TVET training and universities. At least three experts are interviewed to define the skills gaps of each occupation. Concrete skill gaps are recorded into a database and published in a &ldquo;Yearly Report on forecasting and identification of skill needs&rdquo;. In addition, a parallel process is carried out to contrast this information. The observatory collects information on job offers published on the Internet by the employers for these occupations. The information of both methods should match. Occupations are based on the National Classification of Occupations (CNO 94). The level of detail of the occupations studied by the observatory reaches 8 digits. Skills identified can be specific for the occupation or transversal (legal knowledge, languages, general ITC skills). The research takes into account if there are variations for the skills needed for the same occupation across different provinces.</p>

Financial schemes

The Observatory of Occupations is funded through the Central PES budget.

Frequency of updates

The content of the instrument is updated every year, when new occupations are selected to be researched. “Yearly Report on forecasting and identification of skill needs” is published every year. So far, three reports have been published. The reports in Spanish and in English summary of the 2018 edition are available here.

Development

The approach has not been adapted or adjusted during the implementation of the policy instrument.

Barriers

The dissemination of results and the information found by the observatory. This information is not as known as it could be among employment counsellors, teachers or unemployed. This lack of dissemination also limits the extent information is taken into account in the design of contents of training courses for employment.

Success factors

The participation of a broad set of interviewed agents to provide qualitative information; the relevance of the experts that provide qualitative information; the use of a homogeneous methodology, which enables comparisons across time and between regions; the information obtained is checked with job offers published on the internet; and the connection of the Observatory with other authorities within the Government, who can make a good use of the findings of the observatory.

Monitoring

The main indicator is the number of occupations studied every year. This is around 200 occupations per year.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

The instrument is structured through a double methodology: first, interviews to experts; second, contrast of the information obtained from interviews with job offers published on the Internet.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

No evidence of the effectiveness and impact of the instrument is available, as no effectiveness study has been carried out. There is no information about to what extent the information found by the observatory is applied by employment counsellors or to which degree is taken into account in the design of the contents of training courses. Similarly, there is no feedback to know with certainty to what extent the information found has an impact on employment indicators.

Engagement of stakeholders

The observatory has a regional network structured through province groups. Each group includes staff from the observatory and experts to be interviewed (employers, HR managers, trade unions and business associations representatives, high skilled workers, excellence centres of TVET training and universities). Interviews with group members are carried out on a yearly basis. Each expert is not interviewed every year, interviews rotate among experts of the networks.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The qualitative methodology of research of skills needs by occupation can be transferred to other national and regional PES. This methodology is based on the interview of a broad set of agents (social partners, HR managers, qualified workers, university and VET centres), which provides more complete information through several perspectives.

Sustainability

The instrument is permanent and has a central role in the system of identification of skills needs in Spain.

Description

Timespan

June 2013 - February 2014

Stage
No longer operational

Similar courses about SAP for unemployed workers currently exist, although not with identical contents.

Foundations

Policy area

It provides professional training in the technology sector. It represents an active labour market measure.

Policy goal

The goal is to respond to the industry demand for computer programmers with skills in the SAP programming language. The instrument offered training courses in SAP technology for 200 unemployed people, through 8 courses for 25 people each. The duration of each course was 220 hours. The courses were organized in 5 cities: Madrid, Barcelona, Zaragoza, Sevilla and Bilbao. Courses provided an international certification, which improved the employability of participants.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The course is specifically focused on one concrete skill demanded by the labour market.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Central PES (SEPE), through the Ministry of Employment and Social Security.

Stakeholders

SAP Spain: the company involved in the design of the course and in the selection of students.
Realtech: the company involved in the design of the course and in the selection of students.
Academias MasterD: Private training centres, who implemented the course.
Central PES: Funding and selection of students.

Funding

It is financed by the State Public Employment Service. The cost of the training (€8 euro per hour for 220 hour for 200 participants) reached €352,000.

Intended beneficiaries

The expected benefit is to train the unemployed as computer programmers, improving their employability and providing talent to companies. Unemployed must be already programmers with experience in at least one programming language.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Two companies of the software sector (SAP and Realtech) have designed this course. SAP is the developer of the software product and Realtech is a software consulting firm, who has a deep knowledge of the concrete use of SAP solutions by companies. Thus, both hold an adequate knowledge of contents, labour market demands and are able to correctly design the course contents in line with these demands. The course is implemented by a private training centre (Academias MasterD) which has a network across several cities in Spain.

Financial schemes

Central PES subsidises this course, paying €8 per hour of course per student.

Frequency of updates

The course was organized over two years. Afterwards, other courses on SAP are offered for unemployed workers, updating the course contents. One example are the courses for unemployed within the Youth Guarantee scheme.

Barriers

One barrier was the access of participants living in different cities than the ones where the course was organized (Madrid, Barcelona, Zaragoza, Sevilla and Bilbao). To overcome this barrier, the PES provided economic support to these participants to ensure that there was no geographical discrimination.

Success factors

The fact that the course is related with skills that are highly demanded in the labour market.
The course contents are designed by companies who have a deep expertise in the field and in the concrete skills needed by the labour market.

Monitoring

The indicators to measure the progress are the number of students that complete the course.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The instrument consists of a training course in skills for the use of innovative software.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

The course organizers guarantee that at least 60% of certified students will find a job. Interviews confirmed that more than 60% of students found a job afterwards. Benefits have been as expected. Students achieved a SAP certification at no cost, which usually costs around €4,000 - €5,000. Consequently, they improved their employability.

Engagement of stakeholders

The continuous engagement of stakeholders require the continuation of the funding by the Central PES (SEPE).

Transferability
Easily transferable

The course contents and its methodology could be transferred to other countries.
Students obtain an international certification with the course, which makes their skills transferrable as well.

Sustainability

The instrument was renovated in 2014-15, but not afterwards.

Description

Timespan

The Royal Decree 375/1999 of 5th March 1999, created INCUAL and states that an Observatory of Professions must be created within INCUAL.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The instrument consists mainly of qualitative research, in order to identify the skills that are needed in concrete professions, in order to adapt the contents of VET diplomas.

Policy goal

The rationale is to carry out qualitative research about selected occupations, in order to identify the skill shortages and the main changes in the skill demands. This information is taken into account in the design of new VET diplomas and in the update of the contents of the already existing VET diplomas. Thus, VET provision should match better labour market demands, improving the employability of VET graduates and the capacity of companies to access adequate skilled workers. The final goal of the instrument is a correct matching between education and labour market demands. This is seen as necessary to reduce unemployment and to have a skilled workforce that enables economic growth.

Mismatch
Part of broad policy measure of which skill mismatch is only a minor part

The INCUAL is responsible for defining, updating and adapting the Spanish National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications (Catálogo Nacional de Cualificaciones Profesionales, CNCP) to the evolution of the labour market.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and Ministry of Employment and Social Security.
INCUAL is embedded in the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. However, at the same time INCUAL is the technical body of the CGFP, the General Council of Vocational Training, (Consejo General de Formación Profesional, CGFP), the organisation that advises the government on VET issues. The CGFP is included in the Ministry of Employment and Social Security.

Stakeholders

General Council of Vocational Training, CGFP: INCUAL is the technical body of CGFP. The CGFP is included in the Ministry of Employment and Social Security and gathers 77 member advisory bodies, integrated by the central and regional education and employment authorities, as well as by employers´ and workers´ representatives.
Members of the Observatory of Professions (department within INCUAL): Includes sectoral experts and representatives of the public administration, trades unions and employers’ associations, suggested by CGFP. The role of these experts is to define the skills that are needed by professions.
Members of the working group of diplomas (department within INCUAL): experts in education who should define the changes needed in TVET provision to respond to labour market demands identified through the observation of occupations.
Government: Is responsible for the approval of new TVET diplomas and the changes in the contents of already existing diplomas. This is carried out through the approval of Royal Decrees at the Ministers' Council.
Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports: In addition to fund INCUAL, the ministry has a responsibility in the coordination of the process of identification of skill gaps and of the implementation of new diplomas created or updated.
Regional governments: Are responsible for implementing the new TVET diplomas and the changes in the contents of already existing diplomas in their regions.
TVET Schools: Are responsible for the final education provision to students.
Private companies: They offer apprenticeships to students, as well as participate in the process of identification of skill needs through their representatives at business associations, who participate in the Observatory of Professions. They can also directly contact INCUAL to suggest skill gaps that should be taken into account in the definition of contents of diplomas.

Funding

INCUAL is funded by the budget of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. However, INCUAL resources are not fully devoted for this process. In addition, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports has other departments outside INCUAL that work in the definition and in the implementation of diplomas. Therefore, a concrete budget for the process of identification of skill gaps and update of VET provision is not available. According to the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, an average of €10,000 is invested in the design of new diplomas (without including the identification of skills gaps).

Intended beneficiaries

The beneficiaries of this instrument are students, who improve their employability through an education that more correctly matches labour market demands, and also companies, who can employ better qualified workers.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The definition of professional standards for each occupation and their follow-up and update is made through two working groups in INCUAL: one working group focuses on occupations, while the other working group focuses on diplomas that, in turn, shapes education provision. Both groups include sectoral experts and representatives of the public administration, trades unions and employers’ associations, suggested by CGFP. The working group of diplomas also includes experts in education, which should define the changes needed in TVET provision to respond to labour market demands identified through the observation of occupations.
This systematic process of working groups and consultations leads to the update of qualifications included in the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications. In practice, in addition to this process, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports holds frequent communications with a broad and open set of agents (other administrations, foundations, trades unions, business associations or companies), receiving inputs on the evolution of labour market demands and contributing to the definitive process of updating the TVET provision. Moreover, changes in the VET provision must be opened for public consultation before their final approval.

Frequency of updates

The qualifications included in the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications must be updated every five years after their inclusion, in terms of contents, denominations, schedules, etc (Royal Decree 1128/2003, Article 9.4 ).

Development

The approach has not been adapted or adjusted during the implementation of the policy instrument.

Barriers

One barrier for the implementation of training changes in response to the skill gaps identified is the need to update training for teachers. In addition, some companies lack the means to provide apprenticeships for students in line with the updated contents of diplomas.
A barrier has been identified regarding the identification of relevant sources of information in the case of emerging sectors. A network of companies and experts needs to be updated to include new members that provide relevant information about new sectors.
Another barrier is often the dissemination of the approval of new diplomas and the change of diplomas. Although diplomas have been updated, several companies and students often do not know it.
A last barrier has been the economic crisis. Although some diplomas have been updated, the economic crisis has reduced the investment, reducing the potential implementation of the diplomas, as less jobs have been created for their graduates.

Success factors

The participation of a broad set of interviewed agents to provide qualitative information. In addition to the regular and formal process of identification of skill needs, INCUAL is open to the constant participation of any agent who can be interested in suggesting changes for the VET provision.
Companies usually validate the process of update of diplomas and the approval of new diplomas, considering whether the changes carried out are adequate.

Monitoring

The main indicators to follow up the progress of this instrument is the approval of new VET diplomas and the change of already existing diplomas. This is not measured regularly, although the qualifications included in the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications must be updated every five years, in terms of contents, denominations, schedules, etc (Royal Decree 1128/2003, Article 9.4 ). However, in practice this does not necessarily happen exactly every 5 years. Their update is made in accordance with sectoral demands, although the update takes place approximately every five years.

Innovativeness
Not innovative

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

No evidence of the effectiveness and impact of the instrument as a whole is available. However, there are reports that partially assess the system, such as reports about the number of students that graduate or labour insertion of some diplomas. Benefits are as expected, although those responsible of this process would like to speed up the process of updating VET provision. Often schools and the update of diplomas are a factor that promotes innovation among some companies that are not that innovative, such as some SMEs. Thus, the process of identification of skill gaps and update of the VET provision serves to transfer innovation from advanced to less developed companies through the educative system.

Engagement of stakeholders

The engagement of stakeholders is permanent and defined in regulation, which clearly specifies the role of the General Council of Vocational Training (CGFP) and INCUAL in a systematic process of continuous update of the VET provision in Spain.
The General Council of Vocational Training (CGFP) permanently includes 77 members in its advisory body, including the central and regional education and employment authorities, as well as employers' and workers' representatives (regulated by the RD 1684/1997).
Working groups of INCUAL (Observatory of Professions and Working Group on Diplomas) have a permanent network of members. This network includes sectoral experts and representatives of the public administration, trades unions and employers’ associations, suggested by CGFP. The working group of diplomas also includes experts in education.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The qualitative methodology of research of skills needs, based on interviews with a broad set of agents, can be transferred to other countries.

Sustainability

The instrument is permanent. It is expected to continue permanently, as it is needed for the update of the VET provision in Spain.