Stakeholders across Europe see a steady progress towards increased transparency of qualifications, especially in the formal education and training domain.

The European qualifications framework (EQF) is a tool to promote transparency and comparability of qualifications depicting learning outcomes, i.e. what people know, understand and are able to do. The open consultation concerning the EQF that was carried out in 2023 was an initiative to collect information about its implementation and identify possible improvements.

The main findings of the evaluations that have been released include:

  • All 38 countries in the EQF process have set up national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) and 36 have established links between those and the EQF.
  • The evaluation found that there is consistent and extended use of learning outcomes and that the EQF has supported and inspired national reforms and contributed to increased transparency of qualifications, especially from the formal education and training domain.
  • Progress, albeit more limited, is observed in relation to qualifications outside the formal domain. Further support is needed for the integration in NQFs of qualifications other than those linked to full formal education and training, for example microcredentials.
  • The EQF cooperates with other national and EU instruments for transparency of skills and qualifications; existing synergies should be maintained and further strengthened to have a more comprehensive approach to skills and qualifications.
  • There is also a need to bring the EQF closer to workers, employers, students; the use of the EQF and NQFs to support the recognition of qualifications could be further promoted.

The evaluation of the public consultation also indicates that it is necessary to maintain the existing EQF structures and processes, including the support Cedefop offers to the European Commission and Member States.

The Agency’s role in the implementation and operationalisation of the EQF was noted in relation to its extensive conceptual work, such as in relation to learning outcomes and NQF developments; the provision of technical expertise; and the promotion of the use of the EQF by raising awareness and providing information and resources on how to use the it.

In general, stakeholders considered Cedefop work a useful reference point and an important factor for progress in implementing the EQF.

Europass a valuable resource

The stakeholders’ evaluation of Europass, which has also been released, reveals that it is seen as a valuable one-stop-shop bringing together skills, qualifications and labour market mobility tools, while the European Digital Credentials for Learning are seen as highly relevant to support EU Member States in their digital transformation of credentials.

At the same time, the evaluation noted that its potential can be further increased by providing more information on qualifications and learning opportunities as well as information in the areas of career guidance, validation opportunities and recognition of qualifications with stronger links to national services.

For more information on the EQF evaluation please consult:

For more information on the Europass evaluation please consult: