All web-links were last accessed February 7th, 2020.
 Defined as ILO ISCO 08 groups 91-96. More details on the sub-occupations can be found in ESCO: ISCO 91 Cleaners and helpers; ISCO 92 Agricultural, forestry and fishery labourers; ISCO 93 Labourers in mining, construction, manufacturing and transport ISCO 94 Food preparation assistants; ISCO 95 Street and related sales and service workers; and ISCO 96 Refuse workers and other elementary workers.
 2016 Cedefop forecast
 More information on replacement demand and how it drives employment across sectors, can be found here.
 Autor, D. & Dorn, D., (2009), ‘The Growth of Low Skill Service Jobs and the Polarization of the U.S. Labor Market’ National Bureau of Economic Research: Working Paper 15150; Autor, D, Levy, F & Murnane, R 2003, ‘The skill content of recent technological change: an experimental exploration’ Quarterly Journal of Economics. 118(4), 1279-1333.
 Goos, M., Manning, A. & Salomons, A., (2009), “Job polarization in Europe”, American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 99(2), 58-63
 CEDEFOP, (2016), Preparing for the Age of Robots, web log post on the Skills Panorama, viewed 30 June 2016
 Deloitte, (2015), Man and Machine: Robots on the Rise? The Impact of Automation on the Swiss Job Market
 Goos, M, Manning, A. & Salomons, A., (2011), Explaining Job Polarization: the Roles of Technology, Offshoring and Institutions, Centre for Economic Studies Discussion Paper 11.34, University of Leuven
 Goos, M. & Manning, A., (2007), “Lousy and lovely jobs. The rising polarisation of work in Britain”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 89(1), 118-133
 Eurofound, (2015), New forms of employment, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg
 Wilson, R., (2007), ‘Trends in employment creation in Europe’, Perspectives on employment and social policy coordination in the European Union, viewed 01 July 2016
 European Commission DG Enterprise and Industry 2014 High Level Forum for a Better Functioning Food Supply Chain (See chapter 6)
 For example, see European Research Area, MAFE project 2013 African migrants at work: Labour market integration in Europe & re-integration of returnees, MAFE PROJECT Policy Briefing No. 4
 Communication from the Commission to the European parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, 2016, Action Plan on the integration of third country nationals
 CEDEFOP, (2015), Skills, qualifications and jobs in the EU: the making of a perfect match?- Evidence from Cedefop’s European skills and jobs survey
 Dolphin, T., (2015), ‘Technology, globalisation and the future of work in Europe: essays on employment in a digitized economy’ Institute for Public Policy Research London. (see Figure 14)
 CEDEFOP, (2015), Skills, qualifications and jobs in the EU: the making of a perfect match?- Evidence from Cedefop’s European skills and jobs survey (see figure 14)