Building on the work of Cedefop, this article presents the EU policy agenda and central activities related to VET teachers and trainers as well as linkages to the European strategies for vocational education and training (VET); approaches and models of VET teacher and trainer professional development in the member states (MS). The main challenges for VET teachers and trainers are outlined with an emphasis on the challenges which arise from their evolving role, from the greater autonomy they have been given and from their involvement in curriculum and assessment reform especially when it is based on learning outcomes approaches. High quality professional development is essential for teachers and trainers to be able to keep pace with the rapidly developing demands of their job as well as technological advancements in their specific field, digital tools for teaching and learning, helping learners develop key competences, and providing more individualised support to ever more heterogeneous groups of learners. Teachers and trainers also need to design and/or apply new curricula, respond quickly to emerging individual and labour market needs and ensure close links between the different learning venues in VET. They are also expected to use the European tools that help make people’s skills more visible. The article concludes with reflections on the shaping of future policies.