The main features of the French VET system are:
- all IVET qualifications can be obtained either in school-based VET or through an apprenticeship, or by validation of informal and non-formal learning;
- early leaving in education and training is low and has been below the national target in the last five years;
- in 2018, one third of all upper secondary learners were following vocational programmes;
- there are more VET learners in post-secondary VET and their number is on the rise; the share of learners in the short cycle of upper secondary VET is decreasing ( ).
Right to education The State ensures the principles of equal opportunities and the right to education. It has the obligation to organise public education that is free of charge and secular.
Role of the social partners The social partners have an essential role in regulatory, political and financial aspects of lifelong learning programmes. The inter-professional agreements they sign were the basis for the introduction of reforms up to 2018, and are generally reflected in legislative and regulatory documents. Social partners also manage different bodies that fund apprenticeship and vocational training schemes for small companies, as well as the unemployment insurance system for job-seekers.
Obligation to contribute financially to CVET French CVET is distinguished by the existence of compulsory contributions allocated to a particular purpose, reflecting the desire to encourage companies to train their staff. The rate is set by law, but some professional branches have applied rates above the legal minimum.
Recognition of ‘individual rights’ to training Another distinctive feature is the recognition of ‘individual rights’ to training, designed to promote social progress and reduce inequalities in access to training. The best known are the recently introduced personal training account (compte personnel de formation, CPF) and the individual training leave named ‘CPF for career transition’ (CPF de transition). The purpose of the CPF is to support the use of an ‘individual right’ scheme, by making it more accessible to all (employed and unemployed) and more portable from one company to another.
Decentralisation / leadership role of regions The law of 2014 brought to a conclusion to the process of decentralisation. It gave regions full authority over vocational training, career advice and coordinating job support policies. Regions develop training policies adapted to their needs and implement them within regional public training (SPRF) and guidance (SPRO) services. Regions are now able to define and manage territorial public policies and can articulate their strategies on VET and economic developments. Since 2019 the Regions are no longer competent for the management of training in apprenticeship provision.
Foster key competences The common set of knowledge, competences and culture was (re)designed in 2015 to ensure the acquisition of key competences in compulsory education (6-16 years) and help learners succeed in VET. The new setting entered into force in 2016-17. It includes personalised support to students throughout their education path.
Strengthen the use of digital technology in education In 2015 France established a three-year digital plan for education to pilot new forms of teaching and learning. The aim is to mainstream digital technology in primary and lower secondary education by providing technical resources, teacher training and funding.
Ease career transition The main aim of the new career guidance service (conseil en évolution professionnelle, CEP) is to offer the employed and unemployed support for personal career transitions and suitable training. This requires coordinated actions among national and regional actors, and active social partner involvement. The service is linked to the personal training account (CPF).
Developing quality processes in CVET According to 2015 legislation, as of 2016 the main CVET funding bodies must ensure the quality of the training they finance, based on predefined criteria. The 2018 reform plans for a new quality framework to apply from 2021 onwards.
Facilitate access to training The active population in the public and private sectors has online access to information related to their personal training account (CPF). Each individual’s rights are entitled in Euro and, by the end of 2019, a digital application will make it easier for beneficiaries to enrol directly in training courses.
Upskilling low-qualified youth and unemployed
The Investment in skills plan (PIC) aims at training and supporting the access to employment of one million young people and one million job seekers. It is funded up to EUR 15 billion for the period 2017-22. The plan links skills needs analysis and innovation with the provision of new training paths.
Population in 2018: 66 926 166 ()
Population increased by 2% since 2013 (). This is mainly due to natural growth (France has one of the highest fertility rates in the EU) as well as to positive net migration.
In 2014, there were 6 million immigrants living in France (9.1% of the population), of whom 43.8% (2.61 million) were from Africa. The proportion of immigrants from Europe remains large, though falling: it was 36.1% in 2014, as compared with 50% in 1990. 14.5% of France’s immigrants are from Asia ().
As people live longer, France’s population is ageing.
The old-age dependency ratio is expected to increase from 29 in 2015 to 43 in 2060 ().
Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio
Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].
According to national statistics, since 1980, the number of people aged 60 or more has grown from 17% to 25.9%, and their proportion in the French population as a whole is almost the same as that of young people aged under 20 (respectively 24.1% and 25.9%) ().
Information not available
Most companies are very small: 72% have no employees and 23% have between one and nine employees ().
The economy depends primarily on the tertiary sector. The proportion of the different sectors in terms of gross added value generated in 2016 is:
- services (commercial and non-commercial) (77.3%), with main branches of activities:
- real estate (13.2%);
- wholesale and retail trade (17.6%);
- non-market services (22.7%);
- industry (14.1%);
- construction (5.5%);
- agriculture (1.6%).
In terms of number of enterprises per sector ():
- wholesale and retail trade (19.26%);
- ‘professional, scientific and technical activities and administrative and support service activities’ (17.79%);
- construction (13.49%);
- ’public administration, education, human health and social work activities’ (13.79%).
Information not available
In 2018 total unemployment () in France was 7.8% (compared with 6% in the EU-28), marking an increase of 1.7 percentage points since 2008 ( ).
Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18
NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary. Education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].
The economic crisis had less impact on the evolution of unemployment rates of those with medium-level qualifications (including most VET graduates) and with high-level qualifications than for those with low qualifications. However, the unemployment rate of people with medium-level qualifications, including most VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4) remains higher than in the pre-crisis years.
The unemployment rate of young people (15-24 years old) with low- and medium-level qualifications increased sharply at the beginning of the economic crisis and is still almost three times higher than the general working population.
The employment rate of 20 to 34 year-old VET graduates has slightly increased from 73.6% in 2014 to 74% in 2018 ().
Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)
NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].
The increase in employment rate of 20-34 year-old VET graduates in 2014-18 (+0.4pp) was the same as the increase in employment of all 20-34 year olds (+0.4pp) in the same period in France ().
In 2018, most people in the age group 25-64 in France have a medium-level qualification (42.3%, against 45.7% in the EU) while the share of those with high-level qualifications (36.8%) is higher than the EU average (32.2%). The share of people with no or low-level qualifications (20.6%) is below the EU-28 average (21.8%) but is within the ten highest in the EU.
Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018
NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; Low reliability for ‘No response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia, and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].
Share of learners in VET by level in 2017
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [Extracted on 16.5.2019]
The share of learners in upper secondary VET in 2017 decreased by 3.1pp compared to 2013, while the share of VET learners in post-secondary increased by 5.8pp in the same period.
Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017
NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].
The rates of access to training for men and women are similar. In the academic years 2014-16, there were more men than women among those who left initial education with a vocational qualification (such as CAP/EQF level 3, a vocational baccalaureate/EQF level 4 or BTS, DUT /EQF level 5) (see figure below)
Breakdown of young people at the end of initial training according to their highest diploma
Source: Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2018). Repères et références statistiques, p. 253 ().
The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased by 2.9 percentage points, from 12.4% in 2009 to 8.9% in 2018. It has been below the EU average (10.6%) and the national target set (<9.5%) since 2013.
Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18
NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].
National authorities have an obligation to support young people aged 16 to 18 without a diploma and unemployed. There is a training scheme, not leading to qualifications, to support reintegration of early leavers from education and training. The service includes for all beneficiaries:
- a personalised interview to assess needs, skills and level of education;
- a training offer and personalised support (a tutor from national education during the training course).
Between 2010 and 2017, the number of people leaving initial training without a diploma was reduced by 42.85% ().
Teaching and administrative staff in upper secondary schools involved in the initiative to reduce dropouts from education and training (Mission de lutte contre le décrochage, MLCD) may follow relevant training to acquire the necessary skills (MLCD certificate) ().
The national youth guarantee scheme (garantie jeunes) targets young people with low education and/or disadvantaged socio-economic background. After a pilot phase begun in 2013, it was made more generally available in 2017. Between October 2013 and July 2018, 229 000 young people benefited from the scheme ().
The Investment in skills plan (PIC) aims at training and supporting the access to employment of one million of young people, including dropouts, by 2022.
Lifelong learning (formation tout au long de la vie) is a national obligation of the State. It covers both initial education and training (general, technological/professional and vocational streams, including apprenticeship) as well as continuing vocational training for adults and young people already engaged in working life ().
Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18
NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].
Participation in lifelong learning has been steady since 2014, slightly increasing by 0.2 percentage points (from 18.4% in 2014 to 18.6% in 2018); it is higher than the EU 28 average (10.8% and 11.1% respectively)
According to national statistics, in 2015-16 73% of people aged 14-22 were in education, i.e. a little more than 15 million learners in total (). In 2016, one in two employees participated in a training programme.
Breakdown of young people at the end of initial training according to their highest diploma
Source: Repères et références statistiques 2018, Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, p. 253 ()
Share of learners in vocational and vocationally-oriented programmes either in school-based education or in apprenticeship in 2014-16:
- in VET EQF level 3 programmes (CAP, BEP): 11%
- in VET EQF level 4 programmes (vocational baccalaureate): 17%
- in EQF level 4 technological programmes (vocational-oriented): 6%
- in EQF level 5 post-secondary non-university programmes (DUT, BTS etc.): 13%
National statistics make no differentiation between academic and professional bachelor and master degrees.
The following levels are included in initial education and training:
- pre-primary (ISCED level 0);
- primary (compulsory) education for children aged 6-11, (ISCED level 1);
- lower secondary education for learners aged 12-16 in collèges (ISCED level 2);
- upper secondary education for learners aged 16-18 (ISCED level 3);
- tertiary (ISCED level 5) and higher education (ISCED levels 6, 7 and 8)
Pre-primary education is optional, but in practice is attended by all children aged three to six.
Primary education is the first part of compulsory education (five years, learners aged 6 to 11); lower secondary marks the end of compulsory education (learners aged 12 - 16) and is delivered in junior high schools (collèges).
In 2017, 5 629 800 pupils were in public and private secondary institutions in mainland France and in the overseas territories (). In initial education, each pathway prepares students for an exam to obtain a qualification. Altogether, there are around 15 000 IVET qualifications referenced in the national register of vocational qualifications (RNCP) ( ) and more than 500 000 CVET training programmes referenced by information centres ( ).
Lower secondary offers general education, but vocational courses preparing students to enter an apprenticeship are also offered. At the end of the cycle, learners pass an exam to obtain the end of lower secondary education certificate (diplôme national du brevet) which is not essential to access upper secondary.
In upper secondary (three years, learners aged 16-18) learners may choose between
- the general path leading to the end of secondary education general exam (and Baccalauréat degree), opening up access to higher education and tertiary level studies;
- the technological path leading to the technological baccalaureate which opens up the possibility to follow VET studies offered at EQF levels 5 or 6;
- the vocational path that includes a two-year path to obtain a professional skills certificate at EQF level 3 (CAP) and a three-year path leading to a vocational baccalaureate at EQF level 4 (BAC-pro). Those with a CAP may also continue in one-year school-based programme to receive the applied arts certificate (EQF level 4).
In tertiary non-academic education there are two-year VET programmes
- in university technology institutes (IUTs) attached to universities to prepare an undergraduate certificate of technology (DUT, EQF level 5);
- in an advanced technician section in vocational high schools to prepare an advanced technician certificate (BTS).
Professional bachelor (EQF 6) and master (EQF 7) programmes are also offered in parallel to higher education academic studies (EQF levels 6 to 8); the latter are delivered in universities and in public or private higher colleges of excellence (grandes écoles).
In Initial VET the following learning options are available:
- full-time education in VET schools;
- work-based learning in school-based VET; which length varies depending on the type and education level of the programme:
- 50% in EQF 4 upper secondary VET programmes (BAC-pro);
- 30% in EQF 5 VET programmes (DUT, BTS);
- 10% in EQF 6 professional bachelors;
- 30% in EQF 7 professional masters
- work-based learning delivered as apprenticeship. This type of learning is delivered partly in apprenticeship training centres (CFA) and partly in companies under an apprenticeship (employment) contract.
- the share of work-based learning (in-company practical training) is 67%.
Types of learning in school-based programmes:
- classroom theoretical vocational learning;
- practical training in the form of courses, practical work, workshops, indoor and outdoor;
- project work;
- internships in companies.
Learning forms in continuing VET:
Lifelong learning (formation tout au long de la vie) is a national obligation. It includes both initial education and training (general, technological and vocational streams, including apprenticeship) offered from upper secondary to higher education levels; and continuing vocational training for adults and young people already engaged in working life (). Under this concept, vocational education and training is offered as:
- initial vocational training for young people, including apprenticeship; it is offered from upper secondary to tertiary education enabling young people to obtain qualifications for the labour market;
- continuing vocational training for young people who have left or completed initial education ( ) and to adult employees, job seekers, civil servants, self-employed workers and business owners. It promotes and supports labour market (re)integration, encourages skills and career development through acquiring new qualifications and contributes to economic and cultural development and social advancement;
- a scheme that allows adults to gain vocational qualifications through knowledge and skills acquired at work ( ).
Since 2009 (), every working person has a right to a professional qualification. Under this right, the (self-) employed and job seekers may choose a training course that enables them to progress in a career by at least one level, by acquiring a qualification corresponding to the short- or medium-term needs of the economy. This qualification should either be
- included in the national register of vocational qualifications (RNCP - Répertoire National des Certifications Professionnelles);
- recognised in the professional sector classifications;
- a certificate of professional qualifications (CQP) recognised by the branches but not attached to a qualification level.
The legal definition of training action was broadened by the law of September 2018, including position tests, distance learning and on-the-job training (Action de formation en situation de travail, AFEST).
The State is the only body that develops qualifications that can be accessed through initial education. All the qualifications developed by the State can also be accessed via lifelong learning and validation of non-formal and informal learning (VAE- validation des acquis de l'expérience).
Beside formal IVET programmes leading to qualifications issued and recognised by the State, different bodies offer training programmes leading to sectoral vocational qualifications and certificates issued by them.
The methods for accessing different qualifications are flexible. They can be accessed through the initial education system, but also through apprenticeship, continuing vocational training, and validation of non-formal and informal learning (). A qualification acquired through continuing vocational training has exactly the same value as one obtained in initial education.
All VET qualifications offered in school-based and classroom VET programmes may be obtained in apprenticeship; in the latter case, practical training spend in a company covers 60 to 75% of the total programme duration.
A major reform of the vocational training system is under way () affecting CVET governance, funding mechanisms, and apprenticeship provision. The 2018 Bill defines for apprenticeship training centres (CFAs) the same obligations and quality standards as those for IVET training centres and a new funding model for CFAs and apprenticeship contracts.
All training providers, including apprenticeship training centres, will have to be quality certified by 2021, as long as the training they offer is financed by public funds and mutual funds.
Since 2018, France Compétences is the new governance and monitoring body responsible for VET implementation and financing () that will replace and absorb several national instances ( ).Gradual implementation is foreseen as of 2019. It will distribute the mutual fund envelopes and ensure the equalisation of apprenticeship funds to skills operators (OPCO) ( ) and the regions. Skills operators will manage two envelopes, the financing of alternance training programmes (apprenticeship contracts and professionalisation contracts) and the financing of the training plan for companies ( ) with less than 50 employees. Full implementation and transition from the old system to the new one is to be completed by 2021 ( ).
Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches
Governance of the French VET system
Vocational training in France is a matter of shared competences between the State, the regions and representatives of the business world ().
At State-level, initial VET is mainly regulated by the Ministries of Education (upper secondary VET) and Higher Education (tertiary VET). Different ministries develop VET qualifications and nationally valid certificates. Continuing VET is under the remit of the Ministry of Labour ().
Initial vocational education and continuing vocational training are managed by different ministries, have different funding sources and even different objectives. There are qualifying requirements for VET teachers and trainers, and various funding IVET schemes.
Governance of initial VET
Initial education covers all levels of education from pre-primary to higher education. Initial VET is offered from upper secondary to higher education (EQF levels 3 to 7).
The Ministry of Education and other ministries that develop VET qualifications in their remit:
- develop standards for IVET qualifications in consultation with business representatives;
- define examination regulations;
- issue/award VET qualifications and diplomas;
- offer various types of training in their institutions for school learners and apprentices;
- recruit, train and pay teachers;
- monitor quality of training and training delivery (results and resources used).
The Regions are responsible for the planning and coherence of vocational training in their territories, except for apprenticeship provision. They define their policies according to their economic and social priorities, in consultation with the State and the social partners.
Social partners are the main stakeholders systematically involved in VET implementation. They:
- contribute to the elaboration of VET qualifications;
- participate in examination boards;
- offer in-company training;
- contribute financially to VET provision (technological and vocational training paths) by paying the apprenticeship tax.
In practice, ministerial advisory professional committees are formed with the participation of social partners to plan the revision of VET qualifications in line with labour market needs.
The national commission for collective bargaining (CNNC) issues opinions on draft legislation (laws, decrees, ordinances) for employment policies, guidance, IVET and CVET policies and training actions financed though calls (training plans) organised by the State ().
IVET is offered from upper secondary to tertiary/higher education in public and private establishments. In upper secondary three paths are offered: general, technological and vocational (respectively, teaching staff specialise as upper secondary teacher, technological path teacher and VET teacher).
In 2017, upper secondary VET programmes were running in 1456 schools (lycées professionnels) (834 public and 622 private establishments). Upper secondary VET prepares learners for VET qualifications at EQF level 3 and 4; in an advanced technician section learners may also prepare an advanced technician certificate (BTS) (EQF level 5).
Higher education comprises:
- universities, public establishments which do not have selection processes;
- university technology institutes (IUTs) attached to universities offering VET programmes leading to an undergraduate certificate of technology (DUT) at EQF level 5;
- a non-university sector made up of higher education elite establishments (Grandes Ecoles), which are only accessible via competitive entrance competitions, and preparatory classes for those establishments ( ).
Reforming upper secondary VET
Reforming the upper secondary vocational path started in May 2018; it is part of the national skills strategy and will be developed in line with the regional development strategy (). The organisation of the vocational baccalaureate will evolve in September 2019. Whatever the specialty, a set of key skills will be common.
54 hours per year are dedicated to the career guidance project for the transition from upper secondary to higher level studies (). Personalised support focuses on written and oral expression and guidance. It includes:
- two weeks of orientation dedicated to the discovery of professional sectors;
- training in higher education;
- personalised guidance interviews.
A personalised guidance service is in place (reviens te former) () for those aged 16-25 with at most an upper secondary baccalaureate but no vocational qualification, wishing to return to education and training to acquire a VET qualification.
Governance of continuing VET
The vocational training system is managed within the framework of a ‘four-party system‘: the State, the Regions and the social partners (employer representatives and trade unions) contribute to the development and implementation of continuing vocational training and national apprenticeship policy.
The State develops the standards and strategies for vocational training. It guides CVET/apprenticeship policies in order to secure professional careers and access to employment. Three ministries are particularly concerned with continuing vocational training and apprenticeship:
- the Ministry of Labour prepares and implements the Government's policy on labour, employment and vocational training ( );
- the Ministry of National Education is involved in CVET through public schools, which can pool their resources to provide a diversified offer for CVET; ( )
- the Ministry of higher education, research and innovation ( ).
Since 2014, the Regions have been in charge of
- training specific audiences ( ) previously under the responsibility of the State;
- appointing operators to provide professional development advice, as part of the regional public guidance services;
- organising and financing the regional public service for vocational training ( ).
Social partners have an essential role in regulatory, policy and financial aspects of lifelong learning programmes (IVET and CVET). They:
- sign inter-professional agreements which are used in shaping reforms and are reflected in legislative and regulatory documents;
- manage 11 bodies called ‘skills operators’ (OPCOs - Opérateurs de compétences) organised by professional sector. Among their tasks, skills operators can help benefit from mutual funds the SMEs employing fewer than 50 persons, to develop training programmes for their employees (plans de développement des compétences). OPCOs are also responsible for developing apprenticeship and funding the training costs of apprenticeship pathways leading to a qualification.
- contribute to the development of diplomas by taking part in boards of examiners.
Reforming continuing vocational training
A major reform of the vocational training system is under way. It aims to improve VET attractiveness and responsiveness to the labour market by restructuring its governance, funding mechanisms, and apprenticeship provision.
New governance: the 2018 Law for the freedom to choose one’s professional future () established France Competences, a new governance and monitoring body on VET implementation and financing ( ). This is a single, four-party public institution operating under the supervision of the Minister in charge of vocational training. France Compétences replaces and absorbs several national bodies on VET implementation and financing ( ).
France Compétences will distribute the mutual fund envelopes and ensure the equalisation of apprenticeship funds to skills operators (OPCO) () and the regions. Skills operators will manage two envelopes, the financing of alternance training programmes (apprenticeship contracts and professionalisation contracts) and the financing of the training plan for companies ( ) with less than 50 employees.
The activities of France compétences and the new OPCOs start from the first quarter of 2019; full implementation and transition from the old system to the new one is to be completed by 2021 ().
The national framework of vocational qualifications (RNCP): the 2018 Bill foresees that, from 2019 onwards, the levels of qualification in the national nomenclature are to be aligned with EQF. Implementing provisions came into force in January 2019 (). France Compétences assumes the responsibilities of the national commission for vocational certifications ( ).
CVET training – main characteristics
Continuing vocational training comprises lifelong learning programmes and training schemes for vulnerable groups. It targets the unemployed and people already engaged in working life (private sector employees, civil servants, self-employed). The aim of CVET is to support workers to adapt more quickly to the changing labour market needs and acquire a (new) VET qualification. There are various routes and progression opportunities while training is offered from a range of VET providers. The type of training programme depends on the status of the beneficiary. A list of available lifelong learning programmes is presented in the table below.
Lifelong learning programmes by target groups, objectives and funding sources
Professional development contract
People on basic
RNCP registered diploma or qualification 74% other than:
- certificates of vocational qualification (CQP): 11.8%
- Or qualification recognised in the classification of a non- RNCP registered collective agreement: 14.2%
Social partners, employers and State
Skills development plan
These training initiatives mainly aim to adapt, develop, acquire, maintain or enhance skills.
Mainly employers and social partners
Promotion or transition through apprenticeship (new in 2019)
This programme lead to a recognised diploma, title or qualification
Mainly social partners, employers
Personal training account with professional transition (new in 2019)
Employees, Jobseekers who have previously held a temporary contract
This programme lead to a recognised diploma, title or qualification
Mainly social partners
Personal training account
Employees, jobseekers, unqualified young people
- Courses providing basic
knowledge and skills;
- Courses leading to a RNCP registered qualification or to an
identified part of a vocational
qualification, classified in the list,
for the purpose of acquiring a et of skills;
- work experience accreditation
(VAE) support initiatives
All funding sources: Regions, local job centres, social partners, learners, etc.
Courses funded by the Region
Mainly jobseekers, sometimes employees
Courses leading to and preparing for qualifications, professional development courses 85.4%
Social and professional integration courses 16.6%
Regions, joint funding by State social partners
Courses funded by local job centers
Jobseeker courses for qualifications,
joint funding by
State, social partners
Source: Appendix to the finance white paper 2018 – Vocational training ().
The training market in France is free. In 2016, 68 000 CVET providers had a turnover of EUR 14.3 billion. Their number and turnover are relatively stable compared to 2015.
Breakdown of the number of training providers, learners and annual turnover by status of training providers (%), 2016
Source : Appendix of the draft budget bill – November 2018 ().
Employment policies relevant to VET
A major investment plan for a skills society 2018-22 aims to train one million low-skilled jobseekers. This plan is implemented in the form of national calls for projects and regional skills investment pacts. It follows the 2016 initiative to offer 500 000 additional training places, which mainly involves the employment agency in sponsoring training for jobseekers ().
There are several training schemes targeting the low qualified. They aim to facilitate (re)integration into the labour market, leading or not to a qualification; the most representative are:
- support scheme for NEET’s ( ) aged 16-18 to reengage in education and training;
- supporting measures through the national youth guarantee scheme, which is integrated into the investment plan for a skills society 2018-22 and received increased funding;
- a training scheme for teachers and school staff on strategies/tools to prevent drop outs, leading to a certificate (award);
- a key competences scheme of tailored training modules to acquire five basic skills ( ). The scheme is implemented by the regions and targets mostly jobseekers and young people aged 16-25; it may take place in parallel with a subsidised contract for a training action leading to qualifications;
- the CléA ( ), an inter-professional certificate attesting to proficiency in basic knowledge and vocational skills. The scheme is leading funded certification in CPF ( ) training.
Education funding includes:
- teaching and training (including in apprenticeships);
- administration and educational research;
- catering and lodging, counselling and medical service;
- transportation, purchase of books and other educational materials.
All funding sources combined, expenses for general, technological and vocational education were estimated, in 2016, at EUR 149.9 billion (State funds 54.6%, 23.8% regional funds, 1.3% household and 8.5 % company funds).
Funding of initial education and training, 2016
Share of total funding
Teaching and training
Catering and lodging
Administration, guidance, transports and other expenses
Source: Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (2018). Repères et références statistiques 2018, p. 316 ().
Companies are the main CVET funding source (30.8% of total expenditure, see table below), through their contributions to skills operators (Opérateur de compétences, OPCO) and the apprenticeship tax.
The Regions are the second largest funder (18.7%). The appropriations allocated to training (excluding public officials) by local and regional authorities other than the Regions (departments, municipalities, etc.) account for less than 1%.
State intervention expenditure on CVET/apprenticeship training decreased by 7.1%, along with the expenditure of other administrations or bodies with a public service mission, including Agefiph (association managing the fund for the professional integration of people with disabilities), Unédic () and Pôle Emploi.
Individual spending, consisting of individual training purchases, was dynamic (+3.0%).
The expenditure of the State, territorial and hospital public services for the training of their staff, representing 22%, is stable overall. Expenditure by the civil service is down (-4.0%) but expenditure by civil servants in the territorial and hospital sectors is up by 2.3% and 3.1% respectively.
Overall CVET expenditure by main financers
Structure 2015 (%)
Évolution 2015 / 2014 (%)
Companies (excluding direct expenses)
Unédic/Pôle emploi and other public administrations
Other local authorities
State, territorial and hospital public services
Source : Annex of the draft finance law on vocational training 2018 ().
In 2017 a major investment plan (2018-22 Plan d’investissement dans les compétences, PIC) aimed at mobilising EUR 57 billion over a five-year period was set up. One of the objectives of this plan is to raise the level of employment by building a skills company: to this end, EUR 15 billion managed by a High Commissioner for Skills and Inclusion through Employment () are allocated to training actions for skills development targeting mostly long-term jobseekers and young people without qualifications.
Reforming CVT governance and funding mechanisms A major reform of the continuing vocational training system is under way. It aims to improve VET attractiveness and responsiveness to the labour market by restructuring its governance, funding mechanisms, and apprenticeship provision ().
Since 2018, France Compétences is the new governance and monitoring body on VET implementation and financing (). Gradual implementation is foreseen as of 2019. France Compétences replaces and absorbs several national bodies on VET implementation and financing ( ). It will distribute the mutual fund envelopes and ensure the equalisation of apprenticeship funds to skills operators (OPCO) ( ) and the regions.
Skills operators will manage two envelopes, the financing of alternance training programmes (apprenticeship contracts and professionalisation contracts) and the financing of the training plan for companies () with less than 50 employees.
Full implementation and transition from the old system to the new one is to be completed by 2021 ().
The following categories of VET teachers and trainers are in place:
- VET school teachers;
- apprenticeship general courses teachers;
- apprenticeship technical, theoretical and practical courses teachers;
- in-company apprenticeship mentors (in-company trainers) ( ).
Requirements for VET school teachers A national entrance examination has been set up for teachers wishing to work as vocational teachers in upper secondary vocational programmes (lycée professionnel). To participate, candidates must demonstrate either a level of qualification in the subject to be taught or a number of years of professional practice in the relevant profession.
Requirements for teachers in apprenticeship training centres (CFA) and in-company trainers For apprenticeship, there is no national examination to become a teacher; each apprenticeship training centre (CFA – centre de formation des apprentis) does its own recruitment, and candidates should apply directly to it. Formal requirements for CFA teaching staff:
- VET teachers (general teaching roles) must demonstrate a qualification equivalent to that required for a similar post in a public establishment;
- in-company trainers, called apprenticeship mentors (maîtres d’apprentissage) (performing technical, theoretical and practical teaching roles) must have a relevant qualification that is at least at the same level as the qualification that the apprentices are working towards and have several years of working experience in the relevant speciality/skills.
Teachers may benefit from continuing training schemes.
Every year the Ministry of Education prepares a National training plan (Plan national de formation, PNF), which sets out guidelines for continuing training of State education staff ().
In 2018, a circular for 2018/19 is supporting initiatives to encourage regional education authorities support training activities for VET school teachers, reinforce contacts with trades and professions and relationships between schools and businesses ().
CVET trainers may benefit from dedicated training programmes for their continuing professional development.
A range of CVET programmes exist, such as pedagogy adapted to adult education, to the conception and management of training actions and other skills development paths. These are accessible throughout the main CVET training schemes (the skills development plan at the initiative of the employer and the personal training account (CPF) scheme at the initiative of the employee). Participation of their staff in continuous training actions is a criterion required for the quality accreditation of the training providers. Professional skills and continuing professional development of VET instructors are among quality criteria required for training providers, so that their programmes can be funded by the main CVET funding bodies.
More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers ().
The role of skills operators in skills anticipation
Following the 2018 reform (), Skills operators (OPCO) ( ) is a new body which is managed by social partners and supervised by France Competence ( ). As part of their mandate, OPCO will support skills anticipation in the labour market by:
- supporting companies and professional sectors to build forward-looking management of jobs and skills;
- providing technical support to professional branches and a local service to small and medium-sized businesses;
- helping companies and industries to anticipate technological changes and needs in their businesses;
- supporting companies involved in apprenticeships ( ) to plan and implement their training provision.
Regional employment and training observatories () provide regionally based systems for analysis and research on the relationship between employment, training and qualification requirements. Using data provided by their national and regional VET stakeholders, they conduct research and provide expertise to anticipate economic changes and skills for the future. They focus on:
- training needs;
- job trends;
- links between employment and training;
- sectoral approaches;
- professional mobility and economic development.
Financial support to SMEs
Public subsidies are in place to support very small and small companies anticipate their human resources management skills.
Information on skills anticipation in France is also available in Cedefop skills panorama, 2017 ().
See also Cedefop’s skills forecast () and European skills index ( )
Designing VET qualifications
The framework for establishing professional qualifications is based on certification processes in place since 2002 when the national committee on vocational qualifications (Commission nationale de la certification professionnelle- CNCP) and the national register of vocational qualifications (Registre national de la certification professionnelle, RNCP) were put in place ().
Certification process refers to a description of skills, abilities and knowledge associated with a qualification that is necessary to exercise this profession, function or professional activity. It’s a document, obtained by an individual following a set procedure, which confirms these professional skills according to given criteria. In 2017, there were around 18 000 identified qualifications. More than 15 500 vocational qualifications were listed in the RNCP (). These processes lead to a variety of vocational qualifications:
- IVET certificates and qualifications (EQF levels 3 to 7), which are awarded on behalf of the State by ministries;
- CVET sectoral qualifications recognised by the social partners and issued by other bodies:
- certificates of professional qualifications (CQP) (certificat de qualification professionnelle) created by the social partners of a branch;
- the title of ‘qualified engineer’ (titre d’ingénieur diplômé) created and controlled by the CTI (Commission des titres d’ingénieur – engineering qualification committee) ( );
- the vocational certificate (certificat professionnel) created by public or private training providers ( ).
- Most of these CVET qualifications are registered in the RNCP.
Designing IVET qualifications
Ministries design and create VET qualifications on the basis of opinions from consultative bodies:
- vocational advisory committees (CPC - commissions professionnelles consultatives), mainly collaborating with the education ministry, but also those of employment, social affairs, agriculture, youth and sport, and culture;
- national bodies responsible for assessing training courses on behalf of the Ministry of Higher Education.
Vocational advisory committees (CPC)
CPCs are a place of consultation between VET stakeholders for State-issued VET qualifications. Members include representatives of employers (large companies, business federations), trade union organisations in the sectors concerned, teachers, the government and other qualified professionals). CPSs are divided into major spheres of economic activity and decide on needs for qualifications based on skill needs in the labour market. One CPC per ministry is mandatory for all ministries delivering VET qualifications. By 2018, 14 committees were set up by the education ministry representing the main sectors (over 560 members); seven by the labour ministry; one in each of the ministries of social affairs, agriculture, youth and sport and culture. CPCs operating under the ministry of labour cover the following fields:
- construction and public works;
- wholesale and retail trade;
- management and data processing;
- the tourism, leisure, hotel and restaurant sectors;
- transport and logistics;
- ‘other services to businesses, local authorities and individuals’;
The education ministry publishes its own certification processes in two guides: the Guidelines for the development of professional qualifications; and the Guidelines for members of the vocational advisory committees. To design a new or update a VET qualification the following steps are necessary:
- a study ( ) analyses economic data and sectoral trends to define (future) needs in jobs and skills;
- a directory listing professional activities relevant to the qualification is drawn up; certification processes are detailed in a certification directory (expected skills outcomes, associated knowledge, assessment and approval procedures);
- the file is submitted for consultation by two advisory bodies, the higher council for education (CSE) ( ) and the advisory inter-professional committee (CIC) ( ); the latter focuses on upper secondary technological and vocational qualifications and on future trends in education. CIC work affects the work of all vocational advisory committees (CPCs). CPCs are represented on the CIC board.
Certification processes under the Ministry of Higher education
Except for the BTS (advanced technician certificate) and the DUT (undergraduate certificate of technology), EQF level 5 qualifications, there is no standardised description of the content and duration of courses or the procedures for assessing students.
The higher education qualification system is exclusively regulated by an assessment process (which forms a quality assurance process), conceived as an evaluation of the quality of training content: the quality of training programmes in terms of aims and objectives, the level of education, the quality of the education teams, the job prospects of students. The main assessment bodies are:
- the high council for the evaluation of research and higher education for training programmes provided by universities and certain schools;
- the engineering qualification committee (CTI) for engineering courses and qualifications;
- the management training and qualification assessment committee for business and management schools (Grandes ecoles).
Assessment is based on a set of criteria, notably the link with research, relevance to the training offer of the HE institution, and subsequent professional opportunities.
The decision establishing a (new) qualification is published in the official Journal of HE and Research. For engineering qualifications a ‘decision’ is taken by the CTI for private engineering schools, and a notice is given for State engineering schools.
Certification processes in CVET
Professional sectors may create their own qualifications through two main bodies: the joint employment and vocational training committees and the observatories of trades and qualifications.
The joint employment and vocational training committees (CPNEF) () was created by employers and trade unions in 1069 and its scope widened to vocational training. Based on research on quantitative and qualitative data on trends in employment ( ) they identify priority areas in sectors. Certain branches have delegated to CPNEF the responsibility for creating sector-specific CQPs/ certificates of professional qualifications. For a CQP to be registered to the national register of qualifications (RNCP) the request should be initiated by CPNEF and not the branches themselves.
Since 2004 () each industrial sector (one or several branches) must create its own observatory of trades and qualifications (OPMQ,Observatoires Prospectifs des Métiers et des Qualifications). OPMQs help businesses define their training policies and employees develop their skills ( ). Their work focuses on:
- studies on topics associated with the management of jobs and skills in the sector (diversity and gender equality, training, ageing management, skills replacement, etc.);
- statistical databases on sectoral economics, jobs and workforce, basic or lifelong training;
- job maps or directories (job descriptions, job lists).
There is no fixed or mandatory methodology for establishing sectoral qualifications. A 2012 methodological guide produced by CPNFP for the development of certificates of professional qualifications/CQPs suggests:
- conducting a study on the need for a new qualification;
- listing the set of competences and skills (and if possible, relevant training content) a learner should possess to be awarded a vocational certificate for a given sector;
- developing assessment tools and processes;
- defining the process for implementing relevant training (including apprenticeships)
The results from OPMQ studies are used by both the vocational advisory committees (CPC), which are advisory bodies on VET established by the Ministries, and the joint employment and vocational training committees (CPNEF) (see above) to identify training needs and sectoral skills requirements. France Compétences, as the new VET governance State body, should support and promote the work on the observatories.
The national register of vocational qualifications (RNCP) is a centralised repository of all IVET and CVET vocational qualifications issued by public and private institutions and professional bodies. In the new governance setting (CVET 2018 reform), France Compétences shall monitor certification processes for RNCP qualifications:
- IVET qualifications awarded by the State (ministries, assisted by vocational advisory committees, CPCs);
- sector-specific certificates of professional qualifications (certificats de qualification professionnelle, CQP) developed by the social partners; these are not automatically registered to the RNCP; the professional body concerned makes a request (application form), subject to CNCP approval; this is the only body that may request the inclusion in the RNCP register;
- other vocational qualifications, described as ‘qualifications voluntarily registered with the RNCP’, produced by training organisations, professional bodies and ministers without CPC backing. The registration of qualifications in the RNCP is subject to approval by the national committee on vocational qualifications (CNCP).
Qualifications in the RNCP register are nationally recognised and are classified by field of activity and level of qualification. Private training organisations have no obligation to register their professional qualifications in the RNCP ().
Modularisation of RNCP qualifications From 1 January 2019, it became mandatory that all RNCP vocational qualifications are structured into skills sets (blocs de compétences).
A skills set is a minimum, homogeneous and coherent set of competences contributing to the autonomous exercise of a professional activity that can be credited.
The measure aims to facilitate equivalences and bridges between qualifications. These blocks can be assessed through validation of prior learning (). An online database for referencing qualifications in skill blocks is in place ( ).
The 2018 reform () has put emphasis on transparency and efficiency through new obligations for all training providers using mutual funds to inform and monitor their training actions. France Compétences is the new governance and monitoring body on VET implementation and financing ( ) responsible for the quality of vocational training and apprenticeship. It will evaluate the actions carried out by skills operators ( ), the evolution of costs, and can alert the State to possible malfunctions.
France Compétences shall monitor implementation of quality arrangements. All training organisations, including apprenticeship training centres, will have to be quality certified by 2021, as long as the training they offer is financed by public funds and mutual funds.
Training providers shall be ‘quality’ certified: the process and body that will run it is to be defined (an ad hoc national reference framework is under development in 2019). The use of specific indicators to assess the quality of the training offer and associated audit procedures are also considered.
The methodology used for certification processes is a quality assurance mechanism in itself ().The need for the training organisation to be accredited or recognised by the awarding authority is conceived as an important element of quality ( ).
Since the social modernisation act of 17th January 2002, validation of non-formal and informal learning (Validation des acquis de l’expérience) (VAE) has offered a third route to qualifications and vocational certificates, alongside initial education and training and lifelong learning.
In order to obtain accreditation, the applicant (self-employed, employees or volunteers) must submit a dossier and potentially undergo an interview with the jury for the relevant qualification, which then decides whether to award the chosen qualification fully or partially. The interview is used to complete and clarify the information contained in the application dossier. It allows the jury to check the authenticity of the file, to check the level of proficiency of all the skills required to obtain the (partial) qualification and to discuss the experience and practice acquired in respect of the activities or functions that the applicant has exercised or held.
Through VAE, anybody can obtain a full qualification or certificate based on his or her professional experience ().
All vocational qualifications registered in the national register of vocational qualifications (RNCP) can also be accessed via validation of non-formal and informal learning. This includes all formal qualifications issued by the State and those recognised by the social partners.
Since 2016, three IVET qualifications are accessible in adult education for certification through VAE (), and can possibly be partly validated in skills set (blocs de compétences). Offering more IVET qualifications in a modular form depends on (high) demand for such qualifications in adult education. An online database for referencing qualifications in skill blocks is in place ( ).
For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ().
The personal training account
The personal training account scheme is a personal right to training (CPF, compte personnel de formation) that can be used by any employee, throughout working life, to follow qualifying training. From 2019, the account is funded in Euro at the end of each year and by additional financing, also fixed in Euro. The amount of acquired rights is fixed by decree. Part-time employees have the same rights as full-time employees. The amount of the fees should be EUR 500 per year to a maximum of EUR 5000 over a period of 10 years. Entitlements will always be increased for employees with low qualifications (below NQF level V / EQF level 3) (EUR 800 per year to a maximum of EUR 8 000).
The 2018 Bill sets up a new mechanism, the personal training account scheme (CPF) for career transition. An employee may use his CPF account to enrol in training actions intended to bring about change, including by benefiting from specific leave if the training is carried out, in whole or in part, over working time. The remuneration of the beneficiary of the career transition project is then paid by the employer (for firms employing 50 persons or more), who is reimbursed by one regional joint body (joint body regional committee called transition pro), or paid directly by the regional joint body if employed in a firm of fewer than 50 persons ().
Training aids for jobseekers
There are many training aids for jobseekers. For example, Pôle emploi regularly buys training places in different training organisations. It selects and finances training programmes that support skills development at local level, in targeted sectors of the economy where there is insufficient demand for employment (jobs in tension) ().
Individual training aid
The individual training aid (AIF, aide individuelle à la formation) provided by Pôle emploi indirectly helps to finance vocational training. The training must have a direct professional aim (award a VET qualification, such as BTS, EQF level 3 or master degree) and be of between one and three years maximum duration. Depending on the cost of the training, Pôle emploi reimburses the costs directly to the training organisation where it takes place ().
The government provides public subsidies for companies, primarily small and very small, and for professional organisations, to promote training, employment and skills.
The purpose of these subsidies varies. National credits can be granted for:
- encouraging and helping SMEs to anticipate their human resources management needs;
- public employment service support to jobseekers in accompanying economic change and securing career paths;
- training and adaptation agreements of the National Employment Fund (FNE-Formation). Vocational training measures are implemented to support workforce employability in a changing work environment;
- support for employees to adapt to new jobs due to technological innovation, technical developments or changes in the production sector ( ).
Financial incentives to engage in apprenticeship Regional or government subsidies encourage apprenticeship contract take-up, which is a major priority of public youth employment policy.
Since 2018 a one-off subsidy is available for small businesses (fewer than 250 employees) that recruit an apprentice, if this prepares for certification up to Baccalaureate level (EQF 4 or less).
Another complementary financial incentive takes the form of an internship bonus; this is a subsidy granted to companies employing 250 people or more, if they go beyond the minimum threshold for employees on work study contracts.
In addition to these subsidies, apprenticeship contracts are fully or partially exempt from social security charges, the costs of training apprentice supervisors are supported by the skills operators (Opérateurs de competences, Opco), and specific subsidies are granted for the recruitment of apprentices with disabilities.
Training aid for job creation In some cases, an employer who hires a jobseeker who needs training to carry out the requested tasks may benefit from training aid financed by Pôle emploi. Operational employment preparation (POE, préparation opérationnelle à l’emploi) is financial assistance allowing jobseekers to be trained in order to be able to respond to a job offer. This assistance may be granted to the employer who undertakes to recruit the jobseeker after the training period ().
Targeted support to SMEs Following the 2018 reform (the 2018 Bill), the former OPCA became skills operators (OPCO) (), managed by social partners. Their new responsibilities include supporting companies and professional sectors to anticipate and create forward-looking management of jobs and skills.
OPCO will provide technical support to professional branches and a local service to small and medium-sized businesses in skills anticipation and apprenticeship provision (joint creation of vocational diplomas, definition of the cost of the contract for diplomas and professional titles, payment for apprenticeship training centres).
Skills operators will manage two envelopes, the financing of alternance training programmes (apprenticeship contracts and professionalisation contracts) and the financing of the training plan for companies () with fewer than 50 employees.
Lifelong career guidance was established by law in 2009 (); local career information and advice services are based on regionally approved partnership agreements backed by the Regional Council. The right to career guidance depends on different organisations and instruments, depending on age and individual status.). A public career information and guidance service (SPO, service public de l’orientation) is in place including online and telephone services (
Career guidance in IVET
Throughout secondary education, an individualised vocational guidance service is offered to every learner to discover the world of work, professions and training pathways leading to (sectoral) skills and qualifications.
Parcours avenir (), a support programme set up for pupils and their families, informs and guides education choices to ensure a smoother transition from lower secondary general education to upper secondary paths.
In grade 9 (last year of lower secondary), a preparatory vocational guidance subject has been added to raise awareness of the upper secondary vocational pathway and apprenticeship opportunities offered ().
The 2018 law for the freedom to choose one’s professional future supported integration into employment and the value of diplomas from all apprenticeship training centres (CFAs) and vocational high schools. It assigned regions a strengthened role in their territories; they coordinate the ‘discovery of sectors and professions’ guidance scheme.
Dedicated bodies such as the National Office for Information on Curricula and Professions - ONISEP () and the Youth information and documentation centre – CIDJ ( ) provide their services to young people. The 2018 law allows collaboration between ONISEP and the Regions to develop and distribute career guidance material to the young.
Career guidance for adults, employees or jobseekers
The public lifelong career guidance service guarantees universal access to free, full and objective information on careers, training, qualifications, outlets and pay scales and access to high-quality, network-based career advice and support services. Various systems support this, both within and outside companies:
- compulsory professional development interviews run every two years in companies, including ( ) information on validation of non-formal and informal learning (VAE);
- the personal training account scheme, CPF ( );
- the professional development counselling service, CEP ( );
- career development interviews, career assessment reports, appraisals, etc., are used to evaluate career prospects.
These career guidance services are provided by career information and guidance bodies such as local support services, career advice institutions, employment and training centres, the Pôle emploi, and the joint collecting bodies.
The professional development counselling service, CEP (), in place since 2013, supports career development and security for all individuals engaged into working life. It provides information on the work environment and the evolution of jobs in the territory, on the necessary skills to acquire and develop, and on available training schemes. A set of specifications adopted by the Minister of Labour will specify the evolution of the CEP, which will always be free of charge.
Counselling is provided by the four national operators for specific audiences (disabled, managers, young people and jobseekers). In January 2020, employees will be advised by new operators, selected at regional level, on the basis of the national specifications. The selection of these new operators will be orchestrated by France Compétences.
Public and private career guidance and counselling actors at national level
Public bodies produce quantitative and qualitative studies on employment and training: France Stratégie (), the Centre for studies and research on certifications (Céreq) ( ), the Centre for employment and labour research (Ceet) ( ), the national institute for statistics and economic research (INSEE) and the research and statistics management department (Darès) ( ). Results support public debate; they are used by public authorities and VET stakeholders developing and implementing VET policies at national and regional level, and by ministries and social and economic actors determining (new) labour market needs, IVET (including technological) policies and CVET training needs and policies ( ).
Centre Inffo in partnership with the main career information and guidance providers (‘career guidance for all’ platform. The online service provides real-time data on careers and jobs, training courses, events, videos and personal stories. It offers more than 2 000 job descriptions, 200 000 basic education and lifelong learning courses, directory of approved training providers, practical information on schemes, entitlements and procedures.) runs the national online
Information on training sources
Such information is subject to new requirements for clarity and visibility. Since May 2012, the Government has published and updated the list of registered and approved training structures on the website https://www.data.gouv.fr
The ‘ offre-info’ portal is a national reference for training centres and training programmes run by the Carif-Oref (Centre Animation Ressources d'Information sur la Formation / Observatoire Régional Emploi Formation).
Public and private career guidance and counselling actors at regional/local levels
Carif – Training management, resource and information centres operate in all regions collecting, producing and disseminating information on training options, entitlements and access to training. They assist local information providers in their role. The information sources they provide guide the general public, training providers and operators in career and training opportunities and processes in place.
Oref – Regional employment and training observatories provide regionally based systems for analysis and research on the relationship between employment, training and qualification requirements. Using data provided by their national and regional partners, they conduct research and provide expertise in order to anticipate economic changes and adjust skills to projected employment needs. They deal with training needs, job trends, the link between employment and training, sectoral approaches, professional mobility, and economic development.
Please see also:
- guidance and outreach France national report ( )
- Cedefop’s labour market intelligence toolkit ( ).