Description

Timespan

2001 - present

Stage
Fully operational

Completed and changed in 2013 by the Employment and skills network (REC)

Foundations

Policy area

The aim is to anticipate the skills needs in the different occupations to design the initial vocational education programmes and vocational training programmes.

Policy goal

The aim is to anticipate the skills needs in the different occupations to design the initial vocational education programmes and vocational training programmes. All the results about future jobs and skills needs are published and disseminated to those responsible for education and training programmes within the whole country.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

REC is a comprehensive programme about quantitative and qualitative trends in skills evolution, in which skill mismatches are emphasised.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

France Stratégie (a directorate under the Prime minister) and Ministry for Labour (DARES - Direction de l'Animation de la recheche, des Etudes et des Statistiques)

Stakeholders

Ministries concerned (Ministries for Education, for Employment, for Health and social affairs, for Agriculture, for Youth). All these ministries have Vocational Commissions to determine the diplomas and certifications.
Regional councils have competence for vocational training concerning the jobseekers and have created "regional skills monitoring centres" (CARIF-OREF).
Social partners in the different sectors are in charge of Mutual Funds for training and adult education, and they have created sectoral skills monitoring centres.
Experts.

Funding

Ministry budgets, regional budgets for the regional skills monitoring centres, and a compulsory tax paid by companies for the sectoral skills monitoring centres.

Intended beneficiaries

PMQ and REC are intended to have a general interest and are used by all the stakeholders of the education and training institutions and providers (ministries, regional councils, PES, sectoral and intersectoral mutual funds for employees and jobseekers training). The jobseekers are oriented through their PES counsellors, who used the REC results.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The REC network gathers all the data and analysis from the Regional Skills monitoring centres and from the sectoral skills monitoring centres. They have all the data from the National Statistic institute and when necessary carry out specific studies.

Financial schemes

The head of the network "PMQ" and "REC" is financed by the government budget. The skills monitoring centres at the regional level are financed by the Regional councils. The skills monitoring centres at the sectoral level are financed through the mutualised funds in the different sectors, collected by the mutual funds named OPCA.

Frequency of updates

Every 3 years.

Development

PMQ and REC are regularly improved by the different stakeholders and the data are updated.

Barriers

The main difficulties were to gather data from different sources and to adopt common methodologies.

Success factors

The network REC and previously PMQ set up a shared prospective vision of the French economy needs in term of employment and skills. As a result of a very collaborative work process, all the different stakeholders make the most of the results.

Monitoring

For the REC : 200 institutions are involved, 5 workshops and 5 regular reports.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

The methodology and the nomenclature are the innovative elements and will be maintained in the future.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

The PMQ instrument is used by the different partners and implemented at the regional and sectoral level (13 regions and around 30 sectors). The beneficiaries are composed of the active population, and mainly the jobseekers. For the latter, the instrument is mobilised for an extra training programme for jobseekers (the 2016 "500 000 extras jobseekers trained"). The results of this extra programme for jobseekers is under evaluation (results will be available in 2018).

Engagement of stakeholders

The Institution France Stratégie acts as the head of the network: 200 institutions involved in producing the analysis, providing the data and writing the different reports.

Transferability
Easily transferable

A good example of partnership between all the stakeholders in order to anticipate skills needs. To have regional skills monitoring centres and sectoral skills monitoring centres working together and coordinated by a national body represents a good practice.

Sustainability

Yes, because PMQ was completed and coordinated with the regional skills monitoring centres, and the sectoral skills monitoring centres now have a long experience and is used by all the stakeholders.

Description

Timespan

2015 - 2016

Stage
Other

A new jobseekers training programme will be set up in 2018 for the period 2018-2022.

Foundations

Policy area

The aim is to increase the number of jobseekers trained in collaboration with companies and sectors' skills needs.

Policy goal

The aim is to increase the number of jobseekers trained in line with companies and sectors' skills needs. Training for jobseekers is chosen after local diagnosis of companies and sectors needs.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The aim is to increase the number of jobseekers trained in line with companies and sectors skills needs.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

The PES: Pôle emploi
The agency for adult training (AFPA) - the regional councils that finance training for jobseekers.

Stakeholders

Ministry of Labour at the regional level
PES - is in charge of the programme.
AFPA - the public training institute, who is in charge of organising some of the training sessions according to regional calls of tender.
Regional councils - is in charge of financing the training for jobseekers (within a partnership with the PES Pôle emploi).
Regional skills monitoring centres - the results of the regional skills monitoring centres are used to determine what training sessions have to be done.

Funding

State funding through the Ministry of Labour, the regional Councils, the mutual sectoral funds for training (OPCA), the national FPSPP (a national fund for lifelong learning), the unemployment insurance fund (UNEDIC), and the PES (Pôle emploi).

Intended beneficiaries

The beneficiaries are the jobseekers, mainly the low-skilled jobseekers and long term unemployed. They upgrade their skills and their opportunity to get jobs.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The results of REC (Réseau Emploi Compétences) and the regional skills monitoring centres are used to choose the training courses. Local and shared diagnosis are sometimes made at the local (infra-regional) level.

Financial schemes

Funding for training is provided.

Frequency of updates

Through local diagnosis made by the PES and the local stakeholders.

Development

The programme is successful. It is now under evaluation. But the same programme will be reconducted for the period 2018-2022.

Barriers

The main difficulties are coordinating the different stakeholders.

Success factors

The change of the PES practices that was not training-oriented.

Monitoring

All types of indicators are monitored: types of jobseekers (e.g. long term unemployed), types of training sessions followed, duration of the training session, sectors, impact on job return. They were monitored in 2016 for the year 2015, in 2017 for the year 2016.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The innovation is to give individual initiatives through a universal scheme available for employees, jobseekers, self-employed, whatever their status. Another innovative feature is to develop a training session chosen through an agreement between an employee and his manager or company responsible.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

860,000 jobseekers are beneficiaries of a training in 2016 for an average duration of 4.7 months, compared to 680,000 in 2015. 59% secure a job after 6 months (long term contracts or short term contracts above 6 months, and 40% of the training courses lead to a certification). The total number of jobseekers trained and the share of long term unemployed and non-qualified jobseekers is increasing respectively by 98% and 64%. There are no unexpected benefits or costs.

Engagement of stakeholders

The programme will go on with a reinforced partnership between the PES and the Regional councils. Agreements at the regional level between the PES and the Regional Council allowed a shared strategy to buy training sessions through monthly meetings, and a follow-up realised by the Regional Council for Employment, Training and Orientation (CREFOP).

Transferability
Easily transferable

There is only a question of financing.

Sustainability

Yes. It will be continued through the new Government initiative "Great Investment in skills" 2018-2022 that aims to provide training for a million jobseekers.

Description

Timespan

2014 - present

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The Compte Personnel de Formation is an individual right for every member of the active population.

Policy goal

The goal is to concretely apply the right to lifelong learning by enhancing access to training, independent of the employment record or situation. This instrument enables the accumulation of credits for the right to training for every individual since his/her entrance into the labour market. The account is entirely transferable from one occupation to another, and preserved when changing or losing one’s job.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

Training courses financed through Personal Training Account have to lead to certifications chosen by sectoral social partners or to national diplomas. In each sector, the choice of available certifications was made by the social partners in line with skills needs in companies.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Ministry of Labour

Stakeholders

PES Pôle emploi: the counsellors are in charge of activating the jobseekers CPF
Sectoral mutual funds for training named OPCA: they have to add some financing to the individual CPF
Regional councils

Funding

The training sessions paid through the Personal Training Account are financed by a compulsory tax paid by each company (0.2% of the total wages for companies above 10 employees). This could be completed by the PES funds, the Regional councils and the mutual training funds (OPCA).

Intended beneficiaries

Lifelong learning for adults (the CPF is a universal right). Each member of the active population could benefit.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The results from PMQ and now REC, Sectoral skills monitoring centres and Regional skills monitoring centres are used to determine what certifications (diplomas, vocational titles…) could be obtained by a CPF training session.

Financial schemes

The CPF for employees and jobseekers are financed through a mutualized tax paid by each company. Every person could obtain 24 training hours each year under a limit of 150 hours. For financing longer training sessions, other stakeholders could be mobilized.

Frequency of updates

Every 3 years.

Development

It will be improved in 2018. A new agreement between social partners started at the end of November 2017 and a new law about adult education will be passed in March 2018. The French government wants to obtain a more simple and transparent scheme, with less multiple financing.

Barriers

Personal training account is a new instrument, depending on the initiative of each employee or jobseeker helped by a free guidance service (Conseil en évolution professionnelle). The implementation is slow, and the main barrier is the lack of information.

Success factors

The PES counsellor and other professional counsellors are highly involved in the implementation.

Monitoring

The indicators monitored: the share of jobseekers/employees; the qualification levels, the training sessions and certifications chosen by the beneficiaries, the impact on employment for jobseekers, the impact on mobility for employees, the differences between regions.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The innovation is to give individual initiatives through a universal scheme available for employees, jobseekers, self-employed, whatever their status. Another innovative feature is to develop a training session chosen through an agreement between an employee and his manager or company responsible.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

A national Report (CNEFOP) was published in July 2017 for the years 2015 and 2016: 1,000,000 training sessions were accepted (650,000 for the jobseekers and 360,000 for the employees being in employment).

Engagement of stakeholders

This will depending on the new training system reform that will take place in 2018. The Ministry for Work and Employment is fully involved in following the CPF development. Every year a national report is produced through the National Council for Employment, Training and Orientation (CNEFOP) that encompasses all the stakeholders: Government, Social Partners, Regional Councils and the main public providers among them, Pôle emploi.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

The principle of individual initiatives and a strong follow-up could be transferred to another country, but the implementation would be very different depending on the past scheme in each country.

Sustainability

Yes, because the different stakeholders share the opinion that participation in ALMPs have to be based on personal initiative within a collective framework.