Description of the initiative
This is a national measure linked to the individual right to training (new law from 2018 Liberté de choisir son avenir professionnel). The objective of this measure is to concretely apply the right to lifelong learning by enhancing access to training, independent of employment record or situation. This instrument enables the accumulation of credits for the right to training for every individual since their entrance into the labour market. The account is entirely transferable from one occupation to another, and preserved when changing or losing one’s job. It is financed through yearly contributions to the account (500€ per year worked., up to a ceiling of 5000€, and 8000€ for low-skilled). Employers contribute to the account under certain conditions.
Focus area
It is not directly linked to the skills anticipation system. However, an individuum and a relevant actor can use the information provided by the skills anticipation system to make an informed choice to continuing training activities. In this respect the two measures are linked.
Implementation level
At what level is the initiative implemented?
Starting period
TIMESPAN: In what year did the initiative commence?
PERSPECTIVE: is the initiative based on evidence derived from skill forecasts or foresight activities?
CPF has been initiated, building on a long experience in the area of continuing training policies. All available information has been used in order to set up this new instrument.
Policy area
To which POLICY AREAS(s) does the initiative apply?
How it is funded?
Funded by national government
Companies have to contribute a certain percentage of the wage sum to continuing training and vocational training.

Skill mismatch

Skill mismatch target
What type(s) of skills MISMATCH does the initiative aim to addresses?
Underqualification (individuals' qualifications/credentials are below their job's needs)
Skill shortages (employers cannot fill their vacancies due to a lack of skills in the labour market)
Skill gaps (worker's skills are below the level of proficiency required by their employers and jobs)
any type of eligible continuing training
Skills matching focus
How does  the initiative address skills mismatches?
Note that the CPF is targeting at the active population, including employees, self-employed, helping family members, unemployed. It is based on an individual right to lifelong learning. It can be used to reduce skills mismatch, but it is used to improve the career progression chances of an individuum.
The more active people use their CPF, on the basis of guidance received an a career counsellor and through expressed needs by employers, the usage of CPF is likely to reduce skills mismatch and close skills gaps.
Through making use of the individual training account, the individuum, the employed can engage in upskilling
Through making use of the individual training account, the individuum, the unemployed can be upskilled
The CPF can be used to smooth the career transition
The CPF can be used to address skills shortages, if individuals select upskilling or reskilling for these occupations or if they are advised to do so.
Skills delivered
What types of skill  does the initiative deliver?
Basic literacy and numeracy skills
Basic digital skills
More advanced digital skills
General employability skills (team working, communication, etc.)
Green skills


What methods of undertaking skills assessments and / or skills anticipation does the policy instrument utilise?
This measure is used by an individual. The person should have access to get individual guidance. This may include an assessment of skills and competences of the individuum.
Use of skills intelligence
How is labour market information / skills intelligence used within the initiative?
Voluntary and free access to vocational guidance is an important element for using the CPF (conseiller en Conseil en évolution professionnelle
The use of the CPF has the main objective to provide training for the acquisition of a qualification (diploma, professional title, etc); acquisition of basic knowledge and competences; support for the validation of acquired experience; skills assessment; business start-up; acquisition of skills for volunteering


Main responsible body
Main body or organisation with overall responsibility for the initiative.
National ministry
Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi et de l’Insertion (ministry of work, employment and integration)
Other involved organisations
Which other organisations have a role in the initiative?
National PES
Local PES counsellors can be implied in the implementation, as CPF is also used by unemployed, Information is provided on the web page of PES.
Training Providers
Training providers indirectly benefit from CPF, if the individual uses CPF and takes training at a certified provider.
Employers are involved through their annual individual review of employees training needs. The employer may have an influence on convincing an employee to take up CPF and to use it for training that would be relevant for the company. The individual wanting to make use of the CPF has free access to an individual vocational and career counsellor (conseil en évolution professionnelle (CEP).
Who are the intended beneficiaries?
Young people with low levels of basic skills /early leavers from education or training
Adults with low basic skills
Adults in employment with upskilling potential
Adults in employment with reskilling potential
Employed adults at risk of job displacement
People with disabilities
The active population, including employees, self-employed, helping family members, unemployed


Success factors
SUCCESS FACTORS in the implementation
The PES counsellor and other professional counsellors are highly involved in the implementation. Another success factor is the portability from one employer to the other. Every two years the employer needs to conduct career interview with its employees. Training session chosen through an agreement between an employee and his manager or company responsible is another important feature.
BARRIERS in the implementation
Personal training account is a relatively new instrument, depending on the initiative of each employee or jobseeker. The implementation is slow, and the main barrier is the lack of information. Take-up is higher among unemployed. As it follows the logics of an individual training account their might be a danger that in particular low-educated employees do not sufficiently take own initiative to engage in lifelong learning.
Monitoring and evaluation
MONITORING and EVALUATION: Is progress measured regularly? What are the indicators used to measure progress of the policy instrument? Have any evaluations been conducted?
DARES has published the use of the PES between 2015 and 2018 (published on 19 February 2020). In 2018 383,000 employees have used it for training (a strong increase, compared to 2017. (1.7% of employees in the private sector) Half of users were aged 25-44 years. About 149,000 unemployed used it in 2018.
UPDATES: whether there have been any major updates of the initiative since it has been implemented?
Changes introduced, in force since 2019, have changed an account in training hoiúrs into an account in euro.
EVIDENCE ON EFFECTIVENESS: How effective is the policy instrument?
In 2018 383,000 employees have used it for training (a strong increase, compared to 2017. (1.7% of employees in the private sector) Half of users were aged 25-44 years. About 149,000 unemployed used it in 2018.
SUSTAINABILITY: How sustainable is the policy instrument? Do you expect the instrument to continue over the next few years and why?
It is sustainable, since there is a shared commitment for lifelong learning. There is also a commitment on fostering individual responsibility.

Other instruments in France