Focus area
The main goal of this initiative is the widespread implementation of the dual education system in all suitable teaching and study fields, deepening the employer - high school - student relationship within the dual education system, creating a unified information environment for the dual education system and electronic implementation processes, increasing attractiveness and quality of VET, as well as training of instructors, tutors and teachers to perform these tasks.
Implementation level
At what level is the initiative implemented?
Starting period
TIMESPAN: In what year did the initiative commence?
01/2016 – 09/2021, the funding has been extended due to the COVID-19 situation.
PERSPECTIVE: is the initiative based on evidence derived from skill forecasts or foresight activities?
One of the main activities is data analysis and verification of the actual labour market needs and the usage of such data for establishing attractive teaching and study fields. The aim is to achieve the closest possible connection of VET with the needs of the labour market and the requirements of employers by updating the map of material and territorial scope of employers, developing solutions and ways to transfer labour market requirements to the dual education system as a basis for restructuring the system of teaching and study fields.
Policy area
To which POLICY AREAS(s) does the initiative apply?
How it is funded?
Funded by the EU

Skill mismatch

Skill mismatch target
What type(s) of skills MISMATCH does the initiative aim to addresses?
Skill shortages (employers cannot fill their vacancies due to a lack of skills in the labour market)
Skills matching focus
How does  the initiative address skills mismatches?
The data gathered and analysed supports the elaboration of VET offers tailor-made to the skills needed for young graduates at today's labour market.
The initiative foresees the (re-)training of instructors, tutors and teachers to be able to better provide career counseling or of graduates.
The VET offers contribute to decrease skills shortages of graduates in key sectors of the labour market identified.
Skills delivered
What types of skill  does the initiative deliver?
The initiative on dual education and increasing the attractiveness and quality of VET aims to deliver the relevant skills needed for having (better) employment opportunities of graduates, which can involve basic skills, job search and career management skills; on the other hand, it foresees the (re-)training of tutors, instructors and teachers which can involve the transfer of knowledge on more advanced skills, e.g teaching practices or practical skills on vocational education.
Basic literacy and numeracy skills
Basic digital skills
More advanced digital skills
General employability skills (team working, communication, etc.)
Career management skills


What methods of undertaking skills assessments and / or skills anticipation does the policy instrument utilise?
Employer surveys
Annual feedback from employers on implementation of the dual education initiative which reflects the needs and requirements of employers concerning the improvement of the system (content-wise, graduate motivate, legislative amendments, new ways of cooperation).
Expert panels
National expert group and 8 regional expert groups (statistical, analytical, labour market experts) providing advices to the Ministry on the implementation and evaluation of dual education system.
Use of skills intelligence
How is labour market information / skills intelligence used within the initiative?
State education programmes were renewed, new sample curricula were prepared in order to include skills and knowledge required for the successful uptake of dual education.
The initiative focuses on strengthening the career guidance to create greater awareness and support for students' career development choices. Conceptual, methodological and coordination guidance of the career counsellors is part of the initative.
By providing conceptual, methodological and coordination guidance to career counsellors, graduates will be able to get a more tailor-made advice and information on employment choices, resulting in more informed decisions of graduates on career paths.
Information from employer surveys and expert panels are used to verify labour market needs and transform them to training offers aligned with actual requirements of occupations. Data collection and analysis ultimately serves to create a unified information environment for the dual education system and electronic implementation processes, contributing to an updated map of material and territorial scope of employers.


Main responsible body
Main body or organisation with overall responsibility for the initiative.
National agency
State Vocational Education Institute (ŠIOV)
Other involved organisations
Which other organisations have a role in the initiative?
National ministry
Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport together with Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family are involved in evaluation and monitoring tasks. They are also important partners by promotion of the concrete activities.
Regional agency
Dual points - i.e. information and support regional offices for implementation of dual education. Talent centres - currently there is one pilot talent center operating in Nitra region, its aim is to provide information on secondary schools, occupations, the current situation on the labour market and the dual education system.
Social partner: employer organisation
The largest employer organisations and confederations in Slovakia are involved in the management of the initiative.
Social partner: trade union
Trade unions are involved in the management of the initiative.
Training Providers
Training providers are approached in order to formulate contracts for official establishment of certified training centres.
Who are the intended beneficiaries?
Young people making the transition from education into work
The initiative offers practical education in training centres which enables a shorter and more efficient transition of graduates to the labour market by decreasing the adaptation phase needed to enter the labour market (through preparation for a profession in real conditions at an actual employer).
People with disabilities
The initiative addesses pupils with special needs. Pupils with special educational needs undergo preparatory training and rehabilitation trainings and their teaching takes place with the application of an individual approach.


Success factors
SUCCESS FACTORS in the implementation
The elaboration of vocational concept which takes into account the interests of and benefits for all involved stakeholders; the engagement of social partners, especially companies, including local small businesses to participate in VET, the development of appropriate mechanisms of quality assurance; lean administration and transparent processes to minimise bureaucratic procedures.
BARRIERS in the implementation
The present pandemic situation and the related complications, as well as the increasing costs had an effect on meeting the project objectives in terms of sustainability. The implementation problems also lie in the decentralised education system since primary schools are run by municipalities, secondary schools are administered by the self-governing regions and universities have their own management - the initiative has to take into account this system and find sustainable solutions for each education level.
Monitoring and evaluation
MONITORING and EVALUATION: Is progress measured regularly? What are the indicators used to measure progress of the policy instrument? Have any evaluations been conducted?
The project is regularly monitored and evaluated by ŠIOV. The list of outputs is presented at the project webpage, as well as promoted publicly. The concrete indicators include among others the number of dual educated students, number of certified schools and cooperating institutions, employment rate of the dual educated graduates, salaries of dual educated graduates.
UPDATES: whether there have been any major updates of the initiative since it has been implemented?
Based on the preliminary project results there is however a need for amending the Act on Dual Education in order to increase the motivation of employers and schools to join, and to introduce other benefits for employers, as well as to remove the current obstacles perceived by employers and schools.
EVIDENCE ON EFFECTIVENESS: How effective is the policy instrument?
The estimated level of impact of the instrument is so far moderate. The dual education does not provide the desired results - there is a continous lack of qualified workforce. On the other hand almost 8,500 students are dual-educated in about 200 schools. There is 2,430 certified centres cooperationg with schools on dual education. Thus the transition of dual graduates from school to the labour market is significantly smoother - the employment rate of dual educated graduates was 91% in comparison with 68% employment rate of freshly graduates without dual experience. Greater readiness for the labour market is also reflected in the comparison of average gross monthly wages -after almost two years on the labour market, dual education graduates earn an average of € 1,062, which is up to 17% more than non-dual graduates, whose average salary is € 906.
SUSTAINABILITY: How sustainable is the policy instrument? Do you expect the instrument to continue over the next few years and why?
The original initiative was extended in duration and it is still ongoing. The support of the quality system of dual education remains a government priority embedded in the strategic objectives of two ministries (Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labour) and therefore the initiative will continue with high probability in the current programming period.

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