All IVET-programmes are carried out as apprenticeship training (lærlingeuddannelser) in upper secondary education. After a foundation period of 40 weeks at a VET-school, they decide on the specific programme and sign an apprenticeship contract with an enterprise. Students who are not able to conclude an apprenticeship contract may be trained instead in so called “placements centres” which are attached to the vocational school. For some learners, practical training may also be undertaken partly or entirely in a production school (produktionsskolebaseret erhvervsuddannelse).
There are two variations besides mainstream apprenticeships:
- EUX: since 2011 it has been possible to take an apprenticeship programme within a number of professions, which at the same time confers both journeyman’s qualification and qualifications from upper secondary general education (EUX). This variety of mainstream apprenticeships is of a slightly longer duration due to extended school periods. Enrolment for EUX was app. 1500 in 2014.
- Ny mesterlære: apprentices who already from the beginning have a clear idea of what they want, may choose to sign an apprenticeship directly with an enterprise rather than starting with a foundation period at a VET-school. They thus start training with an enterprise immediately and in a specific programme. After a year in the enterprise, they are assessed to check if they have the required level of knowledge, skills and competences, and they continue their programme alongside mainstream apprentices.
Apprenticeship is not used at other levels in the educational system.
Basic vocational training (Erhvervsgrunduddannelse/EGU) is a scheme for young people who are not able to enter mainstream VET. It is alternance-based and lasts for 2 years. Placements are remunerated, but EGU confers no formal qualifications on the participants.