Reference year 2019

1Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?
Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

Learners enrol in IVET usually at the age of 16-17. All IVET is organised as apprenticeship, and the workplace part of training usually starts after one year (40 weeks) of foundation training.

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

The usual target group of IVET programmes is the age bracket 16-17, but many learners enrol at a later age. 
A distinction is made between mainstream and adult VET, but all programmes are organized as apprenticeships.
Source: https://uddannelsesstatistik.dk/Pages/Reports/1838.aspx 

2Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No

Programme number 353.10/level 353

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?
Yes
No

Social partners play an institutionalized role at all levels of VET, from the National advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on principal matters concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprised of representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market. 

Details about curriculum, duration, remuneration etc. are decided for each programme by the social partners in the so-called trade committees, which have a central role in apprenticeship governance and coordination (see also Q38, Q39).

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Apprenticeships were used by the ancient guilds to train craftsmen. When the guilds were abolished in the 19th century, apprenticeship remained as the way of delivering vocational qualifications.

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

In medieval times the apprenticeships were under the administration of guilds (this was dissolved in 1857). In 1937 the foundation of the system as we know it today was introduced. In 1956 the dual programme was introduced with periods of school-based and work-based education. Later, the school-based basic part of apprenticeship programmes was introduced in1970. Latest, in 2015, the combination of journeyman’s qualification and qualifications from upper secondary general education (EUX) was introduced (after being piloted in a few programs from 2010).

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

Employers with apprentices are required to pay the apprentice’s wages during the apprenticeship. 
Employers with more than five employees must contribute to the so-called Employers Reimbursement Scheme (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag - AUB) irrespective of whether they have apprentices or not. The funds are used to compensate employers with apprentices for the extra costs they have for this (e.g. wages of apprentices during school periods, when they are not available to the enterprise).

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

Since 2018, companies and institutions that do not take their share of apprentices have to pay extra to the common fund (AUB). So, an expected ratio is calculated for different industries and those workplaces who do not have enough apprentices have to pay 3600 euro per year per ‘missing’ apprentice. At the same time those who expand their number of apprentices are rewarded with 3350 per year per extra apprentice. Link

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Education, 108.606 learners were enrolled in IVET in 2019
https://uddannelsesstatistik.dk/Pages/Reports/1838.aspx 
 

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others

Journeyman

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?
Yes
No
There is no NQF

IVET qualifications are generally at level 4 of the NQF.

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

Learners with IVET qualifications as a rule have to take supplementary courses to enrol in higher education. The exception to this is the EUX variety of apprenticeships, which also confers general upper secondary qualifications that allow more direct progression to higher education.

3Programme

4Duration

Q21. If the scheme is implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, what is its duration?

A minimum duration of 2 years and 2 months is set, corresponding to the basic level of journeyman’s qualifications.
The Law on VET (Lov om Erhvervsuddannelser) stipulates that IVET programmes “as a rule cannot exceed 4 years and 6 months". Still, there are some programmes with longer duration. 
For example, programmes with maximum duration of 5 years lead to both journeyman’s qualification and qualifications from upper secondary general education (EUX).
Usually VET programmes last 4 years including the first year of basic school-based training.

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other
Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?
Yes
No

The first year of IVET programmes in Denmark is school-based training. From the second year, most learners get an apprenticeship contract with a company or a public institution and usually spend 2/3 of their time with work-based learning and 1/3 of their time with school-based learning
Only in very exceptional cases is it possible to achieve qualifications at IVET level by other means. Learners who are not able to conclude an apprenticeship contract with an enterprise may receive the practical parts of their training in so called placement centers (skolepraktikcentre), which have been set up in connection with the vocational schools. This is meant to emulate enterprise training, however, and enrolment only happens when all possibilities for a normal apprenticeship contract are exhausted. 

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?
Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

The Law on VET contains no prescriptions for the length of time spent at school and in the enterprise. This is decided individually for each programme by the social partners in the Trade Committees.  Generally, the relationship between time spent in school and enterprise is 1/3 (school) to 2/3 (enterprise).

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

The apprenticeship system is built on block release, where apprentices spend periods of up to one year in the enterprises, and have school periods of up to 3 months (apart from the initial period (grundforløbet) which is entirely school-based and may last up to 40 weeks.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

The learner concludes an apprenticeship contract with the enterprise. The vocational school approves the contract but is not a signatory part.

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?
Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

The apprentice has the status of an employee at the enterprise.

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?
At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

The learner’s vocational school approves the contract (checks that all formalities are met) and registers the contract. Then the school sends the contract to the Trade Committee (Det faglige udvalg) and to the Ministry of education 

Q30. What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

The apprentice is an employee of the enterprise but has a special status as a learner. The enterprise is obliged to provide training so that the apprentice can reach the learning objectives (praktikmål) that have been formulated by the relevant Trade Committee for the placement periods.

7Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?
Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

All apprentices receive wage. 
The apprentice is paid wages from the moment the contract comes into force.

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?
By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

Apprentices’ wages are negotiated as part of the collective agreements between the social partners. An example (plumber apprentices, 2019):
1st year DKK 66.15 per hour
2nd year DKK 76.30 per hour
3rd year DKK 96.15 per hour
4th year DKK 109.45 per hour
5th year (EUX) DKK 120,20 per hour

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

The apprentice’s wages are paid by the employer. The employer may recover costs for wages during school periods from the Employers Reimbursement Fund (AUB).

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?
Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

Learners receive wage both when they participate in school based and work-based learning. The employer may recover costs for wages during school periods from the Employers Reimbursement Fund (AUB).

8Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?
Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

Learning objectives (praktikmål) for the placement periods are defined by the Trade Committees and the employer must provide training that allows the apprentice to reach these learning objectives. 

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?
Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

There are requirements as to the ratio of apprentices and trained employees, as well as the nature of the tasks undertaken and the availability of machines and tools relevant to the trade. The rules for this are formulated by the Trade Committees. 
Enterprises wishing to take apprentices must be approved by the Trade Committee (which may delegate this task to the vocational school). 
Workplaces are not obligated to provide trained mentors, but there are short voluntary courses for trainers.

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No

They can lose the right to train apprentices. 

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?
Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

Social partners play an institutionalized role at all levels of VET. 
The National advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser) advises the Ministry of Education on principal matters concerning VET.

In relation to shaping the apprenticeship content, social partners in the Trade Committees at national and local level:
•    Provide yearly evaluation rapport with assessment of future needs for new competences and the description of new learning outcomes
•    define learning objectives and curricula;
•    define the length of a programme and its division between the school and the enterprise.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?
Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

The social partners in the Trade Committees at national and local level:
-    Provide assessors for the final exams (journeyman’s test).
-    Asses and gives accreditation to companies that allow them to hire apprentices
-    negotiate the wage level for apprentices

1Target group

Q7. What is the target group of this scheme?
Young people in initial vocational education and training (15-16 year-olds)
Young adults in education and training (above 16 year-olds)
Unemployed
Other (please specify in the description)

The main target group are young people who have completed the 9th or the 10th grade in lower secondary education (compulsory schooling finishes at the 9th grade, but most pupils take an optional 10th year before moving on). This target group will be between 16-17 years of age, but many wait till later to enrol – the average age of enrolment is nearly 21.

 

Adult learners may enter VET and do an apprenticeship. A system for the accreditation of prior learning (realkompetencevurdering) ensures that previous practical experience and educational achievements are taken into account and the total length of their learning trajectory shortened. 

Q8. What is the age of learners?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

The main target group are in the age bracket aged 16-17, but many enrol at a later age. A distinction is made between mainstream and adult VET, but all programmes are organised as apprenticeships

2Overview of the scheme

Q9. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No

Programme number 353.10/level 353.

Q10 - Is the scheme part of the VET system?
Yes, it is the main route in the VET system
Yes, but it is considered a second-chance route
No, it is an alternative pathway outside of formal VET

Apprenticeship is the dominant form of IVET.

Q11 - When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Apprenticeships were introduced in medieval times.

Q12 - How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
school-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
programmes for the unemployed (active labour market measures) to facilitate integration on the labour market
Other

Apprenticeships were used by the ancient guilds to train craftsmen. When the guilds were abolished in the 19th century, apprenticeship remained as the way of delivering vocational qualifications.

Q13 - What are the major sources of financing of the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
By companies hosting apprentices
By employers through sectoral funds
By the state from the education budget
By the state from the labour / social security budget
By EU funding
Other

Employers with apprentices are required to pay the apprentice’s wages during the apprenticeship. All enterprises (also those without apprentices) have to contribute to a common fund (AUB), which compensates employers with apprentices for extra costs incurred (e.g. wages of apprentices during school periods, when they are not available to the enterprise).

Q14 - Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives
Q15 - Is the scheme temporary, meaning that it is financed for a limited period of time?
Yes
No
Q16. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?
49.932

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Education, 49,932 learners enrolled in IVET in 2014 (http://statweb.uni-c.dk/Databanken/uvmDataWeb/ShowReport.aspx?report=EAK-tilgang-erhudd). 

Q17 - How many learners are enrolled in this scheme in relation to all VET students?
the main VET track (majority of VET learners - more than 60% of VET learners)
strong VET track (important share of VET learners - between 30%-60%)
minor track (small share of learners - between 10% and 30%)
very small track (less than 10%)
Apprentices are not considered as learners (they are employees)

All IVET-programmes are organised as apprenticeships.

Q18 - How many learners are enrolled in the scheme in relation to all programmes for learners of the same age group?
the main track (majority of learners - more than 60% of all learners)
strong track (important share of all learners - between 30%-60%)
minor track (small share of learners - between 10% and 30%)
very small track (less than 10%)

According to the latest statistics from the Ministry of Education, 18.4% of all those leaving compulsory education (9th or 10th form) opted for IVET. Nearly 75% opted for upper secondary general education (https://www.uvm.dk/Service/Statistik/Statistik-om-folkeskolen-og-frie-skoler/Statistik-om-elever-i-folkeskolen-og-frie-skoler/Statistik-over-tilmelding-til-ungdomsuddannelserne-for-9,-d-,-og-10,-d-,-klasse-(FTU)

Q19 - Does the apprenticeship scheme result in a qualification?
Yes
No

Journeyman.

Q20 - Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Educational qualification
Occupational / sectoral qualification

Journeyman.

3Qualifications

Q21 - Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)
Yes
No
There is no NQF

IVET qualifications are generally at level 4 of the NQF.

Q23 - Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

Learners with qualifications from IVET will as a rule have to take supplementary courses to enrol in higher education. The exception to this is the EUX variety of apprenticeships, which also confers general upper secondary qualifications.

4Duration

Q24. What is the duration of the VET pathway? (please refer to the typical duration)
4 years

Most programmes are of a duration of around 4 years, but there are some that last 3 years while some others can last 5 years.

Q25 - How is the length of stay in apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
Is defined as minimum and maximum
Is defined as minimum
Is defined as maximum
Is not defined by regulation

The Law on VET (Lov om Erhvervsuddannelser) stipulates that IVET programmes “as a rule cannot exceed 4 years and 6 months". Still, there are some programmes with longer duration. 

Q26 - Is there a distinction between the training and working period for the time spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

The Law on VET contains no prescriptions for the length of time spent at school and in the enterprise. This is decided by the social partners in the Trade Committees.

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q27 - Is in-company training a compulsory part of the scheme, as per regulation?
Yes
No

Apprenticeship is the dominant form of IVET. Only in very exceptional cases is it possible to achieve qualifications at IVET-level by other means. Learners who are not able to conclude an apprenticeship contract with an enterprise may receive the practical parts of their training in so called placement centres (skolepraktikcentre), which have been set up in connection with the vocational schools. This is meant to emulate enterprise training, however, and enrolment only happens when all possibilities for a normal apprenticeship contract are exhausted.

Q29 - What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school / training centre?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at VET school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at VET school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at VET school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various - depends on VET school / training centre
Other
Not specified

The apprenticeship system is built on block release, where apprentices spend periods of up to one year in the enterprises, and have school periods of up to 3 months (apart from the initial period (grundforløbet) which is entirely school-based and may last up to 40 weeks.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q30 - Is any contractual arrangement between the learner, company and/or education and training provider, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

The learner concludes an apprenticeship contract with the enterprise. The vocational school approves the contract, but is not a signatory part.

Q31 - Which parties enter a contractual relationship?
Learner and employer
Learner, employer and the education and training institution
Education and training institution and the employer (not the learner)
Other
No contract is required

The learner concludes an apprenticeship contract with the enterprise. The vocational school approves the contract, but is not a signatory part.

Q32 - What is the nature of the contract?
Apprenticeships are a specific contract covered by the Labour Code
Apprenticeships are a form of employment contract
Formal agreement, not covered by the Labour Code

The apprentice has the status of an employee at the enterprise.

Q33 - Where is the contract registered?
At the education and training institution
At the employment office
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

The learner’s vocational school approves the contract (checks that all formalities are OK) and registers the contract.  

Q34 - What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

The apprentice is an employee of the enterprise, but has a special status as a learner. The enterprise is obliged to provide training so that the apprentice can reach the learning objectives that have been formulated by the relevant Trade Committee for the placement periods (praktikmål).

7Remuneration

Q35 - Do apprentices receive a salary, allowance or compensation?
Yes, all apprentices receive a salary (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
Compensation is possible but not required
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

Apprentices’ wages are negotiated as part of the collective agreements between the social partners. An example (plumber apprentices, 2014):

1st year DKK 61.75 per hour
2nd year DKK 71.20 per hour
3rd year DKK 89.70 per hour
4th year DKK 102.10 per hour

 
The apprentice is paid wages from the moment the contract comes into force.
Q36 - Who pays the salary / allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

The apprentice’s wages are paid by the employer. The employer may recover costs for wages during school periods from the Employers Reimbursement Fund (AUB).

Q37 - Is the company hosting apprentices required to provide training at the workplace?
Yes, obligation to provide training at the workplace is required in the contract
Yes, it is required by law
Yes, required by other regulations
No, not required formally

The employer must provide training, and learning objectives for the placement periods have been defined by the Trade Committees.

8Responsibility of employers

Q38 - What are the requirements on training companies, as per regulation?
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Have to provide learning environment
Have to ensure learning support
Have to develop a training plan
Other

The are requirements as to the ratio of apprentices and trained employees, as well as the nature of the tasks undertaken and the presence of machines and tools relevant to the trade. The rules for this are formulated by the Trade Committees. Enterprises wishing to take apprentices must be approved by the Trade Committee (which may delegate this task to the vocational school). 

Q39 - Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No

They can lose the right to train apprentices.

Q40 - What is the role of chambers, employers' and employees' representatives (social partners), sectoral councils (if existent), in apprenticeships, as per regulation?
Roles in designing qualifications/ curricula
Roles in final assessment of apprentices
Roles in quality assurance of work-based VET
Responsible for the regulation of the contract
Other
No role

The social partners in the Trade Committees at national and local level:

  • define learning objectives and curricula;
  • define length of programme and division school/enterprise;
  • negotiate wage level for apprentices;
  • provide assessors for the final exams (journeyman’s test).