Description

Timespan

The Government initiative was adopted in 2010.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

It involves structured and focused work to improve skills supply and increase collaboration between employers, education providers and authorities.

Policy goal

To improve the national co-ordination of skills supply and to strengthen local and regional cooperation between public institutions and agencies in charge of skills supply. Set up platforms for cooperation in skill supply and short and long-term educational planning in each region.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

The instrument aims to counteract mismatch challenges by supporting the development of structures, processes and different methods that will contribute to improved skills supply at the regional level.

Administrative level
Regional
Main responsible body

The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth

Stakeholders

In each of the 21 regions in Sweden, an actor is responsible for the implementation of regional growth policy. They are called regional development actors. This actor may be a county council, a joint body or a county administrative board. All regions should develop a regional development strategy. It shall be based on an analysis of the conditions in the county and contain goals, orientation and prioritization for regional growth. The Government's National Strategy for Sustainable Regional Growth and Attractiveness 2015-2020 shall inform all those working nationally or regionally for regional growth.

Funding

The regional skills platforms as a whole is a project assigned by the Government to the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth worth SEK 60 million in 2013-2017. All regions have had one or more projects to develop regional skills platforms. The projection for the projects in 2017 is SEK 16 million. The regions still have a mission to continue developing these skills platforms. The regions finance the work and prioritise it differently depending on the region's challenges in terms of skills supply.

Intended beneficiaries

The general public, as the citizens' opportunities for work and income increase through better functioning of the provision of skills in the region. The business and public sector's prospects for recruiting the right staff are strengthened through better functioning of the provision of skills in the region.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth funded projects in the regions to strengthen the provision of data analysis and develop a knowledge base on skill needs. In the regions, analyses of different industries' skills needs are used to create consensus among the stakeholders about the region's needs in the short and long term perspective. Some regions have the resources to independently develop and interpret this type of material. Other regions use subsets of data from the national level. The policy instrument's projects in this area are either about developing completely new or better methods for developing knowledge on skill needs or improving how to use existing data.

Financial schemes

The regions have been able to apply for funding for projects during the period 2013-2017. About 40 projects in the regions are ongoing to strengthen and further develop the work.

Frequency of updates

Provision of data analysis and intelligence on skills and labour markets are central aspects in several regions' platforms. How often analyses are made and in what ways varies among regions.

Development

The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth has proposed national guidelines for the for the regional skills development work. The guidelines include a clearer control of how and what knowledge base to be provided for the regional skills supply work. In accordance with the mission, regional development actors have established the platforms based on regional conditions. This has meant that the platforms have had different purposes, focus, function, resources and organizational residence. The variation has complicated the dialogue and the relationship at the national level, and it has been difficult to describe the role and function of the platforms from a management perspective.

Barriers

The prerequisites for implementing the policy instrument relies heavily on the regions involved. Their ability, understanding and willingness to implement the rational that underlies the policy instrument is crucial for success. The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth has proposed national guidelines for the regional skills development work. However, in their role as development managers, the regions have a limited mandate themselves. They can mainly act as a catalyst for cooperation, create meeting places, act as knowledge-makers and inspirators by developing new knowledge and testing new ways of working and ideas.

Success factors

Participants at local, regional and national level agree on what should be included in basic regional competence management work in all regions.

Monitoring

The regulation includes assignments to regional development officers to implement, follow up and report the results of regional development work. In March 2018, the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth will deliver a final report regarding the instrument to the government. In a joint development project, the regions have developed a set of matching indicators for regional skill needs. Indicators have been developed in two main areas: indicators that describe the conditions for matching and indicators that describe actual matching. According to the national guidelines for the regional skills development work proposed by the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, the indicators will be monitored regularly.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

By awarding all regions the opportunity to develop a regional development plan, the government has demanded an attention to skill needs issues in all parts of the country. Because all regions were given the same mission, momentum was created. The instrument is probably not unique, and Sweden has previously worked to share analyses and collaboration.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

The result of the investment in regional skills platforms is primarily long-term and it is difficult to evaluate effects. The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth will give a final report of the instrument to the government in March 2018. In an overview of the development projects between 2013-2017, the Agency concludes that the projects work primarily with building up work processes. A clear majority of the projects have a system perspective - they work to coordinate the actors responsible for the provision of skills. Many of the projects draw up strategies, action plans and similar documents that can steer the work. They develop processes to create consensus and dialogue. Other projects provide support for knowledge and analysis, as well as support for education planning. The Swedish labour market is improving, but it is difficult to say what effect the Regional Skills platforms have had on this trend.

Engagement of stakeholders

The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth will give a final report of the instrument to the Government in March 2018. The Agency's proposal for guidelines for regional competence management, as reported in June 2017, constitutes an important basis for the continued regional skills supply work. The proposals are currently being prepared by the Government Offices. The instrument is dependent on funding from the Government and co-funding from the regions.

Transferability
Easily transferable

To the extent that governments in other countries can give assignments to their regions. A corresponding regulation can help to raise broad awareness on skills needs issues.

Sustainability

The instrument has quite good opportunities to continue. What form it assumes depends on how the government chooses to proceed with the funding and with the implementation of the national guidelines for the regional growth work, proposed by The Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth.

Description

Timespan

2014 - present

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

Support and matching is aimed at job seekers to get them out of unemployment, among other things.

Policy goal

Through individualised support, provided by private suppliers who are publicly funded, job-seekers (who have been unemployed for a long time (about a year) or who are newly arrived to the country) are provided job-seeking support and matching to the labour market. The purpose of Support and Matching is to get a job or start studying as quickly as possible. The intention is to provide people who are far from the labour market with special and individually adapted efforts (matching, guidance) that lead them to work or study and increase their prerequisites for getting a job.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

The program aims to match long-term unemployed with the needs of the labour market through individual coaching, based on an assessment of the knowledge, abilities, interests, etc of the unemployed.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

The Swedish Public Employment Service (Swedish: Arbetsförmedlingen)

Stakeholders

The service is provided by about 200 private suppliers who have an agreement with The Swedish Public Employment Service. The job seeker chooses which supplier they wishes to use for the service.

Funding

Support and Matching is financed through the Government appropriation "Program and Action 1: 3" (SEK 1.3 billion (incl. VAT) for 2016). There are no figures for the future. The agency contract private suppliers and pay them based on the number of job-seekers that uses the supplier's services.

Intended beneficiaries

Individual support for long-term unemployed and migrants to get a job or start studying.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Individual information about the labour market is given to the job-seeker since the instrument is carried out by 200 private suppliers. Those suppliers can use labour market intelligence provided by the Swedish Public Employment Service and Statistics Sweden. Twice a year, the Swedish Public Employment Service makes a forecast for labour market development in the near future. The forecast is based on interviews with private and public employers and is presented in reports for the entire country and by region. The forecasting work also forms the basis, for example, for the Occupational Compass. Statistics Sweden gives a report presenting long-term forecasts of supply and demand for labour for different education groups. This is done by studying streams through the education system and in the labour market, as well as the training requirements for different parts of the labour market.

Financial schemes

The service is provided by about 200 private suppliers (in 2016), who have been procured and signed an agreement with The Swedish Public Employment Service. The job seeker chooses which supplier they wishes to use for the service. The job seeker is offered to participate in the instrument by their job counsellor at the Swedish Public Employment Service, if the job seeker meets certain conditions. The job seeker has financial incentives to participate in the service, because if the unemployed does not participate, he or she can lose his or her unemployment benefit.

Frequency of updates

The Swedish Public Employment Service makes a forecast for labour market development in the near future twice a year.

Development

The instrument was designed to support the long-term unemployed. Since spring 2016, it has been possible for people within the so called 'Establishment mission' to use the instrument. The establishment mission aims to create the conditions for people who are new in Sweden to get a job or education quickly. Sweden received a large number of refugees, especially in 2015, of which many need support for entering the labour market.

Barriers

Identifying appropriate users of the service. The Swedish Public Employment Service is working to provide the users with available and clear user instructions. The system of private suppliers has been criticized from time to time. The criticism has been about shortcomings in the quality of the suppliers and the lack of ability of the Swedish Public Employment Service to detect and respond to such shortcomings.

Success factors

Good and serious suppliers, and a structured follow-up model, money, and users that are appropriate for the service.

Monitoring

The Swedish Public Employment Service is annually following up the number of participants in the instrument, the number of suppliers and the proportion of people in work or education 90 days after the completion of the action. The indicators are presented in the agency's annual report.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

Contracting private suppliers for individual face-to-face counselling combined with a voucher system with choice is innovative in the Swedish context. The service is in that regard result-driven to an extent that is not used before in Sweden in this kind of service. The Swedish Public Employment Service terminates the contracts with those suppliers who have poor results or few participants. It is the participant who chooses which supplier they want, which is innovative since the unemployed in previous equivalent programs would have had to used the guidance offered by the employment agency. This can lead to a greater internal driving force among the job seeker. To trust internal driving forces among participants is also an innovative aspect of the program.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

About 30% of men and 25% of women found work after participating in Support and Matching. The results of a survey of the participants show that the majority of participants (about 60%) are satisfied with the instrument. About half also consider that the support helped them get closer to work or study. The instrument has not been evaluated, but the number of people who are included in the service has increased dramatically (about 83,000 people were included in 2016, 62,000 in 2015 and 2,000 in 2014). The suppliers are rated by the users of the service and the ratings are published online. The need to identify and sort out non-compliant suppliers has costed unexpected resources.

Engagement of stakeholders

The private suppliers are dependent on the Swedish Public Employment Service approving their quality, which allows job seekers to use the services of the suppliers.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

The highly individualised support given in the instrument, and the freedom of choice that might foster motivation among the job-seekers, might be interesting for other countries to get inspiration from. The service is probably possible to implement in other countries, but since the service rely heavily on New Public Management (NPM) strategies for public administration implementation, it is probably easier in countries using NPM. The service also relies on the existence of suppliers of these services, which either has to already exist or be promoted. Hence, it is possible to transfer, but not very easily.

Sustainability

Yes. The instrument has been in place for a while and a return to a model of corresponding support is given by public actors.

Description

Timespan

Since June 2017

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The Matching map consists of around 17500 combinations of 123 educational and 143 occupational groups, with detailed codes for the level of match for each combination. The codes shows the match both in regard to level of education, field of education and future labour market demand. Together with register data, the Matching map enables detailed statistics of skills match in the population, for example the number of educated working within their subject field, the share of over- and undereducated employees, as well as comparisons between regions and different social groups.

Policy goal

The goal is to enable detailed, grounded and complex analysis on skills match on the labour market. The extensive work that lies behind the Matching map is made in an attempt to develop the method for measuring skills match, taking it beyond direct comparisons between the classification of educations and the classification of occupations.

Assessing the skills match through directly comparing an individual’s educational level or field with his/hers occupational level/field, risk (at least in Sweden) to lead to misleading conclusions. One common reason for this is that many occupations in practice allow or require a different educational level than the stated, for example through changes in the educational system or in the employers demand. Another reason is that many occupations, such as analyst or private instructor, cannot be deduced to one single field of education.

The objective with the Matching map is therefore to provide policy makers, employers, labour market analysts etc. with better statistics on skills match, in relation to a wide range of policy areas.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Statistics Sweden

Stakeholders

<p>The Matching map is owned and administered by Statistics Sweden, but is a critical component in the production of statistics of skills match. This statistics was originally developed by the Swedish regions through a regional R&amp;D-organisation called Reglab. Since 2015, this statistics is administered by Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth.</p>

Funding

Around 900 hours of research and working meetings to collectively determine the codes of the Matching map.

Intended beneficiaries

As the Matching map provides more detailed statistics of skills match than previously available, a range of actors benefit, including the Swedish regions, the Swedish authorities, researchers, employers, the public and labour market analysts.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

<p>The instrument develops labour market intelligence</p>

Financial schemes

None

Success factors

As the Matching map provides more detailed information on skills mismatches, they can be more successfully identified than before. This also supports the education system, recruitment processes in firms and other actions taken to improve skills matching - at different levels: national, regional, sectoral and for particular groups in society.

Monitoring

Not applicable

Innovativeness
Very innovative

<p>The key innovative feature is acknowledging that manual and researched assessments are needed in order to produce more detailed statistics of skills match, combined with the three digit codes used in the map. Also, with declining response rates in surveys containing self-assessed skills match, the Matching map is an important data complement.</p>

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Not available

Engagement of stakeholders

Add info

Transferability
Easily transferable

<p>Add info</p>

Sustainability

Add info

Description

Timespan

2008 - present

Stage
Roll-out

Foundations

Policy area

The Occupational Compass is a guidance service with an open-access website that shows prospects for about 200 professions. It is primarily aimed at people who need support in their career choices or work.

Policy goal

Provide job seekers and others concerned with advanced labour market information, in order to match demand and supply of skills. Deliver short-term (1 year) and long-term (5-10 years) skills anticipation for around 200 occupations (80% of the labour market), supported by advisory councils at sector level, alongside a council of vocational experts.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The service provides regional level information about the future prospects for 200 major professions, thus aiming at making information available among job seekers and study and career counsellors that can facilitate an effective matching.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

The Swedish Public Employment Service (Swedish: Arbetsförmedlingen)

Stakeholders

The service is directed to users by the Swedish Public Employment Service. Job seekers, study and career counsellors, providers of education etc can all use the service. The government is funding the service via annual grants to the Swedish Public Employment Service, who is implementing and developing the service, and updating the website.

Funding

The equivalent of approximately six people per year works full time with the instrument at the Swedish Public Employment Service. The costs are covered by administrative allocation from the Government to the Swedish Public Employment Service.

Intended beneficiaries

The unemployed.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The Occupational Compass contains forecast information for the next year. The assessment is based on the employment agency's forecasting work and is done at the local level. The results are then weighted for a regional and national assessment. The forecasts are presented in user-friendly interfaces on the Swedish Public Employment Service's website. It contains a short summary of the forecast, a map showing regional differences and a basic 'measuring instrument' that shows overall competition in the profession.

Financial schemes

The Swedish Public Employment Service provides the service and it is financed by the government through grants to the agency. No financial incentives are given to the users.

Frequency of updates

The Swedish Public Employment Service makes a forecast for labour market development in the near future twice a year. The forecast is based on interviews with private and public employers, and is presented in reports for the entire country and by region.

Development

The Occupational Compass is constantly improving. This applies to both the forecast work that forms the basis of the compass, and how the information is presented on the web. It is important that the interface is updated so that users perceive that the service as available and modern.

Barriers

Work to produce job forecasts involves a multi-step process which, in itself, involves risks. Therefore, the Swedish Public Employment Service argues that the staff work very carefully and methodically to make the information as correct and logical as possible. With so many people working in the process of producing job forecasts, and with the different geographic aspects, there is always a risk that the final material may contain errors.

Success factors

The service is always up-to-date with two updates per year. The instrument has a simple, handy and concrete work model, where local offices help with the assessments. The simplicity is a success factor, as the instrument is based on a clear and logical approach in how the forecasts are created and how conclusions are drawn.

Monitoring

The effect of the instrument is not measured by indicators. The Swedish Public Employment Service has done user tests. The Agency states that they get positive feedback on the instrument from users in general.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

Forecasts on demand for different professions are presented by other actors in the country. The innovative aspect of the service is that it provides the opportunity to get a regional and local image of the needs of specific professions. The interface is interactive so it is possible to navigate to reach for more information.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

No evaluations of the instrument impact is published. However, output of the Occupational Compass is often referred to in media and is often used by regional and local bodies throughout the year to describe the need of a particular profession. This suggests that users appreciate the tool. The Swedish Public Employment Service has done user tests. It has a high value for several target groups and is an important support for the employment agencies in their guidance work. The content of the compass is spread and used, for example, in an app. There is a great interest from other authorities, such as the Swedish National Agency for Education.

Engagement of stakeholders

One of the Swedish Public Employment Service's missions from the government is to help job seekers and employers to find each other. As long as the agency has this mission, the instrument is part of realising that task.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

The opportunity to have a comparable regional and local image of the demand for different occupations is important for matching. Other countries can be inspired by the interface and the way it gathers the information.

Sustainability

There is most likely a continuous need for a tool that provides information on the labour market at regional and local level. Data on which the instrument is based is also collected for other purposes as well, so data will probably be available.

Description

Timespan

2012 - present

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

Teachers' Lift 2 is about securing the supply of certified teachers to the education sector (primary and secondary).

Policy goal

Data and labour market forecasts show a large shortage of certified teachers now and in coming years. By funding studies, the instrument aims at increasing the number of certified teachers. The aim is to raise the competence and increase the accreditation of qualified, practicing teachers, in subjects they already teach. Via courses given by the Swedish National Agency for Education, teachers improve their subject knowledge and acquire tools for enhancing didactic skills. The teachers also have the opportunity to exchange views and experiences with other teachers. Upon completion, teachers can apply for new subject accreditation within their certificate. A total of 1,906 participants have begun a course by 2016.

Mismatch
Part of broad policy measure of which skill mismatch is only a minor part

The mismatch problem in this context is that there are teachers working, but they lack the appropriate qualifications to obtain a certificate to teach. Through the instrument, these teachers can study and gain certificate to continue teaching.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Swedish National Agency for Education (Swedish: Skolverket)

Stakeholders

The government fund the Teachers' Lift via grants to the Swedish National Agency for Education, who contracts the universities to complete the courses within the Teachers' Lift. The teachers who are in need of additional qualifications apply for the courses. The school owners can apply for grants by the Swedish National Agency for Education to facilitate the studies. Higher grants are given for studying courses in subjects in areas where the demand for qualified teachers are higher. The government monitors the Teachers' lift and a couple of government authorities have evaluated the instrument.

Funding

During 2016 the cost of the instrument was SEK 186 million. The funding is provided by the government to the Swedish National Agency for Education to cover courses and state grants to teachers for taking part in courses. Funds are given on an annual basis. SEK 90 million is committed for 2018.

Intended beneficiaries

Teachers can receive education that allows them to be certified to teach. Pupils are taught by certified teachers, thus it serves the society as a whole.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The Swedish National Agency for Education forecasts the needs of teachers now and in the future. The forecasts indicate which subjects and forms of education the country needs. The forecasts are used to design the range of courses.

Financial schemes

The teacher's employer can apply for and receive state grants to finance individual teachers' studies. Government grants are paid by the Swedish National Agency for Education.

Frequency of updates

Analyses of the labour market needs of different categories of teachers are used to design the course offerings, based on forecasts. This does not happen with a predetermined regularity. There are ongoing forecasts made by several actors, but a comprehensive forecast of the need for pre-school teachers and teachers was made by the Swedish National Agency for Education in 2015. It shows the recruitment needs of different teacher categories in pre-school, school, leisure and adult education over 2014-2029.

Development

The effort has been extended to include more groups of teachers after forecasts and available statistics show that there is a need for these teachers.

Barriers

The Swedish National Agency for Education noted that some school owners do not prioritise this qualifying education to a great extent. Many school owners signal that government funding is too weak and therefore, one of the reasons why more teachers do not participate. Another reason is that the school owners consider that it is the teacher's own responsibility to acquire the required qualifications.

Success factors

That teachers' employers encourage teachers to participate in the initiative, and teachers get the opportunity to participate, for example, through the possibility of combining work and studies.

Monitoring

The number of teachers who participated in the initiative and the number of teachers with the right certificate.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

The fact that the Swedish National Agency for Education is offering courses in cooperation with universities is innovative in a Swedish context. It increases the opportunity to offer courses based on national analyses and assessments of the labour market needs, instead of the university's propensity to offer different courses.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Since the beginning of 2012, approximately 13,500 people have begun a qualifying subject course within the framework of the Teachers' Lift. The Swedish National Agency for Education is concluding that the instrument is an important education initiative for teachers who need to make completions to get their credentials (according to the Agency's assessment of the situation in the Swedish school system 2015). The aim was to raise the competence and increase the accreditation of qualified, practicing teachers, in subjects they already teach. The instrument has lead to more certified teachers, and the Swedish National Agency for Education states that the instrument is so important that it should be a permanent instrument.

Engagement of stakeholders

The investment is dependent on government funding, and the National Agency for Education wishes the Government to continue the funding. The universities are involved by planning and implementing the courses within the Teachers' Lift in dialogue with the Swedish National Agency for Education. The universities market their own courses in relation to the teachers.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

How to secure the future supply of teachers is an area that many EU countries need to take into account. The instrument may be worth considering for countries that need to develop skills among already existing personnel, to deal with mismatch within sectors. The entire layout would be possible to transfer to other countries. But the system is based on the fact that it is for the state to contract universities to implement the courses that the state considers necessary. Therefore, the system is transferable, however not easily, to other countries.

Sustainability

Given the alarming shortage of certified teachers, the government will most likely fund the instrument over the next few years.