Description

Timespan

The centres have been in operation since they were launched in 2010.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

VEU-centres coordinate guidance activities for schools providing adult vocational training programmes.

Policy goal

The centres target vocational training of enterprises as well as individual learners. The centres aim at creating greater focus on the quality and effect of vocational training system. The objective of the VEU-centres is to strengthen the cooperation between educational institutions and, through cooperation, get a larger volume of vocational students and thereby establish a more stable and flexible supply of continuing vocational education. All providers of adult vocational training are associated with one of the 13 VEU-centres, each coordinating guidance activities, contact to enterprises and employees etc for a specific geographical area.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

The centres coordinate guidance activities for the schools that provide adult vocational training programmes.

Administrative level
Regional
Main responsible body

Ministry of Education

Stakeholders

A VEU-centre is a partnership between several schools in one geographical area. One of the schools is the host institution of the VEU-centre and is thus the legal entity in relation to the Ministry of Education.

Funding

It has not been possible to find information on the number of funds that are committed to the VEU-centres.

Intended beneficiaries

The educational programmes are mainly provided for low skilled and skilled workers having a job. Workers and employers in private, as well as public sector enterprises may participate in the programmes.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

By providing adult vocational education, based on regional demands identified by local stakeholders, the VEU-centres contribute to the goal of skill matching by updating individuals’ skills in a relevant area.

Financial schemes

State grant. The board of the educational institution responsible for the VEU-centre is responsible for the management of state grants, from the Ministry of Education.

Frequency of updates

On-going, i.e. the VEU-centre is responsible to study the need for competence development needs at companies and employees in the geographical area.

Development

There has not been any policy change in the approach since the VEU-centres were established in 2010.

Barriers

Six months after the establishment of the VEU-centres, an evaluation (EVA, 2010) showed that the process of finding a responsible host institution to be responsible of the management of the centre was very resilient and resulted in some bad relations between the institutions within the VEU-centre. According to the evaluation, it was difficult to choose one host institution among the many institutions in the geographical area. Each institution in the area had the opportunity to appoint one institution to be a host of the VEU-centre, but it was difficult to agree among the institutions, as too many wanted to be a host institution. The Minister of Education made the final decision. It meant that the centres were implemented at different speed. However, the 13 VEU-centres are fully operational today.

Success factors

Due to the institutional cooperation between the educational institutions within a geographical area, the construction of VEU-centres has improved the coordination of the activities to improve the vocational skills and competences of the participants in accordance with the needs in the labour market.

Monitoring

A development contract between the VEU-centre and the Ministry of Education contains objectives and performance requirements for the VEU-centre's tasks and cooperation in order to meet the objectives of the VEU-centre.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

The intention to cooperate between educational institutions was not new or ground-breaking, as a number of cooperative relations already existed on their own initiative. However, the construction of VEU-centre was innovative, in the sense that the institutional collaboration was a mandatory initiative dictated by law.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

There are two main evaluations of the VEU-centres: 1) EVA, 2012 and 2) EVA, 2014. In these evaluations, the centres' effectiveness and impact according to their objectives are assessed differently. On the one side, the evaluations shows that the construction of a coordinating body of the educational institutions has raised the awareness of the vocational educational programmes for SMEs. However, the evaluation also shows that there is room for improvement. Some VEU-centres find it difficult to gain support for marketing of the VEU-centre, as a one-point entrance to the adult vocational training system.

Engagement of stakeholders

The VEU-centres sign an agreement with the Ministry of Education every two year. The contract contains three strategic areas of actions and performance targets based on the legislation. The VEU-centre is responsible to follow the contracts goals and report annually to the Ministry.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The opportunity to transfer the instrument of VEU-centre to another country depends on the system for adult vocational training. In Denmark, the social partners develop the competence description of the vocational training (not the educational institutions). Therefore, it is easier for the educational institutions to coordinate their activities, because of the joint competence description that apply to all institutions.

Sustainability

Yes, but in a stronger setup with fewer centres that will include a wider range of educational institutions and business relevant actors. Recently, an expert committee on adult education and training pointed out the need to strengthen the partnership between educational institutions and other business actors.

Description

Timespan

The committees has been in operation since 1994, but was recently redesigned in 2014.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The committees are responsible to develop adult vocational training programmes.

Policy goal

To contribute to maintaining and improving the vocational skills and competences of the participants in accordance with the needs in the labour market and to furthering competence development of the participants. The education and training committee's task is to develop labour market education that can meet the labour market needs for vocational adult and continuing education targeted at skilled and unskilled workers.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The education and training committee's primary function is monitor the labour market, prepare analysis and thus develop the adult vocational training programmes in accordance with the needs of the labour market.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

All programmes are approved by the Ministry of Education.

Stakeholders

At the national level, there are set levels of 11 continuing training and education committees. They consist of the social partners (employer associations and trade unions) representing specific fields of industry. The social partners play a major role in the management, priority setting, development, organisation and quality assurance of adult vocational training programmes.

Funding

No information

Intended beneficiaries

Adult vocational training programmes have been developed for low skilled and skilled workers. The programmes are mainly provided for low skilled and skilled workers with a job. Workers and employers in private, as well as public sector enterprises may participate in the programmes.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The committees develop labour market education based on analysis of educational needs, and on the basis of their cooperation with businesses in the industry.

Financial schemes

The committees use secretarial assistance, which is funded by the organizations represented in the committees. In case of the development of a new training program, the committee may choose to apply for a grant through the UUL-grant from the Ministry of Education.

Frequency of updates

Besides the social partners ongoing monitoring of labour market needs, the committee also initiates concrete analysis and mappings on specific sectors. However, these analyses are not initiated very systematically and varies depending on the specific committee.

Development

Since the committee's were established in 1994 there have been many small adjustments in the overall adult vocational training system. But the social partners have always played a major role in the management, priority setting, development, organisation and quality assurance of adult vocational training programmes.

Barriers

Since the establishment of the committees there have been some challenges. Recently, a expert group has analysed the system's ability to develop educational programs that fulfil the labour markets needs. The expert group stressed the committees' lack of focus on cross-sectoral educational programs, due to the silo design of the committee (that each committee represents one business sector). The challenge still remains, but at present the tripartite negotiations is discussing a possible redesign of the system.

Success factors

The social partners are close to the labour market as they represent both the employers and employees, which is important to develop adult training programs that matches the needs in the labour market.

Monitoring

Both the social partners and the Ministry of Education are responsible for measuring the progress of development and discontinuation of the adult vocational programs.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

A system where the social partners are responsible for organising and developing educational programs is quite an innovative approach in the international context.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Recently, the government has set up an expert group to assess the entire adult education and continuing training system. It was the expert group's assessment that the continuing training and education committees has been successful in ensuring responsiveness within the industry sectors through analysis of labour and educational needs. However, the expert group also stressed that there is an untapped potential for greater involvement of more systematic analysis of the labour needs, and especially skill assessments across the industry sectors.

Engagement of stakeholders

The social partners are very engaged in the committee, due to their influence to design and develop the programs.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

The opportunity of transferability depends on the tradition of involving social partners. Denmark has a long tradition of involving social partners in different policy areas. The partners' large influence are characteristic of the Danish labour market model.

Sustainability

Yes

Description

Timespan

Since January 2017

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The favourable educations falls under the legislation of the adult vocational training programmes.

Policy goal

The policy goal of the instrument is to raise the number of skilled workers and to influence the decision of young people to choose vocational trainings where more skilled workers are needed. The scheme provides subsidies to businesses who agree to sign an internship agreement with a student from one of the favourable educations. It is especially designed to meet future skill needs, as the employer federations, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, will decide which educational programs are eligible for the scheme. In addition, it provides guidance to the students or employees who wish to take a vocational education program, with good opportunities for internships and job opportunities in the future.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

Favourable educations are educational programs on a "positive list", which means programs where employers expect a particularly high need of labour force.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Ministry of Education

Stakeholders

The employer federations each year designate the favourable educations for subsidy. The government has the overall responsibility of the scheme (administrating, monitoring and disburse of funding). The employees trade unions do not have a role in the program, but the employers trade organisations are responsible to appoint the favourable education programs. They decide which existing programs should be a favourable program in the coming year.

Funding

Businesses that draw up a trainee agreement receive a bonus of a maximum of 5,000 DKK (€671.76) per student. The scheme can provide total funding of 20 millions DKK (€2,687,058) and is funded by the Ministry of Education.

Intended beneficiaries

The favourable education programs is first of all attractive for people that wish to take a vocational education, as the educational programs provide a good opportunity for internships and future jobs opportunities. The businesses will furthermore earn an extra financial bonus if they draw up training agreements with students on one of the favourable educational programs.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The instrument provide information on current and future labour market needs as the employers trade organisations/federations appoint which educational programs are eligble for a favorable "bonus", which give a better overview on the job areas and skills that are most needed in the future.

Financial schemes

The instrument is based on a subsidy scheme extended to businesses, who draw up students agreements with trainees on one of the favourable education program. The business can thereby earn an extra financial bonus.

Frequency of updates

Every year.

Development

None

Barriers

One of the main challenges for the success of the instrument is that there are few students seeking some of the 'favourable' educational programs. For some educations, the geographical distance might be a problem and it may also be difficult to match students and businesses. The Ministry of Education and the Continuing training and education committees is therefore obligated to support the instrument through information and guidance.

Success factors

Due to the strong involvement of the employer federations, the favourable educational programs are recognise job areas where there are need for skills, and thereby good opportunities for students to achieve an internship and job opportunity.

Monitoring

The scheme is measured annually by the Ministry of Education. At the end of 2017, the Ministry will reveal who is eligible for the subsidy.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

Offering a subsidy scheme for businesses that draw up internship agreements with students taking a vocational education in specific sector that have high demand of skills, is to some extent innovative compared to before.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

It is too early to present evidence of the effectiveness, as the instrument was first implemented in the beginning of 2017. In the beginning of 2018, it will be possible to see if the favourable education programs has increased their students uptake and the number of traineeships.

Engagement of stakeholders

The stakeholders have in the tripartite an agreement committing themselves to support the scheme and provide information and guidance to students taking a vocational educational program, in order to increase the volume of the favourable educational programs.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The principle of offering favourable education and training programs with a subsidy provision is quite transferable in itself.

Sustainability

The scheme will continue in 2018, but it remains uncertain if it will continue thereafter.

Description

Timespan

The scheme went into effect in 1994 and has recently been reformed in 2015.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The job rotation scheme is an increasingly important component of the Danish active labour market policy.

Policy goal

The job rotation scheme aims to address two main problems: the unemployment rate in Denmark and the need to upgrade the skills of employed people. Issues relating to the unemployed and underemployed people include: enabling entry into the profession by supporting education, the recruitment of new staff members once the scheme is complete and addressing the need for a more skilled workforce. The employer hires unemployed people as temporary workers, while permanent staff members receive further education and training. One precondition is that there is an ‘hour-to-hour relation’ between the employees attending education or training and the temporarily recruited workers.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

The job rotation instrument works in two ways. An unemployed person can temporarily replace an employee at an enterprise in order to achieve work-experience, while the current employee takes part in further education and training to upgrade their skills.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

The Ministry of Employment (Beskæftigelsesministeriet) and The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment (STAR).

Stakeholders

The local job centre in each municipality is the authority administrating the scheme. They play a significant role in promoting the scheme among private and public workplaces, as well as supporting them and following up on whether or not the companies and public workplaces comply with the law.
Social partners like the Federation of Trade Workers promotes the opportunity to participate in the scheme among their members. In order to support their member’s interests, the social partners are promoting the scheme by helping the recruitment of unemployed people, as well as supporting temporary workers gain skills through education and training.
The training providers do not contribute to the subsidies and are therefore not considered stakeholders. It is the employer who decides which private or public education program the employee may participate in, as long the education program is part of the continuing education scheme that does not lead to a whole vocational education.

Funding

In the 2014 fiscal year, the total public expenditure spent on the job rotation scheme was approximately €270 million (2,035 million DKK).

Intended beneficiaries

The job rotation scheme is often recognised as a labour market "Egg of Columbus," because the scheme on the one hand aims at benefitting the unemployed with a temporary workplace, while at the same time, aims at upgrading the skills of ordinary employees.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The job rotation scheme does not select specific areas of skill mismatches and shortage. The employee may attend any kind of training and education, as long as the courses are publicly announced, meaning that anyone could, in principle, attend the course. However, the main scheme is reserved for employees without vocational training, or if their education has not been used in the past five years.

Financial schemes

Government subsidies. In 2017, the employer is paid a subsidy of €24.85 (184.98 DKK) for each hour that their current employee is in training, which needs to supplement the cost of total wage and training costs, including salaries of the employee and the temporary worker.

Frequency of updates

The training courses themselves are updated frequently by the employers and employees trade organisation. They review the training courses to ensure that they are still appropriate.

Development

With the recent reform in 2015, it is only possible to hire unemployed individuals in a temporary job rotation scheme. This means that the employers are only entitled to a job rotation subsidy if they do not receive other public funding for the hours that the employees and the temporary workers participate in the job rotation scheme.

Barriers

Temporary workers participating in a job rotation schemes must be hired to fill an equivalent job position performing equivalent tasks as the employed who is participating in further education or training. However, it can be difficult for employers to find the right unemployed person, who can take over the tasks of the initial employed person during their education and training course.

Monitoring

Ongoing evaluations and monitoring of the scheme takes place regularly, as the scheme is funded by the state. Indicators include, for example, wage and employment effects of the unemployed being recruited in temporary positions as part of the scheme.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

In the international context, the job rotation scheme is often recognised as a labour market "Egg of Columbus," because the scheme on the one hand targets the unemployed, while at the same time, aims at upgrading the skills of ordinary employees.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

In June 2014, an evaluation analysed the wage and employment effects of unemployed people being recruited in temporary positions as a part of the scheme. This is measured for up to 23 months after recruitment as a temporary worker. Overall, the report found that participation in a job rotation leads to the unemployed person obtaining a regular job 2-3 weeks faster than they would otherwise have done.

Engagement of stakeholders

The law clearly specifies the role of the local job centres in each municipality that is responsible for the administration of the scheme.

Transferability
Easily transferable

Given that the job rotations scheme consist of subsidy provisions, it can easily be transferable to another country with other administrative systems. The scheme would also be successfully transferred if suitable training providers are already in place.

Sustainability

Yes - the scheme is an important component of the Danish active labour market policy.

Description

Timespan

30. December 2012 - 30. July 2013

Stage
No longer operational

The scheme was only inteded for a quite specific target group, namely the long-term unemployed who were about to lose their unemployment benefits from 30. December 2012 to 30. July 2013, because they've reached the maximum number of years on employment benefits.

Foundations

Policy area

The education scheme was part of the Danish active labour market policy, as the target group is unemployed people.

Policy goal

Active labour market policy for the long-term unemployed. The education scheme aim was to provide a determined and coherent skill upgrade that would strengthen the unemployed ability to get employed. This specific target group can be admitted to an education scheme, allowing the long-term unemployed learners to attend training for a maximum of 6.5 months within a reference period of 12 months.

Mismatch
Part of broad policy measure of which skill mismatch is only a minor part

It is expected that the unemployed is guided to begin an education with good opportunities for employment.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

The Ministry of Employment (Beskæftigelsesministeriet) and The Danish Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment (STAR).

Stakeholders

The local job centre in each municipality is the authority administrating the scheme. They play a significant role in guiding the unemployed to choose an education with good opportunities for employment. The training providers carry out the training program for the unemployed, but are not further responsible for the scheme.

Funding

From the period 30. December 2012 to 30. July 2013, the public spending was approximately €80 million (590.6 million DKK).

Intended beneficiaries

The target group is quite specific, namely the long-term unemployed who are about to lose their unemployment benefits, because they've reached the maximum number of years on employment benefits.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

The job centre must guide the person towards programs that are best suited to reach employment. The job centre will be able to use the labour market balance, which will provide a picture of whether education can lead to jobs with good employment opportunities in the region concerned. The labour market balance is published every six months and shows job opportunities for approximately 1,100 job titles in each of the four employment regions. Before the education scheme was launched, the labour market balance was already used by job centres, unemployment funds and other employment policy players to advise unemployed people about employment opportunities in the region.

Financial schemes

Government subsidies to the job centre, who is responsible for the management of the education scheme.

Frequency of updates

As part of the education scheme, the job centre uses the labour market balance, which will provide a picture of whether education can lead to jobs with good employment opportunities in the region concerned. The labour market balance is updated every six months.

Development

None

Barriers

None

Monitoring

As the scheme was funded by the state, the progress of the instrument has been monitored continuously from 2012-2013 by the Agency for Labour Market and Recruitment (STAR).

Innovativeness
Not innovative

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

There has not been any systematic impact evaluation of the schemes ability to increase the employment for those who participated in the scheme. A survey in 2013 showed that 8 out of 10 of the target group chose to start an education as part of the education scheme.

Engagement of stakeholders

The legislation clearly specifies the role of the job centre.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The scheme itself is quite transferable, because the target group is very specific and the funding of the scheme is based on state subsidy.

Sustainability

No