Description

Timespan

Implemented in October 2009 as a response to the economic crisis.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The Committee has continually initiated projects/workshops/lectures that aim to identify changes in the needs for qualifications in collaboration with experts from companies. Based on these projects, the Committee develops continuing education and training (CET) programmes to make it easier for jobseekers to re-enter the world of work.

Policy goal

Identifying changes in the needs for qualifications/new skills. To design training measures for the unemployed and to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations, based on input working groups (PES and companies representatives). Working groups are created for specific sectors, made up of sectoral clusters of business representatives (e.g. in construction and building, business administration, chemicals and plastics, electrical engineering/electronics/ telecommunications, energy and environmental engineering, commerce, machinery/motor vehicles/metal, tourism, and health). These groups then formulate a list of current and future sector-specific requirements for employees and jobseekers in their sectors. The outcomes are used by AMS for the design of training measures for the unemployed and are also meant to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

PES, employers and other sector experts cooperate to identify skills needs.

Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

PES

Stakeholders

The Standing Committee is meant to prepare employed and jobseekers for future changes and challenges in the labour market via active labour market policies, especially in times of under-utilisation of economic capacities.
Stakeholders (in the educational system as well as in the labour market, e.g. PES, employers, employees) are responsible for putting the knowledge into practice. For example, active labour market programmes calls for tenders of the Austrian PES are often based on input provided by the Standing Committee.

Funding

No information is publicly available

Intended beneficiaries

Companies intend to profit from the know-how acquired by the committee. Also, insights of the committee are relevant for jobseeker as well as employees and apprentices in the sectors (clusters) relevant for the Standing Committee that want to acquire new skills to gain better employment opportunities.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Working groups are created for specific sectors, made up of sectoral clusters of business representatives (e.g. in construction and building, business administration, chemicals and plastics, electrical engineering/electronics/ telecommunications, energy and environmental engineering, commerce, machinery/motor vehicles/metal, tourism, and health). These groups then formulate a list of current and future sector-specific requirements for employees and jobseekers in their sectors. The outcomes are used by AMS for the design of training measures for the unemployed and are also meant to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations.

Financial schemes

None

Frequency of updates

Several publications per year between 2010 and 2014.

Development

The number of clusters that the instrument focuses on were expanded. E.g. in autumn 2010, clusters like "electrical engineering/ electronics, telecommunication", "health and care", or "energy and environmental technologies" were implemented.

Barriers

The main barrier is the translation of insights into practice.

Success factors

The structural change in the labour market (e.g. digitisation) increase the probability that insights are effectively put into practice by stakeholders.

Monitoring

Attendance at the events could be seen as a indicator for progress or success of the instrument, however no information is publicly available if attendance is actually measured.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

Slightly innovative as know-how of experts with (practical) experience in certain promising fields is used as input to improve the educational system.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

There is no evaluation or assessment of the effectiveness. The measure focuses strongly on gathering company experts’ views. At an early stage, other experts/institutions were included. The measure might gain in effectiveness if researchers were included in the process to comment on the views of company experts.

Engagement of stakeholders

Workshops are carried out regularly. They enable continuous engagement of stakeholders.

Transferability
Easily transferable

In general, the instrument is easily transferable. Success is however highly dependent on the stakeholders cooperation.

Sustainability

As the tasks of the instrument are not tied to a specific time frame, as skills needs and trends are always changing, the Standing Committee will remain relevant. For example, digitisation of the labour market became a more and more important topic during the last few years. The Standing Committee published several reports regarding this topic from 2015 to 2017.

Description

Timespan

This instrument was preceded by the so-called Stahlstiftung in the 1980s (retraining measures during industrial restructuring and employment decline in some sectors). It was first developed as a best practice measure at EU level and became a Austrian PES measure later.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

(Re-)training of unemployed people.

Policy goal

Mismatched unemployed people face greater difficulties in finding employment than other unemployed workers. The instrument, therefore, focuses on this sub-group of the unemployed workers to promote their labour market integration. The aim is to help the unemployed to find a job and the companies to reduce their skill shortages.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

Explicitly designed for mismatched unemployed.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
Regional
Main responsible body

AMS Oberösterreich

Stakeholders

Regional Government Upper Austria (Oberösterreich) provides the funding.

Funding

Depends on the individual implacement foundation. According to a study from 2010, PES bear 50% of the cost, on average not more than €2,500 per participant. Employers or third parties bear the rest of the cost.

Intended beneficiaries

Unemployed people

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Companies commission the regional PES to find candidates that will be trained to fill a vacancy. The PES has access to LMSI tools and platforms to identify suitable unemployed workers that could be retrained. The development of training plans for each future employee is designed according to the operational requirements. With the help of the PES, the company then chooses suitable unemployed workers that are retrained to fill the vacancy. The training can take up to three years. This might therefore help to reduce unemployment and skill shortages at the same time.

Financial schemes

In Upper Austria, 75% of training costs (up to €1,850 per participant) are funded by the Regional Government of Upper Austria. Participants of training receive unemployment benefits (Schulungsarbeitslosengeld) or similar benefits provided by the regional PES.

Frequency of updates

Depends on the individual implacement foundation, as there is no systematic evaluation of all local implacement foundations as a whole. Sporadically, evaluations of regional labour foundations are published.

Development

Initially, the instrument was implemented in the 1980's as a single measure to react to the high risk of lay-offs that threatened industrial steel workers that were employed at the largest Austrian steel company. Since then, this concept was also applied in other sectors.

Barriers

Success of the instrument depends on the cooperation with companies and the correct identification of labour shortages. Otherwise, there is a danger of deadweight effects.

Success factors

Success depends on the cooperation with companies and the correct identification of labour shortages. There is a danger of deadweight effects.

Monitoring

Success could be measured in successful labour market integrations after training. These are often between 60 or 70%. However, at the moment there is a lack of comprehensive and regular evaluation of the instrument. There are some regional evaluations (e.g. http://www.forschungsnetzwerk.at/downloadpub/AMSinfo130_2009.pdf) or surveys among participants (http://www.forschungsnetzwerk.at/downloadpub/AMSinfo149.pdf) available.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

Very long-term training periods are possible (can take up to three years). This allows participants to acquire theoretical, as well as practical knowledge and therefore allows comprehensive re-training.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Due to a lack of systematic and consistent evaluation, the assessment of effectiveness of this instrument is primarily based on single studies. According to an evaluation from 2008 in the Burgenland region, labour market integration rates were satisfying. In 2007, the share of persons in employment was 64.5% one week after the end of the measure, and 77% three months after the measure. Out of 98 interviewed participants, 75% were very satisfied with the measure and two thirds would take part again. 90% of the 39 interviewed companies that participated were either very satisfied or satisfied with the measure, and three quarters would use the instrument again. The instrument also promotes social dialogue, worker participation, and employee social responsibility.

Engagement of stakeholders

The process in itself promotes cooperation between PES, employers, unemployed, and implacement labour foundations, as its establishment is based on an agreement between social partners at company or sector level, in collaboration with the regional labour market service authority.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

Transferability depends on the national training system. As the training system in Austria is very formalised, (re-)training will result in a formally accepted vocational qualification. The measure might lose effectiveness if it were to be implemented in a less formalised vocational training system.

Sustainability

Yes, as further training will remain important to prevent skills mismatch.

Description

Timespan

Launched in 2002.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

Online information system for trends in qualifications.

Policy goal

Preparation of labour market related information to make it accessible and understandable for everyone. It helps all interested parties (PES employees, journalists, politicians, company representatives, persons who want to choose their career) to process information on the local, regional and national labour market.

Mismatch
Part of broader programme, yet with explicit focus

It provides information to potentially skills mismatched people to help them to adapt to (local) labour market needs.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

PES Austria (AMS Österreich)

Stakeholders

3s Unternehmensberatung GmbH (consulting company): technical implementation and content update.
ibw (Institut für Bildungsforschung der Wirtschaft - research institute) content update.

Funding

According to the Austrian PES, average annual funding (including expenditures for further development of the instrument) amounts to around €160,000.

Intended beneficiaries

The general public.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

Use of labour market studies, job advertisement data, interviews with company representatives and labour market experts.

Financial schemes

None

Frequency of updates

Most texts are updated every six months, the remaining ones are updated once a year.

Development

The instrument was adapted to improve the user experience, e.g. by making it more accessible. For example, a user survey (to evaluate the usability of the website and to investigate user behaviour) was carried out that influenced the further development of the instrument. Regarding content, a segment on green jobs/green skills, as well as a section on gender-related aspects of the labour market has been added. Also, the revised occupational classification of the PES (AMS Berufstaxonomie) had to be implemented.

Barriers

Internet access is required to access information on the website.

Success factors

In general, increasing availability and use of the internet should have broaden the user base of the instrument. According to the Austrian PES, general success factors are the easy-to-understand graphical presentation, as well as the well-established, well-documented, and comprehensible approach/methodology of the instrument.

Monitoring

Progress could be measured by internet traffic/number of users. This is measured by using specially developed software (Avtas).

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The information provided is a combination of qualitative and quantitative labour market information. The PES Skills Barometer also undertakes the attempt to pay more detailed attention to skills and competencies than usual in more traditional labour market information systems. It does not only inform about domain specific skills for every occupational field, but also about personal skills, the need for particular professional experiences, or additional skills in demand.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

According to a survey in 2010, users of the PES Skills Barometer are very satisfied with the information provided and the uses of the website. The website is used by people with both high and low skills. Therefore, it seems that the instrument is relevant not only for highly qualified users, but also for people with lower qualification levels. In other words, neither better qualified or lower qualified (potential) users were (unintentionally) excluded from the instrument, e.g. by providing information or services that are only relevant to a specific (e.g. high-skilled) user group.

Engagement of stakeholders

Continuous engagement of stakeholder is one requirement of the instrument, as it relies on interviews with labour market experts and company representatives.

Transferability
Not easily transferable

It depends on data availability and willingness of experts to participate.

Sustainability

Most users visit the website to gather information on retraining possibilities and to find a job. Provided that the instrument continues to offer a good user experience in the future (e.g. by regularly updating information on occupations), and given that the internet will remain one of the most important channels to collect information or to find work, the instrument should continue over the next few years.

Description

Timespan

Implementation started in July 2011.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

The measure aims to attract skilled immigrants from outside of the European Union.

Policy goal

The objective of this policy instrument is to attract those key and skilled workers from abroad who are urgently needed on the labour market, but cannot be recruited from the domestic labour supply (with due attention to the future development of the Austrian labour market and economy). It opens the labour market and regulates the opportunity for foreigners to receive employment permits in Austria.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch
Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
National
Main responsible body

Federal Ministry for the Interior, Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs, Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection

Stakeholders

AMS (PES Austria) provides a certificate that an applicant meets requirements for the red-white-red card.
Occupations in demand are defined annually by the Federal Ministry of Labour in agreement with the Federal Minister of Economics.
In 2011, social partners were involved in the development of the instrument via a commission under supervision of the Federal Ministry for the Interior.

Funding

No specific information on funding is available.

Intended beneficiaries

Labour force from outside of the European Union. The instrument is designed for highly-qualified workers, skilled workers in occupations characterised by skilled workers shortage, graduates from Austrian universities, self-employed skilled workers or start-up entrepreneurs Since January 2017, their income has to be at least €889.84 for a single person, €1,334.17 for married couples, and an additional €137.30 for each child. Applicants also need to have a health insurance and accommodation in Austria.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence

A points system was established to formalise the process of obtaining a red-white-red card. Applicants need to obtain at least 55 out of 90 points. Points are awarded for fulfilling several conditions, e.g. by having a qualification in an occupation in demand.

Financial schemes

None

Frequency of updates

Current information on the number of red-white-red cards issued is not frequently accessible.

Development

The regulation was adapted in October 2017. Validity of the card was extended from 12 months to two years. Also a "red-white-red-card plus" was introduced for persons who already held a red-white-red card for two years or, under certain conditions, for family members of immigrants living in Austria. These were reforms to increase the attractiveness of the red-white-red card as applications were below expectations.

Barriers

Unions were sceptical of the measure, but they nevertheless were involved in the development process of the instrument. Some parties (especially right-wing party FPÖ) opposes regulations that ease immigration. It remains to be seen if the FPÖ will oppose this instrument, as the party most likely will take on the responsibility of government in a coalition with ÖVP (Christian Democratic Conservative Party) in 2017.

Success factors

A skilled workers shortage in Austria, which resulted in lobbying activities of industry representatives for regulations to increase skilled immigration can be seen as a factor that created a need for action to implement the red-white-red card. Please note, however, that demand from workers from abroad for the red-white-red card was below expectations and the success therefore limited.

Monitoring

The number of red-white-red cards issued can be seen as a measure of progress or success of the instrument.

Innovativeness
Very innovative

The red-white-red card is an instrument to steer and attract highly-skilled immigration.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

1,773 red-white-red cards were issued in 2016. Total immigration from non-EU/EFTA-countries in 2016 was 73,000 and total employment was 4.2 million. Demand for this card therefore seems limited, since the red-white-red card was planned to lead to an immigration of 8,000 skilled workers per year before implementation. Nevertheless, immigration from non-EU-countries increased after implementation of the instrument. The high bureaucratic burden, as well as strict regulations for application were identified as the main reasons for causing low demand for this instrument. The development of the red-white-red card had ben described as the "revival" of social partner involvement in Austrian politics, as the instrument was implemented in a period that was characterised by an unusual decline in social partner involvement.

Transferability
Easily transferable

The success will depend on the context of the national economy (skilled workers shortage) and on the bureaucratic burden of this regulation.

Sustainability

As a reform of the instrument was implemented recently, it is expected to continue over the next few years.

Description

Timespan

Currently in operation. Ways of nursing is a sub-instrument of the AQUA (Arbeitsplatznahe Qualifizierung) project, which was established in early 2010.

Stage
Fully operational

Foundations

Policy area

(Re-)integration of people interested in health occupations.

Policy goal

To cover skill shortage in the field of nursing through information events. Fully supporting and financing the education of jobseekers with the outcome to increase the number of skilled employees in the field of nursing.

Mismatch
Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

Designed to cover skill shortage in the field of nursing.

Aim of policy instrument
Administrative level
Local
Main responsible body

PES Vienna (AMS Wien)

Stakeholders

Waff (Viennese employee promotion fund) provides information and support to participants.
Confederation of Viennese social institutions (Dachverband Wiener Sozialeinrichtungen) provides information about the measure.
AMS (Austrian PES) provides information about the programme, hosting of events in Berufsinformationszentren (job information centres).

Funding

No detailed information is publicly available.

Intended beneficiaries

People interested in the field of nursing.

Processes

Use of labour market intelligence
Frequency of updates

No detailed information is publicly available.

Development

No detailed information is publicly available.

Barriers

No detailed information is publicly available.

Success factors

No detailed information is publicly available.

Monitoring

Attendance at the events could be seen as an indicator to measure the progress of the policy instrument. However, no detailed information is publicly available.

Innovativeness
Slightly innovative

It is innovative in the sense of improved skills governance, as jobseekers are strategically directed towards training in occupations for which skills shortages exist at local level. Another aspect of improved governance is the working partnership with key stakeholders.

Sustainability

Evidence of effectiveness

Specifically for the instrument "Ways to nursing", no detailed information is publicly available.

Engagement of stakeholders

No detailed information is publicly available.

Transferability
Easily transferable

It can be transferred to all countries that experience labour shortages in some sectors or occupations.

Sustainability

As skilled workers shortages in care occupations will persist, the instrument might still be relevant in the next few years.