Reference year 2019

    Understanding of apprenticeships in the national context

    Q2. Is there an official definition of ‘apprenticeship’ or ‘apprentice’ in your country?

    The 2015 Law on Pre-school and School Education [1] covers only the upper-secondary dual training and complements the VET Act. Art. 115 defines work-based learning (dual training system) as a specific form of training in which the professional qualification is acquired through a) practical training in a real working environment and b) training in a vocational school. The work-based learning can be organised by the vocational school based on a partnership between one or more employers. Furthermore, work-based learning is organised for students that have reached 16 years and are in the second stage of upper secondary education. In the Vocational Education and Training Act, work-based learning was defined in the same way.


    [1] This law was adopted in 2015 and will enter into force in August 2016, State Gazette No. 79/2015

    Q3. At which level do apprenticeship schemes exist in your country?
    At upper secondary level
    At post-secondary (not tertiary)
    At tertiary level
    At sectoral level

    1. Dual education and training is offered in vocational schools at upper secondary level for students above 16 years of age. The training leads to 2nd or 3rd level professional qualifications (EQF level 4).  Upon completion, the diploma for the training gives access to tertiary education.

    2. Dual training is offered also in vocational training centres at post-secondary not tertiary level. It is an initial training or a continuous training leading to 1st, 2nd or 3rd level of professional qualification (EQF 2-4). The training is completed with a certificate for acquired professional qualification at a certain level.

    Q4. How well-established are apprenticeship schemes in your country?
    A long history (before 2000)
    A recent history (in 2000s)
    Pilot scheme

    1. After the amendments in legislation in 2014 introducing dual education and training, partnerships between schools and companies have been established to start offering dual vocational training.

    2. A pilot project called "Domino" (2015-2019) has been launched, which aims to introduce dual training in Bulgaria based on the Swiss model. The project is implemented within the Bulgarian-Swiss cooperation programme and is carried out jointly with the Ministry of Education and Science. It is supported by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and the Ministry of Economy [1]


    [1] The project has a website, and a facebook page: