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Reference Year 2019

Understanding of apprenticeships in the national context

Q2. Is there an official definition of ‘apprenticeship’ or ‘apprentice’ in your country?


In Hungary one national level mainstream “apprenticeship” scheme exists in initial VET called dual vocational training (the dual vocational training based on training contract).

The primary aim of the dual vocational training is to allow young people the comprehensive acquisition of necessary skills, by which they would be able to perform their tasks at work effectively and innovatively, independently and in cooperation with others as well.

Dual vocational training is a scheme in IVET where the responsibilities and costs for training are shared by the state and the companies. Implementation of dual vocational training is at the level of the school and the enterprise. Schools and employers i.e. businesses or so called other organisations (e.g. hospitals, foundations, associations, budgetary bodies, cooperatives, etc.), jointly contribute to the vocational training of students.  The vocational school provides for the vocational theoretical training of young people, while practical training is done by enterprises at the workplace.

More information is available at Ildikó Görgényi Modláné (2015): With Dual Training in the World of Work. Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Budapest. p. 8. (English version)

Q3. At which level do apprenticeship schemes exist in your country?

At upper secondary level
At post-secondary (not tertiary)
At tertiary level
At sectoral level

The main apprenticeship scheme exists at upper secondary level in vocational school programmes (ISCED level 353).

Q4. How well-established are apprenticeship schemes in your country?

A long history (before 2000)
A recent history (in 2000s)
Pilot scheme

Dual vocational training goes a long way back in Hungary. It was dominant in skilled workers’ training even before the political regime change (1989), and only the economic collapse in the early 1990s set it back for a decade. Since the beginning of the 2000s every government has supported apprenticeship. The legal framework allowing and supporting dual training has gone through a decade-long development. The new Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training and the subsequent legislation introduced further specifications and modifications.

Cedefop (2015): Apprenticeship-type schemes and structured work-based learning programmes. p.

According to the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Ildikó Görgényi Modláné (2015): With Dual Training in the World of Work. Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Budapest. (English version).

Q5. Relevant information that is essential to understanding the specificity of apprenticeships in the country and which does not fit under the scheme specific sections below.

The venue where practical training within any VET programme takes place, depends ultimately on the availability of companies to provide training and on the decision of the student, whether or not to become an apprentice. Since the early 2000s, the Hungarian education policy has introduced various incentives to carry out practical training in companies.

Central Statistics Office (2019): Education data, 2018/2019

Ministry for Innovation and Technology (2019): Vocational Training 4.0. (Hungarian version).