About four in ten enterprises in EU regions and sectors claim that they cannot meet their needs for labour and skills despite high unemployment. At the same time, according to Cedefop’s European skills and jobs (ESJ) survey, carried out in 2014 in all EU28 Member States, about 29% of European employees are either over- or under-qualified, with over-qualification increasing during the economic crisis.
Cedefop's European skills and jobs (ESJ) survey
The European skills and jobs (ESJ) survey, the first European survey on skill mismatch, examines drivers of skill development and mismatch in relation to the changing complexity of people’s jobs. It detects changing education and skill needs in different occupations and sectors and assesses the extent to which basic, digital and generic skills of individuals are valued in the job market. It also investigates the capacity of initial (e.g. work-based learning) and continuing vocational training to mitigate skill mismatch.
Cedefop debated the findings of the ESJ survey during the high-level conference ‘Maximising skills for jobs and jobs for skills’ that took place 7-8 December2015.
The report ‘Skills, qualifications and jobs: the making of a perfect match?’ contains a full analysis of the ESJ data and derives key policy messages.
Download short analytical pieces – the ‘#ESJsurvey Insights’ based on analysis of the ESJ survey and Cedefop’s wider research on skill mismatch.
Interested researchers and analysts can download the full questionnaire of the ESJ survey here.
This page will be updated regularly as new information and findings from the ESJ survey are released. For further information regarding the project please contact Konstantinos Pouliakas Konstantinos Pouliakas
- #ESJsurvey INSIGHTS - Skills utilisation = skills formation (2015)
- #ESJsurvey INSIGHTS - Safeguarding education investments: Mitigating overqualification in the EU (2015)
- #ESJsurvey INSIGHTS - Skill shortages in the EU (2015)
- Matching skills and jobs in Europe: Insights from Cedefop’s European skills and jobs survey (2015)
- December 2015, Thessaloniki – Maximising skills for jobs and jobs for skills: The power of partnerships
Cedefop's research on skills mismatch
Cedefop’s research shows that the goal of reducing skills mismatches requires reforms to increase the responsiveness of education and training systems to labour market needs, such as enhancing work-based learning. But skill mismatch changes over time, so striving to achieve a balance between skills and job needs is dependent on the provision of continuing vocational learning that goes hand in hand with skill-intensive jobs.
- Skills Development and matching in the EU (2016)
- Tackling unemployment while addressing skill mismatch (2015)
- Skill shortages and gaps in European enterprises (2015)
- Matching Skills and Labour Market Needs: Building Social Partnerships for better skills and better jobs (2014)
- Briefing note: Skill mismatch: more than meets the eye (2014)
- The skill mismatch challenge in Europe (2012)
- Skills mismatch. The role of the enterprise (2012)
- Briefing note: Preventing skill obsolescence (2012)
- Migrants, minorities, mismatch? (2011)
- The right skills for silver workers (2010)
- The skill matching challenge (2010)
- October 2015 Thessaloniki – Cedefop/IZA workshop on skills and skill mismatch