This toolkit uses the European Union definition of early leaving from education and training. The European Union defines early leavers from education and training as people aged 18-24 who have only lower secondary education or less, and who are no longer in education or training.
However, EU countries also use other definitions that cover different age groups. The good practices, tools, quick wins and other examples included in this toolkit, may be referring to these national definitions when mentioning early leaving or other related terms such as drop-out, non-completion, or contract dissolution, the latter used in the case of apprenticeships in some countries.
Yes. The toolkit focuses on helping young people stay in education, or return to it, until they attain an upper secondary education qualification. However, many of the tips, good practices and tools proposed can be used in either vocational or general education at different levels, including lower secondary and post-secondary education, as well as in second chance measures for those who left education and training. The toolkit focuses on young people, but does establish an age range. The content is relevant to help learners below 18 years-old and can also be of use for young people over 24.
Yes. This toolkit is inspired from Vocational Education and Training (VET) practices but many of the tips, good practices and tools proposed can also be used in general education or in second chance measures for those who have left education and training. Also, some are relevant to tackling drop out from VET at post-secondary levels.
Yes. This toolkit is inspired from VET practices but many of the tips, good practices and tools proposed can also be used in general education or in second chance measures for those who have left education and training.
This toolkit is based on the Cedefop study ‘Leaving education early: putting vocational education and training centre stage’. This study reviewed measures in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. It also reviewed toolkits and tools, some of which were developed by consortiums of entities from different EU countries. However, it did not map measures in all European countries. This means that it is possible that you will not find examples from your country. If you would like to suggest some interesting measures or tools from your country, we will be happy to review them and consider their inclusion in the toolkit. Please send us your suggestions.
The reflection tool comprises a list of structural indicators. Each one refers to an element of a strategy to tackle early leaving from VET. Having all the elements in place would correspond to having a comprehensive approach to tackling early leaving from VET. This would be an ideal situation. However, it is likely that some elements are missing or are not fully implemented in practice.
The purpose of the reflection tool is to promote reflection and discussions about the current strategies to tackle early leaving from VET, and how to improve them. One way of using it, would be to invite public authorities at different levels (national, regional, and local) to complete the questionnaire, and use their input to inform discussions. For instance, it would be interesting to see if the different levels of decision making see the same strengths and weaknesses in current policies. The list can also be used as a basis to discuss and agree on priorities.
Although the main target group of the reflection tool are policy makers, it could also be used to involve head teachers and other practitioners in discussions, to better understand their perspectives on the policies in place.