Indicators are the building blocks of skills intelligence visualisations. They are based on datasets (such as Labour Force Survey, or Cedefop Skills Forecast), sourced by various organisations (such as Eurostat or Cedefop). An indicator is a slice of the data, providing a particular piece of information, such as future employment growth, unemployment rate or task importance.

This information can usually be broken down even further - most often by occupation, education, age, gender or sector. Indicators can also relate to most important topics of Cedefop work.
Use the filter options to find out which indicators relate to particular sources, datasets or topics.

Cedefop

Cedefop is one of the EU’s decentralised agencies. Founded in 1975 and based in Greece since 1995, Cedefop supports development of European vocational education and training (VET) policies and contributes to their implementation. The agency is helping the European Commission, EU Member States and the social partners to develop the right European VET policies with the aim to provide the right skills to citizens.
Cedefop's European skills and jobs (ESJ) survey provides insights into the match between the skills and jobs of adult workers in European countries. The analysis aims to inform a diverse audience of public vocational education and training (VET) and labour market policy-makers and the social partners, and to provide important lessons for policy-making geared towards tackling the phenomenon of skill mismatch in European job markets. The ESJ survey was carried out by Cedefop in 2014 in all 28 EU Member States, collecting information on the match of the skills of about 49 000 EU workers. Learn more here.

Indicators (17)

Automation risk for occupations

As a part of its Digitalization and future of work project, Cedefop estimates the risks of automation for occupations ...

Education for hiring

The indicator shows what are employers' requirements for qualification during recruitment process ...

Foundation skills gaps

The percentage of adult EU28 employees whose foundation or basic skills (literacy, numeracy, ICT, foreign languages) are ranked lower/are barely matched to the level needed to do their job ...

Importance of foundation skills

Indicator shows the percentage of jobs for which foundation skills (literacy, numeracy, ICT, foreign languages) are very important for doing the job ...

Importance of job specific skills

Indicator shows the percentage of jobs for which job-specific/technical skills are ranked as essential ...

Importance of transversal skills

Indicator shows the percentage of jobs for which transversal skills - communication skills, team-working skills, customer handling skills, problem solving skills, learning skills and planning and organisation skills - are ranked as essential ...

Job satisfaction

The indicator shows the percentage of adult EU28 employees who enjoy above-average levels of satisfaction with their current job ...

Job-specific skills gaps

The percentage of adult employees whose job-specific/technical skills are ranked lower/are barely matched to the level needed to do their job ...

Learning intensity at work

The percentage of adult EU28 employees whose need to learn new things has increased a lot since the start their current job ...

Skills development at work

Indicator shows the percentage of adult EU28 employees who said that their skills (all of the knowledge, competences and experience gained during the time they have been working) have improved a lot compared to when they started their job with their current employer ...

Skills obsolescence

This indicator shows the percentage of adult employees who believe it is likely, or very likely, that several of their skills will become outdated in the next five years ...

Skills under-utilisation

This indicator shows the percentage of adult employees who report that they have higher skills that required to perform their current job (over-skilled workers) ...

Training for work

The percentage of adult EU28 employees who attended any form of training (both non-formal and informal) in last twelve months ...

Transversal skills gaps

The percentage of adult employees whose transversal skills - communication skills, customer handling skills, learning skills, planning and organization skills, problem solving skills and team-working skills - are ranked lower/are barely matched to the level needed to do their job ...

Under-skilling

This indicator shows the percentage of adult employees who report that their skills are lower than required to perform their current job ...

Under-skilling at hiring

This indicator shows the percentage of adult employees who report that their skills were lower than what was required by their job at the time of hiring ...

Workplace learning

Indicator shows the percentage of adult EU28 employees whose studies during their highest level of education and training involved some learning in a workplace (e ...
Cedefop Skill Supply and Demand Forecasts provide comprehensive information on the future labour market trends in Europe. The forecasts refer to employment by sector, occupation and qualification. The forecasts aim to act as an early warning mechanism to help to alleviate potential labour market imbalances and support different labour market actors in making informed decisions. The 2020 edition of Skills Forecasts is used. Learn more here.

Indicators (11)

Employment growth in high-tech economy

The indicator provides the employment growth in manufacturing and service sectors that are considered to hi-tech, knowledge intensive ones ...

Employment growth in high-tech occupations

The indicator shows how share of people employed in science, engineering and ICT occupations will change in the future across EU Member States and economy sectors ...

Employment in high-tech economy

The indicator provides the share of people employed in manufacturing and service sectors that are considered to hi-tech, knowledge intensive ones ...

Employment in high-tech occupations

The share of people employed in science, engineering and ICT occupations either as professionals or associate professionals ...

Future annual employment growth

In order to develop coherent policies with regard to education, skills and employment in an economy, we need to know: how many people will be employed in the coming years, and what are the jobs in which they will be working ...

Future employment growth

Projected changes in employment to 2030 ...

Future employment needs

The future employment needs indicator offers an estimate of the total job openings in each occupation in the period to 2030 ...

Future job openings

The indicator provides a number of people who will be required to work in an occupation in forthcoming years ...

Future job prospects

The future job prospects indicator compares future number of job openings in a particular occupation to total employment in that occupation ...

Future of VET occupations

Based on the indicator VET occupations, which estimates the share of people with vocational qualifications in employment across occupations, the Future of VET occupations indicator brings their employment outlook up to 2030 ...

Future qualification demand

The indicator shows how qualification levels of employed people shall change between 2018 and 2030 ...
The project Big data analysis from online advertisements looks at jobs and skills demand advertised by employers via online recruitment channels. The analysis is based on established international classifications: ISCO-08 for occupations, NUTS-2 for regions and ESCO version 1 for skills and Skills intelligence section provides results and analysis for 28 European countries here.

Indicator

Skills in online job advertisements

Skills intelligence section brings insights on jobs and skills requested in online job advertisements ...

Eurofound

The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) is a tripartite European Union Agency, whose role is to provide knowledge to assist in the development of better social, employment and work-related policies. Eurofound was established in 1975 by Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1365/75 to contribute to the planning and design of better living and working conditions in Europe. Visit source web site: Eurofound
The European database of tasks indices across jobs in the EU15 (minus UK) economy is using most recent data from European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS 2015), a European (Italian) version of the O*NET database of occupational contents (ICP 2012) and the OECD s PIAAC Survey. The database of tasks Indicator was created based on a coherent and comprehensive taxonomy of tasks contents, methods and tools developed in Fernández-Macías and Bisello (2020), which builds on the original version published in Fernández-Macías et al., (2016a, 2016b) including several additional new concepts and indicators at different levels. Note: Currently, all estimations presented are those of the Skill intelligence team and not those of Eurofound or any of the national statistical authorities whose data have been used. Learn more here.

Indicator

Tasks within occupations

The indicator analysis the importance of various tasks/skills required for occupations at the 2-digit ISCO code level ...

Eurostat

Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union situated in Luxembourg. Its task is to provide the European Union with statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions. Visit source web site: Eurostat
The European Union Labour Force Survey (EU LFS) is conducted in the 28 Member States of the European Union. The EU LFS is a large household sample survey providing quarterly results on labour participation of people aged 15 and over as well as on persons outside the labour force. All definitions apply to persons aged 15 years and over living in private households. Persons carrying out obligatory military or community service are not included in the target group of the survey, as is also the case for persons in institutions/collective households. Note: Currently, all estimations presented are those of the Skills intelligence team and not those of Eurostat or any of the national statistical authorities whose data have been used. Learn more here.

Indicators (21)

Activity rate

The labour force or economically active population, includes both employed (employees and self-employed) and unemployed people, but not the economically inactive, such as pre-school children, school children, students and pensioners ...

Employed population

The employed population refers to the total number of people of any age who are currently in work (defined as having worked at least one hour in the reference week) ...

Employed population by occupation and sector

This indicator shows where people with certain occupation - for example managers - work ...

Employed population by sector and occupation

This indicator shows what occupations - such as managers, professionals or agriculture workers - are employed within a specific sector of the economy (for example agriculture, forestry and fishing sector) ...

Employed population participating in education and training

The participation rate in training or education of the employed population indicates the percentage of people aged 25 to 64 who received education or training over the employed population ...

Employment by field of study

This indicator provides shares of people with certain field of study in total employment in an occupation ...

Employment rate

The employment rate is an important indicator when studying developments within labour markets ...

Involuntary part-time employment

The part-time employment indicates the percentage of part-time workers over total employment, based on results from the European Labour Force Survey (EU LFS) ...

Involuntary temporary employment

Temporary employment includes work under a fixed-term contract ...

Job Turnover

The job turnover indicator provides the percentage of employed people that started to work in a certain occupation during last 12 months ...

Long-term unemployment rate

For many people, unemployment may just last a few weeks or months, and, as such, does not pose a problem ...

Over-qualification rate (of tertiary graduates)

This indicator shows the share of young (aged 25-34), tertiary education (ISCED 5 or 6) graduates employed in posts not included in categories of managers (ISCO 1), professionals (ISCO 2), or technicians and associate professionals (ISCO 3) ...

Part-time employment

The part-time employment indicates the percentage of part-time workers over total employment, based on results from the European Labout Force Survey (EU LFS) ...

Population in education and training

This indicator provides an important measure of the extent to which people of working age in an economy are developing their skills through participation in education and training of some kind ...

Self-employment

The self-employment indicates the percentage of self-employed workers over total employment, based on results from the European Labour Force Survey (EU LFS) ...

Temporary employment

The indicator shows the number of people that have temporary contract as a share of all people in employment, based on results from the European Labout Force Survey (EU LFS) ...

Unemployment by occupation

The indicator provides a share of unemployed people by occupation ...

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate gives an indication of the extent to which there are more people looking for work than there are jobs available ...

VET occupations

The purpose of this indicator is to estimate size and share of employment of people with vocational (VET) qualifications across EU countries and in the United Kingdom ...

Working-age population

Whilst people of all ages may be engaged in work of one kind or another, the potential pool of workers is typically considered to be limited to those aged between 15 and 64 years ...

Young persons neither in employment nor education or training (NEET)

Youth unemployment is a problem which tends to affect all countries with weak or negative employment growth ...
Data are collected annually by the National Statistical Institutes based on Eurostat s annual model questionnaires on ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) usage in households and by individuals. The model questionnaire changes every year. The population of households consists of all private households having at least one member in the age group 16 to 74 years. The population of individuals consists of all individuals aged 16 to 74 (on an optional basis some countries collect separate data on other age groups, individuals aged 15 years or less, aged 75 or more). Learn more here.

Indicator

Digital skills use

The indicator provides the share of people whose digital skills use is above basic ...
The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is an instrument aiming at collecting timely and comparable cross-sectional and longitudinal multidimensional microdata on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions. Social exclusion and housing condition information is collected mainly at household level while labour, education and health information is obtained for persons aged 16 and over. The core of the instrument, income at very detailed component level, is mainly collected at personal level. Note: Currently, all estimations presented are those of the Skills intelligence team and not those of Eurostat or any of the national statistical authorities whose data have been used. Learn more here.

Indicators (2)

Monthly Gross Income

The indicator provides information about usual range of monthly gross income for occupations in EUR ...

Relative monthly gross income

The indicator compares median income of an occupation (such as "accounting clerks") to median income of "parent" occupation group (in this case "clerks") ...