NQF country report

The Romanian education and training system faces several challenges, according to key education and training indicators. The results of the 2015 programme for international student assessment (PISA) showed that the proportion of 15 year-olds with underachievement in reading, mathematics and science is almost double EU average levels (38.7%, 39.9% and 38.5%, respectively). The low levels of performance are partly linked to students' socioeconomic background and partly attributed to other educational factors, such as teaching and curricula. The percentage of pupils who leave education and training early is the third highest in the EU (18.5% in 2016), with large disparities between urban and rural areas. An early warning mechanism is being developed to tackle this issue. Integrating the Roma population in education and on the labour market has proved challenging, with 64% of the Roma young people being not in employment, education or training (NEETs). School reform has included the introduction of a competence-based curriculum in primary and secondary education, and training of teachers to use it. The rate of tertiary education attainment is the lowest in the EU (25.6% in 2016, compared to 39.1% EU average) and, coupled with a high rate of emigration, is expected to lead to skill shortages in several sectors. However, measures have been taken to improve the labour market relevance of higher education and the employment rate of recent graduates is improving. Participation in vocational education and training (VET) is above the EU average. Current reforms are focused on introducing dual VET programmes at levels 3, 4 and 5 of the national qualifications framework (NQF), for which a legal framework is being adopted. The proportion of adults participating in lifelong learning is very low (1.2% in 2016) despite a need for upskilling. While legislative measures to establish community lifelong learning centres were adopted in 2017, implementation is slow (European Commission, 2017).

In 2013, Romania adopted a learning-outcomes-based NQF for lifelong learning – the Romanian national qualifications framework (ROQF) – by Government Decision No 918/2013 ([1] Government Decision No 918/2013 on the approval of the NQF, available at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/170238. ). It closely follows the eight-level structure of the EQF and aims to bring together nationally recognised qualifications from initial and continuing vocational education and training (IVET and CVET), apprenticeship, general and higher education, and to help integrate the validation of non-formal learning into the national qualifications system.

The framework builds on reforms in VET and development of competence-based qualifications since the 1990s, including a tripartite agreement between the Government, employers' representatives and trade unions, signed in 2005, aiming to establish a coherent national system of qualifications. Parallel work was carried out in higher education, steered by the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Economic and Social Environment. A national qualifications framework for higher education (QFHE), in line with the Bologna process and the European qualifications framework (EQF), has been implemented and is a constitutive part of the comprehensive ROQF. Self-certification was completed in 2011.

One of the main challenges has been to link the development processes, structures and stakeholders from VET and higher education, and to improve links with the labour market. An important step was taken in June 2011 when the National Council for Adult Vocational Training and the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Economic and Social Environment were merged into one single body – the National Qualifications Authority (NQA) – responsible for developing and implementing a comprehensive NQF. The NQA is the national contact point for the EQF (EQF-NCP); since 2018 it has also been the National Europass Centre.

The ROQF was referenced to the EQF in April 2018.

Romania faces a challenge in raising the quality of education; skills shortage also remains a problem for the country. There is insufficient coherence in the qualification system and a lack of progression opportunities between initial VET, CVET and higher education. Validation of non-formal and informal learning within formal education, needed to support education access and mobility, is not yet possible. Qualifications should respond better to labour market needs and there is a requirement for greater transparency of learning outcomes and labour force mobility. National qualifications also need to be understood abroad and linked to the EQF, to promote mobility of learners and workers between European countries.

The ROQF aims to improve the transparency, comparability and portability of people's qualifications, to support mobility both in education and training and on the labour market. It is also seen as a tool to support national reforms and modernisation of education and training. It opens up the possibility to address several issues, such as coherence and progression in the education system, use of validation, adult participation in lifelong learning, and transitions between work and education. It is linked to a number of policy strategies in education, training and employment: the National strategy for lifelong learning 2015-20 ([2] The National strategy for lifelong learning 2015-20 is available in Romanian at: https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/_fi%C8%99iere/Minister/2016/strategii/Strategie%20LLL%20(1).pdf); the Strategy for VET 2016-20 ([3] The Strategy for VET 2016-20 is available in Romanian at: http://oldsite.edu.ro/index.php/articles/24340 ); the National strategy for tertiary education 2015-20 ([4] The National strategy for tertiary education 2015-20 is available in Romanian at: https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/fisiere%20articole/Strategie_inv_tertiar_2015_2020.pdf) and the National sustainable development strategy Horizons 2013-2020-2030 ([5] The National sustainable development strategy is available in English at: http://www.mmediu.ro/beta/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/2012-06-12_dezvoltare_durabila_nsdsenglish12112008.pdf). Developing the ROQF and better coordination between stakeholders is highlighted as a cross-cutting action contributing to two of the strategic pillars of the National strategy for lifelong learning 2015-20: Pillar 2, increasing quality and relevance, and Pillar 3, partnerships.

According to the referencing report (Ministry of Education and NQA, 2018), the process of referencing the ROQF to the EQF has contributed to the development of a qualifications culture, built on the principles of quality, transparency, transferability and progression.

The ROQF comprises eight qualification levels that can be acquired in education and training and by validation of learning outcomes from non-formal and informal learning contexts. National level descriptors are identical to EQF level descriptors. They are defined in terms of three categories of learning outcomes: knowledge (theoretical and/or factual); skills, divided into cognitive skills (use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical skills (manual dexterity and use of methods, materials, tools and instruments); and responsibility and autonomy ([6] The third category of level descriptors, initially called 'competence', was recently amended to 'responsibility and autonomy' in line with the Council recommendation of 22 May 2017 on the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (Government Decision 132/2018 modifying and supplementing Government Decision 918/2013 on the adoption of the NQF).).

There is commitment to, and visible preoccupation with, strengthening the learning outcomes approach as part of the national reform programme. Changes in national policies are mainly driven by the European legislative framework, also influenced in recent years by workforce migration and student mobility. Poor results in the programme for international student assessment (PISA) (OECD, 2014) resulted in pressure for more comprehensive understanding, among practitioners in general education and teacher training (initial and continuous), of learning outcomes and use of knowledge and skills in real-life situations.

As reported for a Cedefop study on the subject (Cedefop, 2016), the learning outcomes concept is not widely shared. There are many different interpretations due to various linguistic and pedagogic concepts. For a successful shift to learning outcomes, an integrated approach to curriculum, assessment or examination, and teacher training would be required; these connections are not yet sufficiently coherent in the Romanian system.

The VET sector is at the forefront of the use of the learning outcomes approach, responding directly to social and economic needs. Initial vocational and technical qualifications have been developed since 2003, based on training standards with units of learning outcomes, in turn based on occupational standards ([7] The guidelines on the writing and application of learning outcomes in VET have been adopted through Order No 5293/2015 of the Minister of Education on the approval of the structure of training standards in VET. ). Vocational training standards have been developed in collaboration with the social partners, validated by sectoral committees, and approved by the Ministry of National Education. New curricula have been designed. Occupational standards are used in continuing vocational education and training (CVET) and are based on elements of competence to be proved at the workplace. The standards are approved by the National Qualifications Authority, after validation by sectoral committees. The new occupational standards include a curriculum unique to each occupation listed in the classification of occupations.

There are two factors which keep the implementation of the learning outcomes approach in adult education at an early stage: low participation of adults in lifelong learning (1.2% in 2016) and a diversified institutional landscape with different types of institutions, programmes and organisational arrangements.

Within higher education, qualifications are linked to the credit structure of the European credit transfer system (ECTS), which is compulsory for all higher education institutions in Romania. Use of a competence-based model is part of higher education reform. However, further efforts are needed to ensure better definition of certain competences for the study programmes to aid differentiation between bachelor and master degrees. There is a challenge in using competence-based models in designing curricula, learning resources and assessment tools (Cedefop, 2016).

The implementation of learning outcomes in all education sectors is seen as an important challenge in the future implementation of the ROQF. It is yet to be clarified how – and how far – learning outcomes are to be implemented in the different sectors. The development of mechanisms for writing and implementing learning outcomes in education is envisaged through projects (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018). For instance, within the project National coordinators for the implementation of the European agenda for adult learning ([8] Project National coordinators for the implementation of the European agenda for adult learning; Agreement No 2015-2770/001-001; Project No 567464-EPP-2015-1-RO-EPPKA3-AL-AGENDA.
The methodological guide for the writing of learning outcomes developed as part of the project is available in Romanian at: http://site.anc.edu.ro/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Ghid_Metodologic_privind_scrierea_rezultatelor_invatari.pdf
), NQA has developed a guide for writing learning outcomes in cooperation with education and labour market stakeholders, and has carried out dissemination activities. The Ministry of National Education has a project including six pilot study programmes, for six key fields, based on the learning outcomes approach.

The involvement of stakeholders in the development of the NQF is underpinned by the National Education Law No 1/2011 ([9] Article 340 of the National Education Law No 1/2011, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/125150). The NQF itself was adopted through Government Decision No 918/2013 ([10] Government Decision No 918/2013 on the approval of the NQF, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/170238), subsequently amended by Government Decision No 567/2015 ([11] Government Decision No 567/2015, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/170190) and Government Decision No 132/2018 ([12] Government Decision No 132/2018, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/199134). The main body responsible for developing and implementing the comprehensive ROQF is the National Qualifications Authority, NQA (Autoritatea Nationala pentru Calificari, ANC). It is the national coordination point (NCP) for EQF and, since 2018, it has also been appointed as the National Europass Centre. NQA was established in June 2011, under the coordination of the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research (currently, the Ministry of National Education), bringing together two institutions: the National Council for Adult Vocational Training, in charge of CVET qualifications, and the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Economic and Social Environment, responsible for higher education qualifications. The bodies responsible for general education and initial VET are, respectively, the Ministry of National Education and the National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development.

Quality assurance in education and training, for which the NQF is seen as a relevant tool, is coordinated through the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, and the Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Pre-University Education. These are responsible for accreditation of education providers and programmes in higher education and, respectively, in general education and initial VET. The NQA is responsible for quality assurance in non-formal and informal learning, through the National Accreditation Centre, which is currently authorising assessment centres for competences obtained by ways other than formal. The Ministry of Labour and Social Justice is expected to be responsible for quality assurance in adult learning in the future ([13] According to Government Emergency Ordinance No 96/2016 (which is in force but still in Parliament debate and awaiting ratification). ). The National Group for Quality Assurance is an additional informal inter-institutional structure that ensures the coordination of quality assurance in vocational education and training.

Positive aspects in Romania are the clear governance structure for the development of the NQF, the strong role of NQA as initiator of legislation, and good human resource capacity. However, the downside of the current governance arrangement is that approval and implementation of legislative proposals is slow.

The NQA has the following competences in relation to the development of the NQF:

  1. proposes elements of national policies and strategies, and drafts legislation on the NQF;
  2. develops, implements and updates the NQF;
  3. develops and updates methodologies for NQF implementation;
  4. develops instruments needed for monitoring, evaluation and control of the NQF;
  5. is responsible for the national qualifications registers;
  6. ensures compatibility of the national qualifications system with other existing qualifications systems at European and international levels.

[14] This section draws mainly on input from the 2018 update to the European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning (European Commission et al., forthcoming).

A legislative framework for the validation of non-formal and informal learning (VNFIL) in Romania dates back to 2004 ([15] Common Order of the Minister of Education and the Minister of Labour No 4543/468 of 23 August 2004 for approving the procedure on assessment and certification of competences acquired in a non-formal and informal context, based on Ordinance 129/2000 on adult learning.) when the process of assessment and certification of professional competences obtained in ways other than formal was first defined and described. The National Law of Education No 1/2011 ([16] National Education Law No 1/2011 available in Romanian at: https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/_fi%C8%99iere/Minister/2017/legi…) reaffirms the role of validation in lifelong learning policies, and defines validation in line with previous legislation as 'the process of assessment and certification of informal and non-formal learning'. The National strategy for lifelong learning (2015-20) ([17] The National strategy for lifelong learning 2015-20, adopted by Government Decision No 418/2015, is available in Romanian at: https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/_fi%C8%99iere/Minister/2016/strategii/Strategie%20LLL%20(1).pdf) provides a direction for developing validation mechanisms and addressing issues related to financial incentives, information, counselling and access to validation, especially for disadvantaged groups. The first action line of the Action plan 2015-20 for the implementation of the strategy includes measures related to the recognition of prior learning, including the recognition of competences acquired abroad.

The establishment in 2014 of a dedicated structure for validation within the NQA, the National Centre for Accreditation, has contributed to improving validation system coordination. This structure is responsible for authorising professional competences assessment centres and practitioners in validation of non-formal and informal learning of adults; evaluation and certifying of assessors and evaluators; and monitoring the performance of assessment centres and of individual assessors. The developments initiated by the National Centre for Accreditation over recent years focused on increasing the quality of the validation process and regulating the selection of staff involved in validation services ([18] Decision No 1247/2017 on instructions for the authorisation of assessment and certification centres; Decision No 210/2018 for the approval of the procedure for evaluation and certification of assessment and certification experts and their registration in the evaluation and certification experts register; Order No 3629/2018 on the approval of the methodology for establishing the criteria and procedures for evaluation and certification of professional competence of assessors, evaluators of evaluators and external evaluators.).

Current work on the national qualifications framework and register, including the recent adoption of legislation on the National register of professional qualifications in education, the National register of professional qualifications, and the National register of qualifications in higher education ([19] Order No 3023/2018 on the control of professional training standards and their registration in the National register of professional qualifications in education; Government Decision No 917/2018 regarding the approval of the National register of professional qualifications and Order No 5686/2017 regarding the modification and completion of the Methodology for registration of higher education qualifications in the National register of qualifications in higher education (approved by the Order of the Minister of National Education No 3475/2017).) is also expected to impact favourably on the development of validation services. The legislative basis for the ROQF states that qualifications obtained through non-formal and informal education will be included in the framework using ROQF level descriptors. The current methodology allows competence certificates to be obtained through validation of non-formal and informal learning up to ROQF level 3 ([20] According to Government Decision No 918/2013 for the approval of the national qualifications framework, amended by Government Decision No 567/2015.).

However, the current non-formal system in Romania operates parallel to the formal system, and the bridge between the two is still under development. It is not possible to obtain formal qualifications (full or partial) through validation of non-formal and informal learning. The validation system is mainly for adults and those who do not tend to go back to the formal system. In the ROQF, validation is linked only with occupational standards that relate to CVET qualifications. These occupational standards are not the same as the training standards used for certification in formal education and training.

Vocational skills acquired in non-formal and informal learning can be evaluated following requests from individual beneficiaries made to the relevant professional competences assessment centres, authorised and monitored by the National Centre for Accreditation. An assessment commission is responsible for applying the validation methodology and for sending the requests for certificates to the NQA. Any legal entity in Romania can apply to become an assessment centre: this involves sending a request to the NQA and providing evidence of the assessment procedures, tools and expertise in the specific qualification or competence. Education and training providers may apply for authorisation to become assessment centres for specific qualifications, but so far only a few schools and universities have done so. According to data provided by the NQA, the number of accredited assessment centres and beneficiaries that gained certificates through validation has fallen in recent years, and the national coverage of assessment centres remains a challenge. However, the quality of services provided has been strengthened as a result of quality assurance mechanisms implemented recently. According to the NQA database, there are approximatively 30 active assessment centres, mainly in services, construction and social protection (data from 2018). The higher concentration of assessment centres in these sectors is the result of the sectors' interest and their specific agenda around validation.

The chapter on lifelong learning in the National Law of Education No 1/2011 ([21] National Education Law No 1/2011, available in Romanian at: https://www.edu.ro/sites/default/files/_fi%C8%99iere/Minister/2017/legi…) creates the legal basis for developing community lifelong learning centres. These have several aims: carry out analysis of education and training needs at a local level; increase access to non-formal and informal learning and to validation of learning outcomes from non-formal and informal learning through second chance programmes and certification of skills and competences; and promote partnerships with the labour market. The creation of these centres, however, is still under discussion. The methodology for their establishment has been proposed for public debate, but has not yet been approved, despite the view of many stakeholders that they may increase access to validation services of specific disadvantaged groups, especially in rural and isolated communities.

The ROQF is well embedded in national legislation and linked to policy strategies in education, training and employment ([22] The National strategy for lifelong learning 2015-20; the Strategy for VET 2016-20; the National strategy for tertiary education 2015-20; the National sustainable development strategy (for links to these documents, please see Section Policy objectives above).). It has been revised according to the 2017 Council recommendation on the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning ([23] Council of the European Union (2017). Council recommendation on the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning and repealing the recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. Official Journal of the European Union, C 189, 15.6.2017, pp. 15-27. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2017.189.01.0015.01.ENG&toc=OJ:C:2017:189:TOC ) and is considered to have reached an operational stage (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018). It covers all education and training sectors and is open to qualifications acquired through formal, non-formal and informal learning. Given its envisaged role in responding to changing labour market needs, in supporting national qualification system transparency and quality, and the recognition of qualifications needed to encourage mobility, the ROQF is expected to become a permanent feature of the national qualifications system ([24] Cedefop (2015). Survey on the sustainability and visibility of NQFs [unpublished].).

The ROQF for lifelong learning includes the framework for higher education adopted in 2011. In 2014 a ministerial order ([25] Order of the Ministry of Education No 3973/2014, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/160559) entered into force regulating equivalence between the five qualification levels available prior to 2013 (four levels for secondary non-tertiary qualifications and one level for higher education) and the eight levels of the ROQF. An amendment to the 2013 government decision on approval of the NQF was published in July 2015 ([26] Government Decision No 567/2015, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/170190). Its aim is to clarify correspondence between the NQF/EQF levels, qualifications issued and the type of education and training programmes that lead to qualifications at each level, as well as access requirements for each NQF level. The legal base was further amended in 2018 ([27] Government Decision No 132/2018, available in Romanian at: http://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocument/199134), stipulating that, as of 1 January 2019, all qualifications and qualification supplements, as well as all qualification databases, are to contain a clear reference to the corresponding NQF level. Other existing regulations refer to the inclusion of NQF levels on qualification documents in the different sectors ([28] Order No 3844/2016 approving the regulations on the status of study diplomas for secondary education; methodological norm of 8.5.2003 for enforcing the provisions of Government Ordinance No 129/2000 regarding adult learning, further amended and supplemented; Government Decision no. 728/2016 approving the content and format of the study documents to be issued for 2nd cycle graduates – masters, and 1st and 2nd cycle combined graduates; Order No 3742/2016 on approving the template of the Europass supplements.), though information about the number of qualifications that already specify the NQF/EQF levels is not yet available (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018).

The sectors that were given priority in implementing the NQF were general education, higher education and vocational education and training. The establishment of a national register of qualifications in higher education (NRQHE) was decided in 2011 ([29] Order of the Minister of National Education No 5703/2011, replaced by Order No 5204/2014. The register in its current form is available at: http://site.anc.edu.ro/registrul-national-al-calificarilor-din-invatamantul-superior-rncis/); this covers qualifications from higher education at ROQF levels 6, 7 and 8. The methodology for placing higher education qualifications in the register, amended in 2014 and 2017, is based on a two-step procedure: validation and registration of qualifications. Starting in 2018, it is mandatory for registered qualifications to be described in terms of learning outcomes and to be related to at least one representative occupation from the Romanian classification of occupations. This aims to ensure the links between skills and learning outcomes acquired in education and competences on the labour market. The VET focus has been on developing training standards in line with occupational standards and labour market needs, and the procedure for their approval. The national register of professional qualifications in education, comprising qualifications from initial VET, was approved by a ministerial order in January 2018 ([30] Order No 3023/2018 regarding the verification of training standards and their entry into the national register of professional qualifications in education.) and subsequently incorporated into the national register of professional qualifications (NRPQ), approved by Government Decision No 917/2018. The NRPQ shall comprise all nationally recognised qualifications corresponding to the NQF levels 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, obtained in education and vocational training, in formal, non-formal and informal contexts, including adult education.

The two main registers (NRPQ and NRQHE) are to be brought together under the umbrella of the national qualifications register ([31] The Government Decision regarding the national qualifications register and all its components is currently pending approval.).

The framework is made visible to potential stakeholders through a variety of actions carried out by the NQA. Information campaigns using media channels (radio and TV) aim to improve awareness among the general public. The EU-funded project National Europass Centre + EQF NCP 2018-20, implemented by the NQA, aims to raise awareness with respect to the EQF/NQF among representatives of social partners, public employment services, education providers, quality assurance bodies and other public authorities through meetings, conferences and workshops discussing the developments related to the NQF and the use of learning outcomes. Currently prioritised target groups are higher education and the low-skilled.

As the referencing of the ROQF has been recently finalised, evaluation will be approached at a later stage. Currently, the framework is thought to have an increasing impact on promoting the use of learning outcomes; on the review and quality of qualifications through the use of learning outcomes in designing curricula and in qualification, occupational and training standards; and on facilitating contact between education sectors and increasing cooperation between sectors and between stakeholders (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018).

A draft referencing report (Romanian Ministry of Education and NQA, 2014) was presented in June 2014. Following comments from the EQF advisory group and revision of the EQF recommendation in 2017 ([32] Council recommendation of 22 May 2017 on the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning and repealing the recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. Official Journal of the European Union, C 189, 15.6.2017, pp. 15-27. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2017.189.01.0015.01.ENG&toc=OJ:C:2017:189:TOC), a revised referencing report (Romanian Ministry of Education NQA, 2018) was presented and approved in the EQF advisory group in April 2018. One focus in the revised report was referencing criterion 4 on the procedures for inclusion of qualifications in the NQF. The next revision of the referencing report is foreseen for 2022.

Romania has focused in recent years on updating the legal base of the ROQF, developing qualification databases, clarifying procedures for inclusion of qualifications in the framework and updating methodologies. Efforts were mostly driven by the 2017 Council recommendation on the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning, and the aim of finalising referencing the ROQF to the EQF.

One key challenge to ROQF implementation so far has been the introduction of the learning outcomes approach in all sectors of education and training, which is now seen as imperative and a point of action for the future (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018). Increasing efforts have been made in this regard to raise awareness about and understanding of the use and writing of learning outcomes.

A national register of qualifications in higher education has become operational. In November 2018 the national register of professional qualifications (NRPQ) was approved by Government Decision No 917/2018, intended to include all nationally recognised qualifications linked to NQF levels 1 to 5, regardless of how they are acquired. The approval and implementation of a national register of qualifications (RNC), aimed to bring together these two main registers, is currently pending.

It is essential to have good cooperation between different stakeholders and structures. Merging the National Council for Adult Training and the Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education into a single body, the National Qualifications Authority, responsible for the development and implementation of a comprehensive NQF, was an important step in supporting more coherent approaches. The NQA is also responsible for coordinating the system of validation of non-formal and informal learning; in 2018 it was appointed National Europass Centre. Increasing contact and enhanced cooperation between different stakeholders, supported by NQF-related projects, has also been observed.

Validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning was an important driver of NQF development in Romania. Progress has been made over recent years, though it is limited to qualifications up to ROQF level 3.

The need to respond to changing labour market demands, to tackle the mismatch between the education offer and the labour market demand, and to encourage mobility across Europe are seen as opportunities for the future implementation and promotion of the ROQF. However, more information on concrete future plans and strategies for implementation of the framework are needed.

The National Qualifications Authority (Autoritatea Nationala pentru Calificari – ANC) is the EQF NCP: http://www.anc.edu.ro

National register of qualifications in higher education: http://site.anc.edu.ro/registru-national/

National register of professional qualifications: http://site.anc.edu.ro/rncpe/

Romanian Ministry of Education and NQA (2018). Referencing the Romanian qualifications framework to the European qualifications framework. [unpublished].)

NQF levelQualification typesEQF level
8

Doctoral degree (third cycle of higher education) (Diploma de doctor)

Certificate for postdoctoral studies (postdoctoral studies) (Atestat de studii postdoctorale)

8
7

Master degree and Diploma supplement (second cycle of higher education) (Diploma de master)

Bachelor degree / Architect diploma and Diploma supplement (first and second cycle combined higher education study programmes) (Diploma de licenta / Diploma de architect)

7
6

Bachelor degree / Engineering diploma / Urbanism diploma and Diploma supplement (first cycle of higher education) (Diploma de licenta / Diploma de inginer / Diploma de urbanist)

Certificate of professional competence (postgraduate university studies) (Certificat de atestare a competentelor profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

Graduation certificate (postgraduate university studies) (Certificat de absolvire)

6
5

Short cycle higher education certificate and Certificate supplement (short cycle higher education) (Diploma de absolvire/calificare)

Post-secondary certificate and Descriptive supplement (post-secondary non-higher tertiary education) (Certificat de calificare)

Upper secondary school leaving certificate (general, technological or vocational education, four years of study) (Diploma de Bacalaureat)

5
4

VET certificate level 4 and Descriptive supplement (technological / vocational high-school) (Certificat de calificare)

VET certificate level 4 / Qualification/Graduation certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / training programme) (Certificat de calificare/absolvire)

VET certificate level 4 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / apprenticeship programmes in the workplace) (Certificat de calificare)

4
3

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive Supplement (authorised training provider / apprenticeship programmes in the workplace) (Certificat de calificare)

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification certificate / Certificate of professional* competence and Descriptive supplement (accredited training centre) (Certificat de calificare / Certificat de competente profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

VET certificate level 3 / Certificate of professional* competence (authorised assessment centre) (Certificat de competente profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification/Graduation certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / training programme) (Certificat de calificare/absolvire)

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive supplement (education unit / technological/vocational high school) (Certificat de calificare)

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive supplement (education unit / vocational training programme organised in dual system) (Certificat de calificare)

VET certificate level 3 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive supplement (education unit / professional education lasting at least 3 years) (Certificat de calificare)

3
2

VET certificate level 2 / Qualification certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / apprenticeship programmes in the workplace) (Certificat de calificare)

VET certificate level 2 / Qualification certificate / Certificate of professional competence and Descriptive supplement (accredited training centre) (Certificat de calificare / Certificat de competente profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

VET certificate level 2 / Certificate of professional competence (authorised assessment centre) (Certificat de competente profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

VET certificate level 2 / Qualification/Graduation certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / training programme) (Certificat de calificare/absolvire)

2
1

Certificate of professional competence (authorised assessment centre) (Certificat de competente profesionale)

The term ‘professional’ denotes vocational and technological training aimed at the labour market.

Graduation certificate and Descriptive supplement (authorised training provider / training programme) (Certificat de absolvire)

Graduation Diploma (basic education unit), 8 years (Diploma de absolvire)


NB: The term VET generically includes both the vocational and technological education and training (TVET) routes available in the national education system, offering qualifications at levels 2-5 EQF, and the education and training offered by training providers in contexts other than the formal education system, for adult learning, also for qualification levels 2-5 EQF, preparing learners for occupations and the labour market.
1

CVET

continuing vocational education and training

EQF

European qualifications framework

EQF-NCP

national coordination point for EQF

IVET

initial vocational education and training

NEETs

individuals not in employment, education or training

NQA (ANC)

National Qualifications Authority (Autoritatea Nationala pentru Calificari)

NQF

national qualifications framework

NRPQ

national register of professional qualifications

NRQHE

national register of qualifications in higher education

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

ROQF

Romanian national qualifications framework

VET

vocational education and training

[URLs accessed 30.11.2018]

Cedefop (2016). Application of learning-outcomes approaches across Europe: a comparative study. Luxembourg: Publications Office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/3074

European Commission (2017). Education and training monitor 2017: Romania.

European Commission; Cedefop (2018). Survey on implementation, communication and use of NQF/EQF [unpublished].

European Commission; Cedefop; ICF International (forthcoming). European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning 2018: country report Romania.

Romanian Ministry of Education; NQA (2014). Referencing the Romanian national qualifications framework to the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning [unpublished].

Romanian Ministry of Education; NQA (2018). Referencing the Romanian qualifications framework to the European qualifications framework [unpublished].

OECD (2014). PISA 2012 results in focus: what 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-overview.pdf

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