Since 2016, every training company gets a direct public subsidy for each apprentice. This basic subsidisation is linked to the apprenticeship wage and gradually reduced over the apprenticeship years. More concretely, training companies get back 3 times a monthly apprenticeship wage in the first training year, twice during the second year and one monthly apprenticeship wage for the third (and fourth) training year. The basic rationale behind this design is to compensate training companies for the low productivity of apprentices in their initial years.
Additionally, training companies may get “criteria-based subsidies” in the form of grants . These incentives are earmarked to…
- foster quality e.g. through coaching, building training alliances, providing extra preparation for the final apprenticeship examination (FAE) or the qualifications of trainers, and/or
- address specific target groups and/or occupations e.g. by employing apprentices from supra-company scheme, by training girls in in occupations typically dominated by boys (ie max. 30% share of girls), or providing training for inclusive/integrative programmes etc.
Incentives mentioned so far are financed by the Austrian insolvency remuneration fund, which is financed entirely by companies themselves (0.35% of lump sum of wages; 0.2% of it are earmarked for direct subsidisation of training companies). In essence, it is a compulsory training fund which redistributes the levy of all companies to the ones that train apprentices.
Additionally, training companies get indirect financial subsidies by:
- waivers in the area of non-labour costs, i.e. employers do not have to pay their part of social security contributions for apprentices for sickness, unemployment and accident insurance
- tax deduction, i.e. charging the training expenditures lead to a reduction of the companies’ taxable profit).
In some sectors and/or regions additional training funds exist:
- In the construction sector a third supra-company learning site (BAUAkademien) is financed by compulsory levies for all companies in the sector since 1982.
- In western Austria (Bundesland Vorarlberg) a voluntary training fund exists in the electro- and metal industry (VEM). All participating companies voluntarily pay in a levy of 2.4‰ of the lump sum of wages. Training companies get a one-time bonus for each of their apprentices who positively succeed in a skills competition.
In Austria, also apprentices themselves may get subsidies. These are financed from funds of the labour market policy budget, i.e. the Public Employment Service (PES). 
 Companies have to apply for these criteria-based subsidies at the local apprenticeship offices. They have to proof their expenses and get them partly reimbursed up to a certain amount: https://www.wko.at/service/bildung-lehre/Gesamtuebersicht_Foerderarten_lehre.html.
 For details see https://www.ams.at/unternehmen/service-zur-personalsuche/foerderungen/foerderung-der-lehrausbildung.
Source Schmid Kurt (2019): Financial Incentives for Companies to Engage in VET: Options, Pros & Cons. DC dVET Discussion Note; forthcoming.