Reference year 2019
Understanding of apprenticeships in the national context
Royal Decree 1529/2012, of November 8, on the apprenticeships contracts and laying out the foundations of the dual vocational training system. This Royal Decree established a framework for the development of projects of dual vocational training. Dual vocational training as such did not exist until that year, and it has been since then progressively introduced through projects developed by the Autonomous Communities (regions). The 2012 Royal Decree regulates key aspects of Dual vocational training such as (not a complete list):
- The basic content of the training programme: curriculum, training activities, their length, evaluation and grading criteria.
- The minimum number of hours to be spent in a company.
- The minimum information that needs to be included in the agreement between the training centre and the company (training programme, number of participants, allowance, number of hours and distribution of training hours between company and training centre, etc.).
This Royal Decree also regulates the ‘apprenticeship contract’ which can be used in dual vocational training.
A different regulation (Order ESS/2518/2013) regulates aspects only related to the school-based learning period that is mandatory for the apprentice in order to obtain the qualification.
Autonomous Communities further regulate dual vocational training in their territory.
The regulations mentioned above apply to all dual vocational training.
* Legislation has been introduced at national level creating dual VET and as such the scheme can be considered a mainstream initiative. However, programmes based on the dual model have been implemented by the different Autonomous Communities http://todofp.es/sobre-fp/informacion-general/formacion-profesional-dual/proyectos-fp-dual-espana.html
In Spain, the term used for “apprenticeship” is “dual vocational education and training” (Formación Profesional Dual). It is defined in legislation as “training actions and initiatives, combining employment and training, that aim at workers’ professional qualification in a regime that alternates work activity in a company and vocational education and training delivered by the education system or the employment system”, i.e. respectively the Ministry of Education (central o region departments) or the Ministry of Employment (central o region departments).
The scheme Dual VET in Spain can be implemented through two sub-schemes:
- The “apprenticeship” contract in VET or in the employment system for occupational qualifications (called professional certificates in the country and scheme fiche of this database), where learners have the status of employees, with a salary.
- A “cooperation agreement” between a company, training centre and the learner, only in the education system. Learners are not considered employees and they only receive a grant, allowance or scholarship.
Source: Royal Decree 1529/2012, of November 8, on the apprenticeships contracts and laying out the foundations of the dual vocational training system. Available at: https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/10/24/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-11431.pdf
There is only one scheme: “dual vocational education and training” (Formación Profesional Dual). It can be used for pupils aged minimum 15 years old, in different types of formal programmes leading to qualifications at lower secondary (for those who cannot complete lower secondary compulsory education), at upper secondary and at higher level. It may also lead to occupational qualifications called “professional certificates”, which are not included in the education system but still they are formal qualifications.
The dual training model is a different teaching model or a different route to acquire the same qualification as in school-based VET or education.
It can involve an “apprenticeship contract” (for VET or occupational qualifications) or a “cooperation agreement” (for educational qualifications) between training centres and companies.
The Royal Decree 1529/2012 on the apprenticeship contracts and laying out the foundations of the dual vocational training system established the basis for the progressive implementation of dual vocational training in Spain.
Since January 1st, 2016, all the training associated with the “apprenticeship” contract must necessarily be linked to VET programmes leading to formal qualifications awarded by either the education or employment authorities (see Q2). From January 2016 until January 2019, a total of 148.204 “apprenticeship” contracts have been signed.
In the education system, the results of the school year 2016/2017 published by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training are that 20.357 students where in a Dual VET programme, i.e. most had signed a cooperation agreement.in some Autonomous regions in Spain like for example in Basque County, students are in the Education VET System with DUAL VET programmes and with a labour contract nor a cooperation agreement. So this “i.e. had signed a cooperation agreement” can be removed or replaced by “ i. e. most have signed a cooperation agreement”. The information given by the Ministry of Education does not specify it.
Servicio Público de Empleo Estatal (SEPE)
Ministry of Education and VET
Vocational education and training (VET) is mainly under the responsibility of education and employment authorities. The national system for qualifications and vocational training is the umbrella for VET programmes, leading to formal qualifications awarded by either the education or employment authorities.
a) Education authority VET offers upper secondary (basic and intermediate) and higher VET qualifications. All programmes last two years (2 000 hours) and include work-based learning in a company and at a VET school:
- basic VET programmes (ISCED 353) are available in the last year of compulsory education, to learners aged 15 or 16
- intermediate VET programmes can begin at age 16, after the end of compulsory education. These lead to technician qualifications at ISCED 354.
- at tertiary level, higher VET programmes (ISCED 554) lead to an advanced technician qualification.
b) Employment authority VET offers programmes to obtain a professional certificate corresponding to an occupational profile. These programmes may include an “apprenticeship” contract. No formal access requirements apply for entering level 1 professional certificate programmes (ISCED 254) and learners can move on to the next level in the same field. Level 2 (ISCED 351) and level 3 (ISCED 453) programmes are also accessible to those having completed, respectively, compulsory and upper secondary, or equivalent, level studies to learners older than 16 years the possibility to obtain a professional certificate corresponding to an occupational profile.
It is possible to acquire any VET or educational qualification through dual VET (apprenticeship contracts or cooperation agreement)
Source:Cedefop- ReferNet, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN EUROPE SPAIN, VET IN EUROPE REPORTS, 2016