Reference year 2019

    Understanding of apprenticeships in the national context

    Q2. Is there an official definition of ‘apprenticeship’ or ‘apprentice’ in your country?

    1) Apprenticeship at the workplace scheme: An apprenticeship is the vocational training at the workplace that is conducted on the basis of an apprenticeship contract. The vocational training program through apprenticeship at workplace constitutes an integral part of the apprenticeship contract.’

    Source: Articles 1 of Law 279 / 2005 available at:

    2) Dual VET scheme: According to Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016, endorsed by Law no. 82/2018, regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/201, dual VET is a form of organization of vocational education and training with the following specific characteristics:

    a) it is organized on the initiative of interested economic operators as potential employers and practice partners;

    b) it provides increased opportunities for education and training on the basis of a partnership contract and individual contracts of practical training, through practical training organized under the main responsibility of economic operators;

    c) the economic operators ensure the practical training of the students, the scholarship at the level of the granted from public funds and other expenses for the students' quality education;

    d) it facilitates the involvement of economic operators in the decision-making mechanisms at the level of the partner education unit.

    Q3. At which level do apprenticeship schemes exist in your country?
    At upper secondary level
    At post-secondary (not tertiary)
    At tertiary level
    At sectoral level

    There are two apprenticeship schemes in Romania that cover the following EQF levels:

    1) Apprenticeship at workplace scheme [ucenicia la locul de munca] for people outside of formal education and training (at least 16 years of age, but no upper age limit); The apprenticeship programmes offered can be organised for CNC / EQF level 1-4 qualifications.

    2) In November 2016, the dual form of initial VET at EQF levels 3, 4 and 5 have been introduced by Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016, endorsed in April 2018 by Law no. 82 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011. Implementation of dual VET started in 2017/18, currently only at EQF level 3. The dual training at EQF levels 4 and 5 is not implemented yet.

    Q4. How well-established are apprenticeship schemes in your country?
    A long history (before 2000)
    A recent history (in 2000s)
    Pilot scheme

    1) The apprenticeship at the workplace has a tradition of over 85 years[1].

    2) The dual VET is implemented since school year 2017/2018, but elements of dual training in initial VET were introduced starting with 2013/2014 school year.


    Q5. Relevant information that is essential to understanding the specificity of apprenticeships in the country and which does not fit under the scheme specific sections below.

    Two apprenticeship schemes exist in Romania:

    i) apprenticeship at the workplace is organised under the Ministry of Labour and Social Justice. This scheme has an apprenticeship contract, consisting both of training at an authorised vocational training provider as well as practical training and employment within a company. The scheme is targeted at persons (at least 16 years of age) who are not in formal education or training and wish to obtain a vocational qualification through practical training. More ten half of apprentices are adults and the other half early leavers.;

    ii) dual VET  under the Ministry of Education. This scheme fulfill the following requirements:

    -the existence of the partnership contract concluded between one or more economic operators or between an association / consortium of economic operators, the school and the administrative-territorial unit within which the school unit is located, a contract setting out the conditions of collaboration, the rights and the obligations of the parties, as well as the costs incurred by the partners;

    -the existence of the individual contract of practical training concluded between the student, (or legal representative), the economic operator and the school, a contract that establishes the rights and obligations of the parties.

    The scheme is targeted at students entering their 9th year of school, who wish to follow an IVET programme with a consistent component of work-based-learning. finalized with a vocational qualification recognised at national level.