Understanding of apprenticeships in the national context

    Q1. Is there an official definition of 'apprenticeships' in your country?

    Apprenticeships as such are not defined but there is a definition of ‘apprentice’ in the Education Act, § 3-4, “Chapter 4. Upper secondary education and training in enterprises”. It reads that an apprentice is someone who has signed a contract in view of obtaining a trade certificate or a journeyman’s certificate within a trade where in-company training is offered. Otherwise, see question 3 below on apprenticeship variations and vocational programmes integrated in education at upper secondary level.


    Q2. Which apprenticeship schemes exist in your country?
    At upper secondary level: 1
    At post-secondary / higher level: none
    At sectoral level: none

    Videregående opplæring, yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogram (Upper secondary, vocational programmes).

    Q5. How well-established are apprenticeships in your country?
    A long history
    A recent history (in 2000s)
    No history yet, they are still to be established as a pathway

    Against a background of mismatch between the number of pupil places in upper secondary education, and a mismatch between basic vocational training places in school and apprenticeships in a number of trades and crafts; Reform 1994 reduced the number of foundation courses in VET from 101 to 12 broader and theoretically oriented initial courses, while structuring several related trades in each of the vocational tracks (Michelsen et al. 2014: 67). In 2006, the “Knowledge Promotion Reform” introduced fewer vocational courses (9 instead of 12) and the courses became broader. Still, the 2+2 model was retained as the main model in vocational training (Nyen and Tønder 2015:211).