Reference year 2023
    Content updates and contributors

    Version 2023 - Drafted by Olga Kafetzopoulou, Director for VET and LLL Planning and Development, General Secretariat for VET, LLL and Youth, Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Greece - Member of Cedefop Community of apprenticeship experts for Greece

    Q2. Is there an official definition of ‘apprenticeship’ or ‘apprentice’ in your country?

    Law 4763/2020 states that in order for a VET programme to be regarded as an apprenticeship programme, the following conditions must apply:  
    a) training should take place at two learning venues; in the company (workplace) and at the vocational school or other training institution. The workplace component must be at least fifty percent (50%) of the training programme.
    b) the programme must be based on the training guide applying to the specialty
    c) the programme must lead to recognized professional (vocational) qualifications,
    d) the programme must be based on an agreement, which defines the rights and obligations of the apprentice, the employer and, as the case may be, the VET institution, and
    e) the programme must provide pay or subsidy for the apprentice, for the work-based part of the training.

    Q3. At which level do apprenticeship schemes exist in your country?
    At upper secondary level
    At post-secondary (not tertiary)
    At tertiary level
    At sectoral level

    1.    Post Secondary Year – Apprenticeship Class. The scheme is offered at post-secondary level (EQF5), as one of the progression pathways available to graduates of upper secondary education.
    2.    Vocational Schools of Apprenticeship (EPAS) of DYPA (Greek PES). The scheme is offered at upper secondary level (EQF3)

    Certain aspects are common for all schemes (e.g. wage, social insurance, quality conditions). A common national Framework for Quality apprenticeships applies to all schemes.

    Q4. How well-established are apprenticeship schemes in your country?
    A long history (before 2000)
    A recent history (in 2000s)
    Pilot scheme

    1.    The “Apprenticeship class” scheme was first introduced by Law 4186/2013 within the formal education system but was not implemented as such. Law 4386/2016 introduced the “Post Secondary Year - Apprenticeship Class”. It was piloted in 2016 as a 9-month scheme, post-secondary, non-formal education programme.
    Since then, it has been constantly expanding in more schools and specialties throughout the country.
    Law 4763/2020 attempted a holistic reform of VET and LLL. Regarding the Post Secondary year – Apprenticeship Class, the 2020 law includes provisions for the scheme adaptation to labor market needs and promotes the active involvement of social partners in the scheme governance and in the design of training guides. The training guides include the requirements to enter the profession, the curriculum, teacher qualifications, teaching methods and the certification process, including a certification question bank for the National Qualifications Framework exams. Also, the new law increased apprentice remuneration by 25%.

    2.    The Vocational Schools of Apprenticeship (EPAS) of DYPA (Greek PES) scheme (EPAS DYPA scheme) is run under the supervision of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. The scheme is a continuation of previous apprenticeship schemes provided by the national public employment service. It exists since the 1950s, but with variations. It combines theoretical and laboratory training with paid on-the-job training.
    Currently, 50 Vocational Schools of Apprenticeship of DYPA operate, supported by 30 liasion offices with the labor market. The programme lasts two years (4 semesters). Apprentices are employed in enterprises in the morning and attend school classes in the afternoon. The enterprises can be either private or public ones, operating in activities relevant to the subject of the education. Each year more than 30 specialties are offered in technical sectors, namely bakery & pastry, hairdressing, graphic arts, fabric – clothing, administrative duties, etc.
    There are also 7 experimental Vocational Schools of Apprenticeship of DYPA (PEPAS DYPA) focusing on tourism, which combine theoretical and laboratory training during the winter season with paid internship in 4* and 5* hotels during the summer season.
    The majority of the graduates are easily absorbed by the labour market in their specialty.

    Q5. Relevant information that is essential to understanding the specificity of apprenticeships in the country.

    Apprenticeship is an option of WBL part included in programmes offered at post-secondary level by Vocational Training Institutes (IEK). These are mainly school-based post-secondary VET programmes that include a shorter workplace training part (1 semester out of 5 semesters total duration), however this component is mainly offered in the form of internship. Due to its very small size, this option is not included in the database.   There is so far a pilot program in IEK that is being implemented with the apprenticeship methodology for the specialty "Retail Trade Executive" at the Experimental IEK Glyfada, which will be evaluated in 2024.