The main legal basis for the dual apprenticeship system at the upper secondary level is the Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz). It was adopted in 1969, providing a common framework for the traditional system of dual VET, which had been subject to fragmented legislation until then. The Vocational Training Act regulates the company-based part of apprenticeship. Its key provisions concern the mission of training, the standards for training curricula, requirements for the approbation of training enterprises (including qualification requirements for training staff), guidelines for training contracts and the working conditions, remuneration and social security of apprentices, and the responsibilities of the institutions involved (e.g. enterprises, chambers of commerce etc.).
The school component of the dual system is not covered by federal legislation but by the school acts of the 16 Länder. Common standards for the organisation of VET schools and the development of syllabi for the different training programmes are agreed between the Länder under the umbrella of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK).
Dual studies at the level of tertiary education have their legal basis in the higher education acts of the Länder. These acts regulate the organisation of universities and other institutions of higher education, and provide fundamental standards for higher education programmes. Programme details and curricula are specified by the universities. Like any higher education programme, dual study courses are subject to accreditation in accordance with the Bologna process.
Please specify whether the same legal basis applies to all apprenticeship schemes or there are different regulations for different schemes:
There are two separate legal frameworks, namely one for the dual system at the upper secondary level, which falls under the joint responsibility of federal and Länder legislation, and one for dual studies at the tertiary level, which falls exclusively under the legislation of the Länder.
No reforms at the moment.