Reference year 2019

1Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?
Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

The work-based learning scheme is offered as an alternative option to other existing school-based schemes. Enrolment age is related to these programmes, offered at NQF (analogous to EQF) levels 2-4 (upper secondary and post-secondary VET). In this context, there is no age limit set for the apprenticeship scheme per se, but the age limits for the corresponding VET programme apply.

It is the decision of the administration of the particular VET institution which IVET and CVET programmes will be offered in this mode (usually parallel to the offered school-based mode). Given the ongoing modularisation of VET programmes, more individualised approaches have been made possible, e.g. students can choose to follow a particular programme in a school-based or work-based mode. 

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

The traditional age of the initial VET programmes at the NQF levels 2-4 is between 15-18. At the same time, from the planning and administration point of view, the work-based learning option is easier to be organised by VET institutions at post-secondary level (CVET). Especially those schools that are not too experienced with WBL approaches choose to implement CVET WBL programmes, as there is no need to plan subjects of general secondary education.

2Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No

The WBL scheme per se is not included, but it is offered as an alternative to school-based VET programmes at ISCED levels 254, 353, 351, 454

(https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/vet-in-europe/systems/latvia

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?
Yes
No

The Employers Confederation of Latvia, implementing a national level ESF project on the implementation of work-based learning.

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Work-based learning (apprenticeship) was introduced after 2012 and was formally adopted in 2015 (Vocational Education Act amendment).

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

Since 2012/2013 (before adopting the current legal framework) there had been discussions at various levels between the Latvian state and various co-operation partners (ministries of economy, employment and finance), social partners and employers’ organisations) on the introduction of the WBL scheme in the formal Latvian vocational education and training (VET) system.

In 2013, the Ministry of Education and Science invited 6 VET institutions to consider participation in a WBL pilot project. In the academic years 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 a limited number of VET institutions took part in the implementation of the WBL pilot project. The results of the implementation of the WBL pilot project have served as a basis for further WBL developments in Latvia at a later stage.

The legal basis for WBL as an apprenticeship scheme is in place since 2016 when regulation on the “Procedures for Organisation and Implementation of Work-based Learning was adopted (Cabinet of Ministers’ Regulation of No. 484 of 15 July 2016). (http://likumi.lv/ta/id/283680-kartiba-kada-organize-un-isteno-darba-vid…).

See more in the Latvian country fiche.

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

State budget and ESF funding are the major sources of financing the apprenticeship costs.

The remuneration is ensured by the company and is compulsory. The company is free to cover other expenses as well. Remuneration can take the form of a wage (taxable) or an allowance (non-taxable) (see more in Q31).

Apart from the wage/ allowance also the individual labour protection means and the civil liability insurance of the learner have to be ensured during the implementation of the individual plan in accordance with the training contract.

The general provision for ensuring learners’ insurance is included in the Regulations by the Cabinet of Ministers of 20 November 2012 No 785 ‘On the organisation and insurance of students’ training practice’ (Regulation No 785), https://likumi.lv/ta/id/252862-macibu-prakses-organizacijas-un-izglitoj…

In case the particular qualification is not referred to in the regulation No 785, it can be covered by the ESF project OP 851. 

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

Any stakeholder can join the WBL scheme either exclusively under the umbrella Regulation No 484 (that stipulates its general provision) or in addition, subject to certain compliance criteria, join also the ESF scheme which is being implemented as an additional incentive for employers. Under the ESF supported WBL measure (Supplementary Regulation No.483), the employer is entitled to a monthly lump sum of 270 euro per student. It is up to the employer how to spend this – either as a salary to the trainers, or for wages/allowances to the apprentices, as it is a compulsory criterion (payment to the apprentice).

As an incentive for employers, since 2016 it is possible for them to choose to pay apprentices either wages (taxable, full set of wages apply) or allowances (non-taxable) (see more in Q31).

According to Law on Citizens Income Tax, Article 9, paragraph 81) - scholarships up to 280 euros per month, paid to a learner in accordance with the procedure specified by the Cabinet for organizing and implementing work-based learning, by a merchant, institution, association, foundation, natural person registered as an economic operator, as well as an individual enterprise, including farmers or a fisherman's farm and other economic operators, https://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=56880. These allowances are not taxed.

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

Around 3,000 learners have been enrolled in the scheme. The results are derived from the implementation of the ESF funded project on the implementation of WBL.

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others
Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?
Yes
No
There is no NQF

NQF 2, 3, 4

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

Work-based learning (apprenticeship) programmes can provide direct access to higher education depending on the level of the corresponding VET programme in which they operate.

A level 3 work-based programme does not lead to higher education in any format (School-based or apprenticeship), but leads to level 4 options which in turn lead to higher education.

A level 4 programme leads to higher education, whether is offered through the school-based or work-based (apprenticeship option).   

3Programme

4Duration

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other

The scheme is analogous to and directed at the same learning outcomes as its corresponding school-based VET programme. The overall duration is the same as in the corresponding school-based VET programme. The difference is the amount of the time (and part of the programme) mastered in company (no less than 25%).

In IVET, the scheme lasts typically 3 or 4 years. In CVET (adults), 1.5 to 2 years.

Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

There is no particular distinction made.  It is considered that practical learning and work goes hand in hand. Remuneration-wise – the payment depends upon the actual input by the student and tends to increase with growing ability and competence to perform. 

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?
Yes
No

Training takes place both at school and during the time spent at the company. A significant aspect on the WBL organisation is that parts of the theoretical training can take place in the company, not only at school.

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?
Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

In IVET, the share of in-company training is at least 25% of the total programme duration.

In short-cycle CVET programmes (after secondary education) the share of training implemented at the workplace represents around 70% of the total volume of the programme. 

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

Depending on the programme type and the tripartite agreement between the school, the learner and the company. This is clearly stated in the Individual learning plan.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

The contract on remuneration is signed between the learner and the company.

Together with them, the school enters the tripartite agreement which sets general provisions and training related issues.

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?
Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

The type of agreement depends on the type of remuneration: It can take the form of an ordinary work contract (where wage is paid to the apprentice), or of an agreement in the case an allowance is paid (exempt from citizens income tax up to a certain level). (see more in Q13 and Q31)

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?
At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other
Q30. What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

Apprentice is a student (learner).

7Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?
Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

Remuneration to apprentices is compulsory.

It can take the form of wage under an ordinary work contract, or of an allowance (exempt from citizens income tax up to a certain level) (see also Q13)

The company can pay either wage or allowance, but not the one on top of the other. The allowance was introduced as an option in 2016 as a compromise to social partners who claimed that employers were not inclined to deal with unexperienced trainees and pay them wages with full set of taxes and benefits to be paid. Thus, the compromise was to introduce both types of payment – leaving it to the employer which mode of payment to choose in each particular case (Wage with full set of taxes or allowance with no tax at all).

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?
By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

Individual agreement.

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

Any stakeholder can join the WBL scheme either exclusively under the umbrella Regulation No 484 (that stipulates its general provision) or in addition, subject to certain compliance criteria, join also the ESF scheme which is being implemented as an additional incentive for employers. Under the ESF supported WBL measure (Supplementary Regulation No.483), the employer is entitled to a monthly lump sum of 270 euro per student. It is up to the employer how to spend this – either as a salary to the trainers, or for wages/allowances to the apprentices, as it is a compulsory criterion (payment to the apprentice).

When operating under umbrella regulation No 484 (without ESF support), the employer does not receive any direct support from the state for covering the trainees’ wage or allowance.

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?
Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

8Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?
Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

VET standards that are developed for the corresponding VET programmes are applied to the ‘work-based learning’ scheme (common standard for school-based VET and the apprenticeship option). A training plan is agreed between the school, the employer and the apprentice, and details issues related to the volume and content of workplace training, the type of alternation etc.

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?
Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

Health and safety at the workplace is an important issue as well.

Additional criteria are in place in the case of ESF funding, e.g. that the company tutor has to have certain pedagogical competence; it is recommended that no more than 6 trainees are being trained with the same trainer etc.

 

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No
Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?
Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

The work done since 2013 regarding introduction of apprenticeships in the VET system indicates to the existence of strong social dialogue in Latvia at various levels – VET institution, local and regional level, sector level, ministerial and social partner level. The social dialogue refers to various aspects - the drafting of legal framework, development of standards and curriculum, compliance to labour market demands, determining the priority areas, incentives to the involved parties and now increasingly also to graduate tracking.

Sector expert councils play an important role as advisory bodies supporting the development of quality IVET programmes in line with the needs of the labour market. Sectoral expert councils operate on the basis of tripartite cooperation. Their members include representatives from employers’ organisations, trade unions, ministries (the education, economics and welfare ministries), as well as other branch ministries, and the State Employment Agency.

Sectoral associations are also relevant actors.

These stakeholders have a role in the development of the actual content of the programme and the expected outcomes (through setting the standards, content of the examinations etc.)

VET institutions (Competences centres) as stipulated by VET Law have established advisory bodies (Conventions) where local or regional employers are represented (among other stakeholders) to better coordinate the local/ regional and national priorities for better education and employment/ labour marker compliance.

The role of VET institutions Conventions and Sector Expert Councils is growing – since their establishment by amendments to the VET Law in 2015.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?
Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

Their role is related to defining the rights and responsibilities of the involved parties.

The sector expert councils have the right to express their opinion on the company potentially implementing WBL – if their opinion is being required, as it’s usually the schools that select reliable and suitable companies for the learners.