When young people choose a vocational education and training (VET) programme, they expect learning to be concrete and practical. However, many VET programmes include substantial theoretical content.

Changes to the nature of work, due to the introduction of technology, may imply the introduction of more complex curricula. Nowadays many professions require less manual work and more abstract computer-based work. This can be a challenge, in particular for students who have accumulated gaps in basic skills or those with learning difficulties.

Helping learners to transfer learning to real life is key to keeping them motivated. Making links between theory and practice can be a complex exercise and many learners do not reflect on it on their own. It is important to organise theoretical content and practical learning to enable the rapid transfer between the two contexts.