NQF country report

Sweden invests substantially in education and training, exceeding EU targets for most key indicators. The rate of tertiary education attainment is one of the highest in the EU (52.5% in 2019, compared to the EU average of 40.3%) and the rate of employment of recent graduates is also high at all qualification levels. According to the 2018 Programme for international skills assessment (PISA), student performance in basic skills has been improving, and the proportion of underachievers in reading, mathematics and science is below EU averages. However, student performance is increasingly linked to socioeconomic background and disparities also exist between native and foreign-born students. There is a widening gap between schools with the highest results and those with the lowest. Several education reforms are being considered to address inequality and education quality. Participation in initial vocational education and training (VET) is low, 35.4% in 2018 compared to EU average 48.4%, though the employment rate of recent VET graduates is one of the highest in the EU (87.4% in 2019, exceeding the EU-27 average (79.1%) and almost as high as that of tertiary education graduates. Participation in adult learning (34.3% in 2019) is the highest in the EU and substantially above the EU average (10.8%).

The need for more substantial upskilling remains, however, and new investment continues. Investments are particularly relevant for sectors such as health care, construction and ICT. A government bill on municipal adult education ([1] https://data.riksdagen.se/fil/66ADDF6F-526A-4AC6-AF6B-ED57BD70F637) was adopted by the Parliament in June 2020: it aimed to strengthen competence provision, accelerate the integration of immigrants and aid re- and upskilling of adults. Adults will be given additional opportunities to participate in further education and training, and the conditions for study loans will be improved.

There is a serious teacher shortage. According to the National Agency for Education ([2] https://www.skolverket.se/publikationer?id=5394), projections to 2033 show that 18 000 additional teachers will be needed but only about 144 000 will graduate, leaving a shortfall of around 45 000. Teacher shortages are worst in rural areas of northern Sweden where, in some schools, no teacher is certified for the subject they teach. From 30 June 2021 a law will enable the use of distance education as a response: pupils would be in the classroom but taught by a qualified teacher from another school. Frequent changes of principal also somewhat affect the quality of education. There is a government initiative for unqualified experienced personnel to complete teacher training. A teachers' union survey shows that 49% of unqualified teachers have started, but not completed, teacher training. An inquiry is looking into how to increase the quality of teacher training and make it easier to become teachers (European Commission, 2020).

Sweden has developed a comprehensive, learning-outcomes-based NQF for lifelong learning (SeQF) with eight levels, following the basic structure of the EQF. Level descriptors are defined in terms of knowledge, skills and competence, and have been adapted to the Swedish context. The added value of the SeQF, it is argued, depends on its ability to address explicitly different areas and actors, such as branch organisations, sports associations or education providers within liberal (popular) adult education, and to include certificates and qualifications awarded outside the formal education and training system. As of May 2020, eight such qualifications have been included in the Swedish NQF.

Unlike most other European frameworks, the SeQF has, from its inception in 2009, been seen as a tool for opening up to qualifications awarded outside the formal education system. Linking qualifications not regulated by national legislation and awarded outside formal education and training to the NQF is seen as crucial for increasing the overall transparency of qualifications in Sweden. This focus on the inclusive character of the framework responds to specific features of Swedish education and training.

Initially designed to aid transparency and international comparison of Swedish qualifications, the SeQF is increasingly seen as playing a role in supporting better cooperation between the education and training system and the labour market.

The SeQF is based on an eight-level structure where each level is described through knowledge (kunskap), skills (färdigheter) and competence (kompetens). It is a comprehensive framework including all qualifications in the formal education system and those outside the system by application from providers, such as sectors, labour market trainers, sports associations or liberal adult education. The explicit objective has been to develop a set of descriptors as closely aligned with the EQF as possible. While the influence of the original EQF descriptors is apparent, the level of detail has been increased. In the definition of competence, for example, the EQF emphasis on autonomy and responsibility is extended in the SeQF to address decision-making ability and cooperation/teamwork.

The learning outcomes perspective (Resultat av lärandet) is an important, and largely incorporated, feature of Swedish education and training. While the term 'learning outcomes' is only gradually coming into general use, the underpinning principles are well known and broadly accepted. The core curricula for compulsory education have been revised, further strengthening and refining the learning-outcomes-based approach. Universities follow national regulations on examinations, requiring the use of learning outcomes, though how these learning outcomes are interpreted by individual institutions varies.

The setting up of the SeQF has contributed to the overall shift to learning outcomes and clarified the importance of the concept to stakeholders outside traditional, formal education and training. In the longer term, this may prove of particular importance, potentially supporting dialogue between education and the labour market.

There is no formal decision on how the European credit system for vocational education and training (ECVET) could be adapted to Swedish vocational education and training. However, upper secondary VET in Sweden, being course-based, is considered in line with the intentions in the ECVET recommendation. In the wake of the Covid-19 crisis, the government announced at the end of March 2020 that an additional temporary investment in higher vocational education should be implemented. This will generate more study places at existing programmes and also support the expansion of the newly introduced short courses/programmes. Short courses/programmes should be offered to develop flexibility and the ability to respond to the need for more in-depth, broadened or renewed skills in working life. Priority in the first application round was given to courses/programmes that meet the need for increased expertise in digitalisation, automation, energy efficiency, climate change and sustainability (source: ReferNet Sweden). A second application round was aimed more broadly to meet general competence needs and the emerging labour market needs following the pandemic.

The legal basis supporting the SeQF came into force on 1 October 2015 ([3] Swedish Government (2015). SFS 2015:545. Förordning om referensram för kvalifikationer för livslångt lärande [Decree with regulations on a national qualification framework for lifelong learning]. https://www.riksdagen.se/sv/dokument-lagar/dokument/svensk-forfattningssamling/forordning-2015545-om-referensram-for_sfs-2015-545). Appendix 2 of Decree SFS 2015:545 provides the SeQF levels for all qualifications in the Swedish formal education system. The decree also stipulates an application procedure for inclusion of other qualifications.

The Ministry of Education and Research has overall responsibility for work on the SeQF and referencing to the EQF. It is supported by the National Agency for Higher Vocational Education ([4] National Agency for Higher Vocational Education: https://www.myh.se/In-English/Swedish-National-Agency-for-Higher-Vocational-Education-/ ) (Myndigheten for Yrkeshögskolan, NAHVE) as EQF national coordination point with the responsibility to implement the SeQF in cooperation with social partners, relevant authorities, providers of education and training and learners. NAHVE was set up in 2009 to manage the new strand of higher vocational education in Sweden; it has a clear position on the role of non-academic qualifications at levels 5 and 6.

A set of procedures and criteria has been developed for the inclusion and levelling to the SeQF of qualifications outside the formal education system; an advisory council (Rådet for den nationella referensramen för kvalifikationer) assists NAHVE with the basis for deciding what level a qualification corresponds to in the national qualifications framework ([5] The annual appropriations directive for the National Agency for Higher Education (2011:1162); §9 regulates that the Agency is NCP for EQF and in §13b and §15 regulates the advisory body and the appointment of its members: http://rkrattsbaser.gov.se/sfst?bet=2011:1162 (in Swedish)). It consists of the chair and up to 14 members from various organisations of interest and government agencies. The members are appointed for a three-year period and will meet at least four times a year depending on the number of applications received. The meetings are chaired by the director of the NAHVE.

The key function of the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education (NAHVE) is to ensure that higher vocational education (HVE) programmes meet the needs of the labour market for a qualified workforce. The agency analyses the labour market, decides which programmes qualify to be offered as HVE, allocates government grants, conducts reviews, produces statistics and promotes quality improvement in HVE. NAHVE is also responsible for two types of post-secondary education: arts and culture courses, and interpretation courses and programmes.

NAHVE is also assigned to follow and support the continuous development of validation nationally and regionally including dissemination of knowledge and comprehensive information on validation. According to its instructions, the agency shall promote the use and development of validation within the education areas for which the authority is responsible. It must provide information on the industries' models for validation and support them in the development and quality assurance of the validation models.

NAHVE has an extensive network in various industries and sectors in Sweden.

The Swedish National Agency for Education ([6] The Swedish National Agency for Education: https://www.skolverket.se/andra-sprak-other-languages/english-engelska) is the central administrative authority for the public-school system, and for adult education. The agency prepares knowledge requirements, regulations, general recommendations and national tests. It is also responsible for official statistics in this education sector and conducts follow-ups and evaluations. As a reference centre for vocational education, the agency supports education providers, employers and other organisations in their efforts to improve the quality of upper secondary vocational education.

The Swedish Higher Education Authority ([7] The Swedish Higher Education Authority: https://english.uka.se/) is an independent government agency. It evaluates the quality of higher education and research and is responsible for official statistics about higher education. Higher education institutions and the Higher Education Authority have a shared responsibility for quality assurance in higher education.

[8] This section draws partly on input from: Kristensen, S. (2019) European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning 2018 update; Sweden.

Sweden has made significant progress towards fulfilling the objectives of the 2012 recommendation on validation of non-formal and informal learning, particularly related to assessing and recognising immigrants' prior learning.

Validation activities have generally increased since the 1990s and standards and guidelines have been developed for many areas. However, validation is practiced and defined in different ways, both within the different forms of education and in the area of employment. Views of what validation is and what elements it should include may vary. Although intentions and incentives are included in laws and regulations both in the education sector and the employment service, there is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in the sense of defining the responsibilities and tasks of the providers and rights of the individual. The National Delegation for Validation set up by the government in 2015 ([9] The National Delegation for Validation: http://www.valideringsdelegation.se/in-english/national-strategy-validation/) to develop and promote a national policy for validation has delivered its final report Validation – for skills supply and lifelong learning (SOU 2019:69) ([10] Validation–for skills supply and lifelong learning (SOU 2019:69): https://www.regeringen.se/48db64/contentassets/dfe0be15844c46f38630f6a2fb847a4f/summary-in-english-validation--for-skills-supply-and-lifelong-learning). In this report, the delegation submits its proposals for measures for a coherent, national and permanent system for validation, so that more people can have their knowledge and skills identified, assessed and recognised. The Delegation's work to develop these proposals was conducted in broad cooperation with relevant stakeholders at national and regional level. Representatives of national authorities, regions, industries, the social partners, education sector actors and others have participated in this work.

The National Delegation for Validation proposes to change the definition of validation in the Education Act to underline that validation should be defined as a structured process for in-depth identification, assessment and recognition of knowledge and skills that a person has, regardless of how they were acquired. Further proposals are to work out a coherent strategy for skills supply and lifelong learning, in which validation is an important component, and set up a council with overall responsibility for validation as part of this strategy. To support sector validation, the delegation proposed to establish a government grant regulated to develop validation of vocational skills. This has now been established through the Ordinance (2020:268) ([11] Ordinance (2020:268): http://rkrattsbaser.gov.se/sfst?bet=2020:268 (in Swedish).). From 2020 the new State grant is available for social partners who, in collaboration, want to develop new or adapt existing qualifications and validation models.

Several stakeholders have signalled their interest in using SeQF as a reference for their work; one example is the Property Promotion Branch Association that formulates standards for qualifications within its sphere of influence to develop validation procedures that will assist in recruitment and improve competence training programmes for staff. Other examples are the construction sector, where the framework is being used to indicate alternative progression routes for those wanting to qualify as construction site managers, and the financial sector, where the framework is seen as an opportunity to highlight the training activities taking place within the sector.

NAHVE has the task of following and supporting the development work on validation nationally and regionally. The agency is also required to support the economic sectors with developing, and quality assuring, models for validation ([12] MYH (2017). Standard och riktlinjer för branschvalidering avyrkeskompetens [Standards and guidelines for sectoral validation of vocational competence] . https://www.myh.se/Documents/Publikationer/Informationsmaterial/standard_branschvalidering.pdf). Given that MYH is also responsible for implementing the SeQF, a close link between the national qualifications framework and validation has been established.

To support the further development of sectoral validation, the National Agency for Higher Education has run an ESF-funded project since 2018 called BOSS (operational and strategic collaboration in sectoral validation) to help about 20 sectors to develop and quality assure their models in a network where they can all learn from each other. The starting point for the project's activities is the SeQF, and Standard and guidelines for sectoral validation. When the sectors formulate qualifications in accordance with the SeQF, the learning outcomes for a specific qualification become clear and can be validated and recognised via sectoral models. There are important synergies between these tools. The project has been successful and has recently been granted support for two more years (European Commission and Cedefop, 2020).

Starting in October 2020, NAHVE and partners from Finland and Iceland will carry out an Erasmus+ funded project related to both the non-formal qualifications and validation arrangements in the Nordic countries. The main focus of the project will be to examine how non-formal qualifications are levelled in national qualifications frameworks and if those qualifications can be awarded through validation procedures. The foreseen output of the project is both policy recommendations and support tools aimed at stakeholders designing non-formal qualifications and validation procedures ([13] https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/projects/eplus-project-details/#project/2020-1-SE01-KA202-077983).

The Swedish NQF is a comprehensive framework, including all levels and types of qualifications from formal education (VET, general education, higher education). It has reached activation stage. Implementation structures and main working methods and instruments are in place but work is still needed with regards to indication of levels on some of the qualification documents and increasing availability of information via databases and registers.

The National Agency for Higher Vocational Education (NAHVE) plays a key role in implementing the SeQF. Since January 2016, awarding bodies outside the formal education system have been able to have their qualifications assessed and given an SeQF level by applying to NAHVE. Guidelines for applying are available through the SEQF portal ([14] https://www.seqf.se/sv/Sa-funkar-det/Ansokan/Anvisningar-SeQF/). An advisory body assists the agency in deciding the relevant level for a qualification based on certain criteria, mainly the legitimacy/acceptance of the qualification in the relevant occupational area, learning outcomes and quality assurance. An application fee of EUR 1 000 is required in advance to cover administration costs. Decisions can be appealed to the Higher Education Appeals Board ([15] https://www.government.se/government-agencies/higher-education-appeals-board/). A decision on a level is valid for 10 years, after which a renewed application is required. The agency will carry out at least one quality audit check during the 10-year period to reaffirm that the qualification corresponds to the level allocated and that it is meeting learning outcomes, and that the provider is fulfilling the requirement to guarantee systematic quality work.

Eight qualifications have been levelled in the SeQF by NAHVE as of May 2020: cleaners (level 4), key account managers (level 5), authorised payroll consultants (level 5), military assistant nurse (level 5), performing artists (level 6), business administrators (level 6), Montessori educators (level 6) and site manager within the construction sector (6).

It is a key challenge to communicate the purpose and possibilities of the SeQF; to get past the first threshold of applying for qualifications outside the formal education system to be levelled in the framework, NAHVE is developing a common language for the writing of learning outcomes. This is required for transparency between different stakeholders and to provide good examples of the value of including qualifications awarded outside formal education and training in the SeQF. NAHVE has published a manual for the design of qualifications and there are also instructions on how to write learning outcomes. During the autumn, the agency will work on updating handbooks, application guidelines and information for various stakeholders.

Sweden has developed a separate qualifications framework for higher education and separate self-certification to the qualifications framework of the European higher education area (QF-EHEA) has been carried out. SeQF levels 6 to 8 now include the three levels from the qualifications framework for higher education. While the relationship between the national qualifications framework for higher education and the SeQF for lifelong learning was extensively discussed during initial development stages, levels 6 to 8 of the SeQF are now open both to academic and non-academic qualifications.

The SeQF is known to education authorities and bodies, and to labour market stakeholders, but there is still room for improvement, and awareness is more variable among education and training institutions and providers and guidance and counselling practitioners. The general public has more limited knowledge. The recognition authorities and bodies use EQF in some cases as a guidance instrument. The Enic-Naric office (within the Swedish Council for Higher Education) has developed a web function making it possible to search for equivalence of foreign qualifications within the Swedish system. A reference to the appropriate SEQF/EQF-level is attached ([16] https://www.uhr.se/bedomning-av-utlandsk-utbildning/enic-naric-sverige/referensramar-for-svenska-kvalifikationer/ (in Swedish).).

There has been no evaluation of the SeQF, though NAHVE continuously monitors its work to identify development areas and possible improvements for the implementation of SeQF.

Sweden does not yet have a comprehensive database for all national qualifications; instead, several different databases are in place. An embryo structure can be found in the database associated with the EQF NCP ([17] https://www.seqf.se/sv/Sa-funkar-det/Kvalifikationer/ (in Swedish).). Qualifications levelled in the SeQF by NAHVE are published here. Most universities provide information about their education offer; authorities and businesses can download and present them in their own web services. The portal Utbildningsguiden (information about education) includes search tools for education paths and providers throughout the formal education system ([18] Utbildningsguiden: https://utbildningsguiden.skolverket.se/).

NQF and EQF levels are indicated on the two qualifications within higher vocational education and on qualifications levelled by NAHVE as well as on Europass supplements for vocational diploma at upper secondary level and higher vocational education. EQF levels are indicated on diplomas and Europass supplements for higher education. NQF levels are indicated on qualifications included in the database.

The SeQF was referenced to the European qualifications framework (EQF) in June 2016, but the finalised referencing report has not yet been published.

A separate qualifications framework for higher education was developed and self-certification to the QF-EHEA was carried out in 2012. It is included in SeQF levels 6-8.

The greatest added value of the comprehensive SeQF is the learning outcomes providing a common language and making the content of qualifications easier to understand and compare for different education providers, both within the education system and in sectors and also between the different actors.

The sectors that, with the support of NAHVE, have designed qualifications for levelling in SeQF, find they are given better opportunities to communicate different competence requirements for different vocations with education providers. It also gives them the opportunity to develop relevant validation systems that, among other things, aid staff recruitment and the opportunity to create clear career paths.

For the SeQF to be able to operate as a comprehensive national qualifications framework, the relationship between higher education and other education sectors requires further clarification and continuous dialogue. Possibilities for transfer and accumulation of learning outcomes across education sectors is available as a general opportunity in Sweden, through regulation in the respective ordinances. However, there is room for improvement when it comes to implementation. Dialogue continues between NAHVE and the Association of Higher Education Institutions ([19] https://suhf.se/in-english/), an organisation for institutional cooperation on a voluntary basis, about how a degree from higher VET can be credited into higher education.

There is continuing dialogue between social partners, national agencies and sectors within the national skills councils for each vocational programme. Within this dialogue the sectors have informed the National Agency for Education about their work on designing qualifications that partly corresponds to upper secondary diploma (IVET) and how the validation models developed by the sectors may be of interest when further developing validation tools used in upper secondary education. These informal discussions provide input for further agency consideration (European Commission and Cedefop, 2020).

 

NQF levelQualification typesEQF level
8

Degrees, third cycle, Annex 2 to Higher Education Ordinance 1993:100 (Examina på forskarnivå enligt bilaga 2 till högskoleförordningen 1993:100)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Degrees, third cycle, Annex to Regulation 1993: 221 (Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Examina på forskarnivå enligt bilagan till förordningen (1993:221) för Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet Förordning (2017:276))

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
8
7

Degrees, second cycle, Annex 2 to Higher Education Ordinance 1993:100 (Examina på avancerad nivå enligt bilaga 2 till högskoleförordningen 1993:100)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Degrees, second cycle, Annex to Regulation 1993: 221 (Examina på avancerad nivå enligt bilagan till förordningen (1993:221) för Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Degrees, second cycle, in the Annex to Regulation 2007: 1164 (Examina på avancerad nivå enligt bilagan till förordningen (2007:1164) för Försvarshögskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
The Swedish Defence University.
7
6

Degrees, first cycle, Annex 2 to Higher Education Ordinance 1993:100 (Examina på grundnivå enligt bilaga 2 till högskoleförordningen 1993:100)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Degrees, first cycle, Annex to Regulation 2007:1164 (Examina på grundnivå enligt bilagan till förordningen (2007:1164) för Försvarshögskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
The Swedish Defence University.

Degrees, first cycle, Annex to Regulation 1993: 221 (Examina på grundnivå enligt bilagan till förordningen (1993:221) för Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Advanced diploma in higher vocational education (Kvalificerad yrkeshögskoleexamen från yrkeshögskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Performing artist

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.

Business administration (Marknadsekonom)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.

Montessori educator (Montessoripedagog)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.

Site manager building and construction (Platschef bygg och anläggning)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.
6
5

Qualified graduate from upper secondary engineering course (Gymnasieingenjörsexamen från gymnasieskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Diploma in higher vocational education (Yrkeshögskoleexamen från yrkeshögskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Key account manager (Säljare)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.

Authorised payroll consultants (Auktoriserad lönekonsult)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.

Military assistant nurse (Militär undersköterska)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.
5
4

Diploma from a national programme in upper secondary education – qualification title for students starting 2011 onwards (Gymnasieexamen från gymnasieskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Final grades from a complete national or specially designed programme (Slutbetyg från ett fullständigt nationellt eller specialutformat program i gymnasieskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Diploma from municipal adult education and training at upper secondary level – qualification title for students starting 2011 onwards (Gymnasieexamen från kommunal vuxenutbildning)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Final grades from municipal adult education and training at upper secondary level (Slutbetyg från gymnasial vuxenutbildning)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Certificate from the general course at upper secondary level from folk high school (Intyg om godkänt resultat från allmän kurs på gymnasial nivå från folkhögskola)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Cleaners (Städare)

Category
Awarded outside formal education
These qualifications are added to the table for comparability reasons.
4
3

(not available)

3
2

Final grades from compulsory school (Slutbetyg från grundskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Final grades from special school at compulsory level (Slutbetyg från specialskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Final grades from municipal adult education and training at compulsory level (Slutbetyg från kommunal vuxenutbildning på grundläggande nivå)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Certificate from upper secondary education for individuals with learning disabilities (Gymnasiesärskolebevis från gymnasiesärskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Certificate from special education for adults at upper secondary level (Gymnasiesärskolebevis från särskild utbildning för vuxna på gymnasial nivå)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Grade from Swedish for immigrants course D, or equivalent awarded by a folk high school (Betyg från utbildning i svenska för invandrare kurs D, eller motsvarande utbildning som bedrivs vid folkhögskola)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Grade from municipal adult education in Swedish for Immigrants course D, or equivalent awarded by a folk high school (Betyg från kommunal vuxenutbildning i svenska för invandrare kurs D, eller motsvarande utbildning som bedrivs vid folkhögskola)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Certificate from the general course at compulsory school level from folk high school (Intyg om godkänt resultat från allmän kurs på grundskolenivå från folkhögskola)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
2
1

Final grades from compulsory school for pupils with learning disabilities (Slutbetyg från grundsärskolan)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)

Final grades from special education for adults at compulsory level (Slutbetyg från särskild utbildning för vuxna på grundläggande nivå)

Category
Qualification types (formal education)
1

EQF

European qualifications framework

NAHVE

National Agency for Higher Vocational Education (Myndigheten for Yrkeshögskolan)

NCP

national coordination point

NQF

national qualifications framework

SeQF

Swedish qualifications framework

VET

vocational education and training

VPL

validation of prior learning

[URLs accessed 4.2.2021]

European Commission (2020). Education and training monitor 2020. https://op.europa.eu/webpub/eac/education-and-training-monitor-2020/en/index.html

Kristensen, S. (2019). European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning 2018 update: Sweden. https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/files/vetelib/2019/european_inventory_validation_2018_Sweden.pdf

European Commission; Cedefop (2020). Survey on implementation, communication and use of NQF/EQF [unpublished].

Overview

Stage of development:
NQF linked to EQF:
Scope of the framework:
Comprehensive NQF including all levels and types of qualification from formal education and training. Open to qualifications awarded outside the formal education system.
Number of levels:
Eight

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