NQF country report

Public expenditure on education in Luxembourg as a percentage of GDP is around the EU average; it was further increased to support teachers and families during the school closure period linked to the Covid-19 pandemic ([1] A national learning platform was created to provide digital learning materials. Parents were allowed to take leave for family reasons if they had to look after children under 13 during the closure of their school.). Strengths of the education and training system are a high rate of participation in early childhood education and care; tertiary education attainments among the highest in the EU (56.2% in 2019 compared to the EU average of 40.3%); a rate of employment of recent graduates also above the EU average; and a high percentage of adults participating in lifelong learning (19.1% in 2019 compared to the EU average of 10.8%). In contrast, levels of underachievement in reading, maths and science among 15 years old in the 2018 Programme for international student assessment (PISA) are significantly higher than EU averages: 29.3% in reading (compared to EU average 22.5%), 27.2% in mathematics (compared to EU average 22.9%) and 26.8% in science (compared to EU average 22.3%). This is strongly influenced by socioeconomic background and the ability of children to cope with the trilingual education in the country. The percentage of pupils leaving education and training early is low (7.2% in 2019) and there is virtually full employment of young secondary and tertiary graduates in Luxembourg. In 2019, the employment rate for 20-24 years old tertiary graduates was 94.2%, well above EU average of 85.0%. The employment rate among those with upper secondary or post-secondary (non-tertiary) education was also high (78.2% in 2019 against an EU average of 75.9%) (European Commission, 2020).

As a response to the European qualifications framework (EQF) initiative, the work on a national qualification framework (NQF) started in 2009. It was based on an initial government go-ahead and continued during 2010 and 2011, resulting in an eight-level comprehensive Luxembourg qualifications framework (Cadre Luxembourgeois de qualifications, CLQ)) covering all types and levels of qualification.

The development and implementation of the EQF is seen as an opportunity to make explicit and transparent the existing education and training levels and the links between them. The initial scope of the framework, acting as a non-binding and a guiding framework for stakeholders, individuals, education and training providers and the labour market, has not changed (INFPC, 2019).

An important element in favour of the CLQ is the geographic and labour market location of Luxembourg. Being host to a large number of workers from neighbouring countries like Belgium, Germany and France, Luxembourg sees the development of the CLQ as a way to aid comparison and recognition. The high immigration rate and the large proportion of foreign workers make it necessary to pay attention to the coherence between the framework and those of the neighbouring countries. The adoption of the 2016 law on recognition of professional qualifications signals official commitment to the framework (Cedefop, 2020a; 2020b).

Luxembourg has introduced an eight-level reference structure. While the number of levels corresponds with the European Qualifications Framework (EQF), the descriptors reflect the national tradition and context. At each level, descriptors are differentiated according to knowledge, aptitudes and attitudes (connaissances, aptitudes, attitudes). While the level of detail is higher, the relationship to the EQF can be clearly identified. This is, for example, the case for the third (attitude) column which is based on the principles of responsibility, autonomy and context ([2] Attitudes refer to 'personal and social dispositions in work or study situations and for professional or personal development. Personal abilities are characterised by an autonomous, responsible disposition that allows critical consideration of one's own actions and the actions of other people; they also define the scope of a person's own development through either study or practice.' (Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and Ministry of Higher Education and Research, 2014, p.19).) as with the EQF ([3] Descriptors defining levels in the European qualifications framework (EQF): https://europa.eu/europass/en/description-eight-eqf-levels ). The CLQ level descriptors are included as annex of the regulation of 17 February 2017 on the recognition of professional qualifications; this establishes the CLQ as the main reference point to which foreign qualifications should be compared ([4] Règlement grand-ducal du 17 février 2017 relatif à la reconnaissance des qualifications professionnelles [Regulation of 17 February 2017 on the recognition of professional qualifications]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A241, 6.3.2017. http://data.legilux.public.lu/file/eli-etat-leg-memorial-2017-241-fr-pdf.pdf).

The decision to use the above concepts reflects gradual development of a learning-outcomes or competence-based approach in VET; the competence-based approach has a prominent position in VET reform. Use of learning outcomes (or compétences) in education and training has varied between subsectors; there is a different degree of implementation in different education and training systems, most advanced in compulsory and vocational training, particularly following the Law on VET reform, 2008 ([5] The law of 19 December 2008 implementing vocational education reform modernises Luxembourg's system of initial and continuing vocational education and training. The main points of the reform consist of the reorientation of initial vocational education (IVET) towards a modular and competence-oriented structure. Luxembourg's Vocational Education and Training Act of 2008 defines competences as the totality of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are necessary in order to practise an occupation. ) and the amended Law on VET reform, 2019 ([6] Reform Law on Vocational Education and Training (2019): http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2019/07/12/a497/jo). Competences for primary education are formulated in the socle de compétences (skills base) ([7] The socle de compétences defines a set of key competences referring to subject-independent competences and should be seen as the 'core set' of competences (KeyCoNet, 2013).); whereas for secondary and VET education competences are elaborated in the acquis d'apprentissage (Cedefop, 2016).

Recent years have brought about a change; most qualifications are described through learning outcomes. In initial vocational education, all qualifications and programmes have been described using learning outcomes and can be accessed via the register of the Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth ([8] See https://portal.education.lu/programmes/Home).

In secondary VET, development of programmes (in cooperation with chambers) is based on the occupational profile ([9] An occupational profile: lists the areas of activity as well as the activities and tasks of future occupations after two to three years of workplace experience (INFPC, 2019).), on the training profile ([10] A training profile is based on the occupational profile by areas of competence: occupational and general competences (INFPC, 2019).) and on the training programme based on the training profile which:

  1. defines the learning outcomes for each competence and regroups them by learning domain;
  2. organises the learning domains and outcomes in modules and credits;
  3. for curriculum, determines the content of the different modules (INFPC, 2019).

The VET Law of 2008, which lays down the basic objectives of vocational education and training and which also covers the main aspects of quality assurance, was amended in June 2019 and entered into force July 2019 ([11] Loi du 27 juin 2018 ayant pour objet l'organisation de l'Université du Luxembourg [Law of 27 June 2018 on the organisation of the University of Luxembourg]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A587, 11.7.2018. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/27/a587/jo). In agreement with the professional chambers, the technical adaptations are introduced to improve sustainably the quality of vocational training. The amended law incorporates into the Labour code provisions relating to apprenticeship contracts and the internship agreements that are provided for in the 2008 law; it also makes certain clarifications and amendments. The law provides that a first extension of the apprenticeship contract for one year is granted automatically if the apprentice needs it to complete his or her training and that a second extension of up to one year may be granted if the parties to the contract agree (Article L. 111-8 (2)).

Further work on standards and training profiles based on explicit learning outcomes will support coherence between qualifications and CLQ levels.

Higher education is organised in courses lasting one semester, each constituting assessable modules allocated credit points (European credit transfer and accumulation system). These courses are increasingly defined and described using learning outcomes. Learning outcomes are included in the new law on the organisation of the University of Luxembourg ([12] Loi du 27 juin 2018 ayant pour objet l'organisation de l'Université du Luxembourg [Law of 27 June 2018 on the organisation of the University of Luxembourg]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A587, 11.7.2018. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/27/a587/jo), which lays down that each programme requires specific objectives, based on the acquisition of certain knowledge, competences and transversal skills. Further, the obligation to define learning outcomes is also included in the 2010 Grand-Ducal decree ([13] Règlement grand-ducal du 23 février 2010 relatif à l'organisation des études et à la promotion des étudiants des formations sanctionnées par l'obtention du brevet de technicien supérieur [Decree of the Grand Duchy of 23 February 2010 regarding the organisation of short-cycle programmes in higher education]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A30, 8.3.2010. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/02/23/n1/jo) on the organisation of short-cycle programmes and related student graduation.

The formal adoption of the CLQ as a lifelong learning tool is still under discussion at political level and by different stakeholders. With the adoption of the law on recognition of professional qualifications, however, the CLQ was established as the formal reference point for recognition of professional qualifications acquired outside Luxembourg ([14] Loi du 28 Octobre 2016 relative à la reconnaissance des qualifications professionnelles [Law of 28 October 2016 on the recognition of professional qualifications]. Journal Officiel, A231, 18.11.2016. http://data.legilux.public.lu/file/eli-etat-leg-memorial-2016-231-fr-pdf.pdf ).

The development and implementation of the CLQ is being coordinated by the Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth, which also acts as national contact point (NCP) for EQF in cooperation with the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. As the bodies responsible for formal qualifications, both of these ministries (in conjunction with the bodies mentioned below) are responsible for quality assurance of the relevant qualifications. Apart from the NCP's natural connection with the Ministry of Higher Education, which ensures the link with all the parties involved, including the university, there is also a link with the social partners. Consultation and active involvement of the various parties concerned has benefitted from this centralised situation (Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and Ministry of Higher Education and Research, 2014).

Although the overall framework responsibilities have not been laid down, there are clear responsibilities for qualifications at different CLQ levels. Qualifications referenced at levels 1 to 4 are the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth ([15] Previously described as Ministry for Education and Vocational Training.), while at levels 6 to 8 they are the responsibility of the Ministry for Higher Education and Research; at level 5 they are the responsibility of the Ministry for National Education, Children and Youth together with the Chamber of Trades for the master craftsperson's diploma (Ministry of Education and Vocational Training; Ministry of Higher Education and Research, 2014). Social partner involvement is a core principle in VET policy; the professional chambers ([16] The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has five professional chambers: three chambers of employers (chamber of commerce, chamber of trades, chamber of agriculture) and two chambers of employees (chamber of employees and chamber of civil servants and public-sector employees).) are independent policy institutes and with the 2008 reform their role is reinforced (Cedefop, 2019). Chambers act as partners for official consultation and are directly associated with the legislative and executive procedure of the Grand Duchy.

The Department for Coordination of Educational and Technological Research and Innovation (SCRIPT) – under the authority of the education ministry – and its School Quality Development Agency (Agence pour le Développement de la Qualité Scolaire, ADQS) are responsible for quality assurance of school education (INFPC, 2018). External evaluation of the education system is outsourced to the University of Luxembourg. A National Observatory of School Quality ([17] Observatoire national de la qualité scolaire: https://men.public.lu/fr/themes-transversaux/organisation-gouvernance/o…) was also created in January 2018 at the Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth to report on the school system; it produces findings based on research and recommendations (Cedefop, 2020).

Quality assurance in higher education uses external evaluation, as there is no national quality assurance agency. Instead, the Ministry of Higher education and Research has outsourced the process to foreign agencies and experts. The University of Luxembourg is evaluated every four years ([18] Loi du 27 juin 2018 ayant pour objet l'organisation de l'Université du Luxembourg [Law of 27 June 2018 on the organisation of the University of Luxembourg]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A587, 11.7.2018. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/27/a587/jo), with the focus of evaluation alternating between research and learning and teaching. The Minister of Higher Education and Research commissions a foreign EQAR-registered agency to perform the institutional evaluation ([19] The bachelor, master and PhD programmes offered by the University of Luxembourg, created by law, are automatically recognised.). The 2009 law ([20] Loi du 19 juin 2009 portant organisation de l'enseignement supérieur [Law of 19 June 2009 on the organisation of higher education]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A153, 1.7.2009. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2009/06/19/n1/jo) on the organisation of higher education provides for external quality assurance of private higher education institutions and their programmes, as well as the short-cycle programmes of secondary schools. Private higher education institutions and their programmes are also evaluated every five years by a foreign EQAR-registered ([21] EQAR is the European quality assurance register for higher education.) agency commissioned by the Minister of Higher Education and Research ([22] Based on the evaluation report of the agency, the Minister decides on accreditation and refusal of accreditation.). Short-cycle programmes offered by secondary schools are evaluated by an expert group nominated by the Minister of Higher Education and Research, which is an ENQA ([23] ENQA is the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education.) affiliate member. For both foreign private higher education institutions and their programmes, and for short-cycle programmes in secondary schools, only accredited programmes and institutions are officially recognised by the State.

[24] This section draws mainly on input from Duchemin, C. (2019). European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning update: Luxembourg.

The development of validation systems In Luxembourg has been closely related to the national lifelong learning strategy ([25] Luxembourg reported on national developments related to the implementation of the Council recommendation on validation of non-formal and informal learning to the to the EQF Advisory Group in 2017, being the first member to give an insight about the development and the implementation of procedures. ). Legislation recognises an individual right to benefit from the validation of formal, non-formal and informal learning (under some conditions) ([26] Validation can lead to access to, or acquisition of, full or partial qualifications, provided that the candidate can supply evidence that the total length of prior experiential learning amounts to at least 5 000 hours over a minimum of three years and is effectively related to the targeted qualification.). This process is known as 'validation of prior experiential learning' or validation des acquis de l'expérience (VAE) and has been operational since 2010 ([27] VAE has become a known way of obtaining a formal qualification based on formal, non-formal and informal learning outcomes or, in other words, based on the individual life and work experience of the person. Even if the procedure is not perfect, the path one has to follow is clearly set up (implementation of the 2012 Council recommendation on validation of non-formal and informal learning, one-off report Luxembourg)). The current legal framework on validation consists of several laws, covering secondary technical and vocational education, advanced technician diplomas and the University of Luxembourg. VAE arrangements are in place for formal qualifications awarded through the 'general secondary education' system in Luxembourg (including technical and vocational education, to be distinguished from 'classical secondary education', not covered by VAE) ([28] Following adoption of the law of 29 August 2017, the Luxembourgish secondary education includes both 'classical' secondary education (enseignement secondaire classique) and 'general' secondary education (enseignement secondaire général), corresponding to vocational and technical education, the latter giving access to higher education. Source: Eurydice online database: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/secondary-and-post-secondary-non-tertiary-education-32_en), post-secondary non-tertiary education qualifications, such as master craftsperson certificates, and higher education qualifications (both short-cycle degrees and qualifications awarded by the University of Luxembourg). Since 2016, new legal provisions ([29] Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle [Law of 24 August 2016 modifying the amended law of 19 December 2008 on the reform of vocational training]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A175, 1.9.2016. http://data.legilux.public.lu/file/eli-etat-leg-memorial-2016-175-fr-pdf.pdf#page=1&zoom=auto,-12,318
and
Règlement grand-ducal du 15 décembre 2017 portant sur l'accompagnement par entretiens personnalisés du candidat sollicitant la validation des acquis de l'expérience [Regulation of the Grand Duchy of 15 December 2017 on the personalised interviews of the candidate seeking the validation of acquired experience]. Journal Officiel, Mémorial A1080, 18.12.2017. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2017/12/15/a1080/jo
) guarantee the right to individualised guidance to VAE candidates for qualifications under the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education.

Vocational and technical qualifications can be acquired through validation. An exception is the secondary general school leaving certificate (Diplôme de fin d'études secondaires générales, DFESG)) that cannot be acquired through validation. In higher education, qualifications at levels 6 to 8, only parts of qualifications or modules can be recognised through validation. Any type of prior experiential learning relevant to the targeted qualification, whether it is the result of formal, non-formal or informal learning activities in the education and training sector, the labour market or the third sector, can be used to apply for validation.

The Ministry of National Education takes responsibility for the implementation of VAE in relation to secondary level vocational and technical qualifications as well as master craftsperson certificates.

The Ministry for Higher Education holds general responsibility for higher education validation arrangements, but VAE procedures are decentralised, with a key role played by the short-cycle higher education providers (lycées) for the advanced technician diplomas and the University of Luxembourg for bachelor, master and PhD programmes. The new law on the University of Luxembourg, affecting VAE, came into force on 1 August 2018.

The small size of the country aids informal coordination between different validation stakeholders. Validation is a regular topic of discussion, with changes to the legislative framework on validation and improvements in the provision of orientation and guidance to validation candidates being considered. The value of learning outcomes from non-formal and informal contexts is largely accepted in Luxembourg. This is due to the high value attributed to lifelong learning and to the consensual political culture, with social partners and stakeholders involved in the validation process (Houot, 2016).

Changes are expected in the coming years, creating an overarching legal framework with general principles for validation for all sectors.

The Luxembourg NQF is an eight-level outcome-based comprehensive framework, including all levels and types of qualifications from formal education (VET, general education, higher education); it has reached activation stage. Implementation structures are in place. The framework has an important role in improving transparency and comparability of qualifications and is established as the formal reference point for recognition of foreign professional qualifications. It is a reference point for the use of learning outcomes and is also used as reference point for renewal of qualifications and programmes. It is known to a certain number of actors in education and the labour market, but disseminating CLQ on a wider level and to larger target groups is the key challenge for the next period.

When the work started in 2009, development and implementation of the EQF was originally seen as an opportunity to make explicit the existing education and training levels and the relationships between them. This was considered important not only for qualifications users (to support lifelong learning for individuals and to enable employers to see the relevance of qualifications), but also for education and training providers. The explicit levels of learning outcomes introduced by the framework are expected to function as a reference point for curriculum development and may help to improve overall consistency of education and training provision.

Implementation of the CLQ was slow during 2013-14, partly reflecting the lack of a clear legislative basis and an agreed strategy shared by all stakeholders on how to proceed. The adoption, in November 2016, of a law on recognition of professional qualifications, established the CLQ as the formal reference point for recognition of foreign professional qualifications. This integration into the legislative structure signals official commitment to the framework and represents an important step towards full implementation.

The ENIC-NARIC ([30] https://www.enic-naric.net/luxembourg.aspx ) has been using the CLQ since 2016 as a reference point for the registration/recognition of foreign diplomas. The procedure for obtaining formal recognition of a higher education diploma acquired in another country is described on the portal for lifelong learning ([31] The register of qualifications and accreditation http://www.lifelong-learning.lu/Detail/Article/Diplomes/registre-des-titres-et-homologation/en ).

A comprehensive national database or register of qualifications has not yet been set up and there are no relevant developments in this regard. Currently there are two registers in place: information on secondary education programmes, including VET ([32] http://portal.education.lu/programmes) and the register of national higher education diplomas ([33] Register of national higher education diplomas (in French): http://www.mesr.public.lu/enssup/registre_des_titres/index.html
Register of national higher education diplomas (in English): http://www.mesr.public.lu/enssup/registre_des_titres/formations-superieures-accreditees_final.pdf
).

NQF and EQF levels are not yet included on certificates and diplomas in Luxembourg. However, NQF and EQF levels are included on certificate supplements in VET, and the ministry requests the inclusion of levels on diploma supplements in higher education; they are already included in some higher education diploma supplements. Some qualifications awarded outside formal education and training also include NQF/EQF levels (European Commission and Cedefop, 2020).

Some qualifications in Luxembourg posed challenges in terms of levelling. The vocational aptitude diploma (Diplôme d'aptitude professionnelle, DAP) that can be acquired through apprenticeships has been assigned to the CLQ/EQF level 3, and the master craftsperson qualification ([34] The master craftsperson qualification (brevet de maîtrise; ISCED 453, EQF 5) entitles holders to establish themselves in the craft industry as self-employed and to train apprentices. The qualification confers the title of master craftsperson in the particular trade. The master craftsperson qualification does not give any access right for higher education; progression opportunities depend on the certificate gained at secondary level (INFPC, 2019).) to CLQ/EQF level 5 (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018). This is different in the frameworks of the German-speaking countries where these types of qualification were referenced to EQF levels 4 and 6 respectively (European Commission and Cedefop, 2018).

Luxembourg referenced its qualifications levels to the EQF and the qualifications framework for the European higher education area (QF-EHEA) in June 2012; a referencing report was published in 2014.

While a solid basis for the NQF has been established in Luxembourg, implementation slowed following the referencing to the EQF in 2012. This was caused by the lack of a clear legal basis and some uncertainty among stakeholders over the role to be played by the CLQ at national level. Adoption of the 2016 law on recognition clarified the position of the CLQ at national level and provided the basis for development towards a more advanced operational status. Discussions continue on strengthening the role of CLQ as a lifelong learning tool, though no political decision has been taken yet. This includes the development of procedures for inclusion of qualifications from outside formal education and training system and considerations on setting up a comprehensive national database of qualifications. Started as a systematic description of qualifications from the formal education and training system (with the same standards being used also for validation of non-formal and informal learning), the CLQ may open to qualifications awarded outside the formal system, to address the high number of citizens holding unofficial and non-recognised certificates and diplomas. To accomplish this, specific approaches to accreditation and quality assurance of these qualifications, and to their inclusion in the framework, are being considered (Cedefop (2020), National qualifications frameworks developments in Europe 2019). However, there are no plans for evaluations, updates or further development of the NQF in Luxembourg for the time being.

  • The Ministry of National Education, Childhood and Youth acts as EQF NCP:

http://www.men.public.lu/fr/index.html

http://www.mesr.public.lu/enssup/registre_des_titres/index.html

NQF levelQualification typesEQF level
8

Doctoral diploma (Phd) (Doctorat)

Certificate following specific training course in medicine (Diplôme de formation spécifique en médecine générale)

8
7

Master diploma (Master)

7
6

Bachelor diploma (Bachelor)

6
5

Master craftsman diploma (Brevet de maîtrise)

Advanced technician diploma (Brevet de technicien supérieur)

Specialised advanced technician diploma (Brevet de technicien supérieur spécialisé)

5
4

Upper secondary general education school leaving certificate (Diplôme de fin d’études secondaires)

Technical secondary school leaving certificate (Diplôme de fin d’études secondaires techniques)

Technician diploma (Diplôme de technicien)

4
3

Vocational aptitude diploma (Diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle – DAP)

Certificate attesting completion of middle cycle technical secondary education (Certificat de réussite du cycle moyen de l’enseignement secondaire technique)

Certificate attesting completion of five years secondary education (Certificat de réussite de 5 années d’enseignement secondaire)

3
2

Vocational capability certificate (Certificat de capacité professionnelle – CCP)

2
1

Certificate attesting completion of lower cycle, technical secondary education (Certificat de réussite du cycle inférieur de l’enseignement secondaire technique)

1

ADQS

School Quality Development Agency

BTS

Brevet de technicien supérieur [Advanced technician diploma]

CLQ

Cadre Luxembourgeois des qualifications, CLQ (Luxembourg qualifications framework)

DAP

Diplôme d'aptitude professionnelle [Vocational aptitude diploma]

ENQA

European Association for Quality Assurance for Higher Education

EQAR

European Quality Assurance Register for Higher Education

EQF

European qualifications framework

NQF

national qualifications framework

QF-EHEA

qualifications framework for the European higher education area

VAE

validation des acquis de l'expérience [validation of non-formal and informal learning]

VET

vocational education and training

[19.2.2021]

Cedefop (2016). Application of learning outcomes approaches across Europe: a comparative study. Luxembourg: Publication office. Cedefop reference series; No 105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2801/735711

Cedefop (2020a). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-19: Luxembourg. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/developments-vocational-education-and-training-policy-2015-19-luxembourg

Cedefop (2020b). National qualifications frameworks developments in Europe 2019. Qualifications frameworks: transparency and added value for end users. Luxembourg: Publications Office. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4190

Duchemin, C. (2019). European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning 2018 update: Luxembourg. https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/files/vetelib/2019/european_inventory_validation_2018_Luxembourg.pdf

European Commission; Cedefop (2018). Survey on implementation, communication and use of NQF/EQF [unpublished].

European Commission; Cedefop (2020). Survey on implementation, communication and use of NQF/EQF [unpublished].

European Commission (2020). Education and training monitor 2020. https://op.europa.eu/webpub/eac/education-and-training-monitor-2020/en/index.html

Houot, I. (2016). La validation des acquis de l'expérience au Luxembourg. European Commission EPAL blog. https://ec.europa.eu/epale/en/node/29911

INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop. ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/files/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf

Ministry of Education and Vocational Training; Ministry of Higher Education and Research (2014). Report on referencing the Luxembourg qualifications framework to the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning and to the qualifications framework in the European higher education area. https://europa.eu/europass/sl/reports-referencing-national-qualifications-frameworks-eqf

Overview

Stage of development:
NQF linked to EQF:
Scope of the framework:
Comprehensive NQF including all levels and types of qualification from formal education and training.
Number of levels:
Eight

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