The current database aims to support European countries in their efforts to develop and establish arrangements to validate non-formal and informal learning. It is also a tool for anyone interested in validation, to understand better how validation is carried out in Europe.

The database links the European guidelines for validation of non-formal and informal learning (2nd ed, 2015) with the European inventory on validation (update 2014). It provides an overview of how countries are meeting the various challenges of establishing validation arrangements. It follows the chapters of the European guidelines. Detailed information per country can be found in the country reports.

All information has been extracted from the ‘country fiches’, which were put together as part of the European Inventory update and are based on country researchers’ responses to a set of predefined questions. The text has not been edited by Cedefop. However, considerable effort has been made to ensure accuracy and correctness of the information. Please get in touch with us, if you discover inaccuracies. For suggestions, improvements, ideas, comments or further information, please contact the project manager, Ernesto Villalba-Garcia

For more information about Cedefop’s actions in validating non-formal and informal learning, visit our validation project .

The member states should, with a view to offering individuals the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned outside formal education and training — including through mobility experiences — and to make use of that learning for their careers and further learning, and with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity have in place, no later than 2018, in accordance with national circumstances and specificities, and as they deem appropriate, arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning.

Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
No Strategy
There is no explicit national strategy which includes all sectors on the validation of non-formal and informal learning
No Strategy
There is not one single national/regional strategy in place but rather a group of arrangements in the public and private sectors and there are also...
There is not one single national/regional strategy in place but rather a group of arrangements in the public and private sectors and there are also concrete measures in place. However, the government has launched an inter-ministerial initiative to develop an integrated vision for validation procedures, covering all sectors.
No Strategy
No explicit national strategy exists with respect to all sectors on validation of non-formal and informal learning. In the 2009-2014 "Declaration o...
No explicit national strategy exists with respect to all sectors on validation of non-formal and informal learning. In the 2009-2014 "Declaration of Regional Policies" the Walloon Government set out its intention to make Validation of Skills one of the priorities of the next term in office.
No Strategy
There is no formal strategy / policy on validation of non-formal and informal learning including all educational sectors. One of the main prioriti...
There is no formal strategy / policy on validation of non-formal and informal learning including all educational sectors. One of the main priorities of the national lifelong learning strategy (LLL 2008-2013) includes the validation and certification of results acquired through non-formal and informal learning. The Renewed Employment Strategy 2008-2015 also refers to the development of a system for validation of non-formal and informal learning, which shall support individuals with a low level of participation in lifelong learning to acquire qualifications
No Strategy
No information
Some elements missing
There is a clear legislative framework for validation and it is linked to the national qualifications framework. However, validation of NFIL only c...
There is a clear legislative framework for validation and it is linked to the national qualifications framework. However, validation of NFIL only concerns vocational qualifications included in the qualifications register (NSK). These can be related but are not identical to the qualifications obtained through formal initial VET. It is possible to integrate initial VET programmes at different stages but this is the responsibility of heads of schools and does not fall under the main system for validation. VNFIL is not common in higher education
No Strategy
Elements of a national strategy are the regulations of the Länder, for example the access for qualified workers to higher education, and on a fede...
Elements of a national strategy are the regulations of the Länder, for example the access for qualified workers to higher education, and on a federal level the External student’s examination in VET, or a working group ‘validation’. Another stimulus is the Council Recommendation on validation.
Some elements missing
National legislation about on the subject of the recognition of prior learning is in place. Arrangements cover all education sectors and establish ...
National legislation about on the subject of the recognition of prior learning is in place. Arrangements cover all education sectors and establish connections between them. However, more needs to be done to ensure better links between validation activities in the public, private and third sector. The Danish concept of the recognition of prior learning is based on the common principles outlined in a policy paper. The principles are fundamental to the further political process and agreements amongst stakeholders.
Some elements missing
National strategy for validation is clearly stated in higher education and vocational education levels. Validation principles are also generally u...
National strategy for validation is clearly stated in higher education and vocational education levels. Validation principles are also generally used in the system for awarding professional qualifications. In the field of general education, the RPL system has thus far not been initiated. Institutions providing non-formal education have not been involved in the implementation of RPL principles
No Strategy
The National Accreditation Centre for lifelong learning providers (EKEPIS) is the competent national authority for the certification of ‘inputs...
The National Accreditation Centre for lifelong learning providers (EKEPIS) is the competent national authority for the certification of ‘inputs’ of non-formal education. Also, another governmental institution (EOPP) certifies the ‘outputs’ of lifelong learning. The same institution is responsible for the NQF development. Language and ICT competences can be validated by the state.
Some elements missing
The national strategy for validation was established with the approval of the Organic Law of Education (LOE) and the Organic Law of Universities (L...
The national strategy for validation was established with the approval of the Organic Law of Education (LOE) and the Organic Law of Universities (LOU), which increased the permeability of the education system and incorporated actions to validate non-formal and informal learning, such as access exams to VET and university studies, aimed at those people who do not have the required qualifications. Another measure is the possibility of work experience recognition that exempts the student from studying the module of work place training, which is compulsory in all VET qualifications. Another measure is the possibility of getting a qualification through an examination, organised by the public administrations of the Autonomous Communities, for those people who have not undertaken any formal courses. Furthermore, the Royal Decree 1224/2009 established the recognition of skills acquired through work experience . This Royal Decree provides the possibility of evaluating professional competences through other non-traditional assessment methods; this procedure is common to gain qualifications from the Employment administration and the Education administration. However, this Royal Decree does not cover all education sectors, but it only focuses on VET and it only recognises professional competences acquired through work experience or non-formal learning. This Decree only applies to some levels of competence (modules for formal VET), but it does not apply to university studies. The calls for validation and accreditation of professional competences are usually restricted to some economic sectors in each call, depending on the available financial resources and the needs of the productive sectors by means of a call for proposals.
Comprehensive national Strategy
The Framework for Qualifications and Other Learning, NQF from 2009 covers validation issues comprehensively. The Finnish education system has pract...
The Framework for Qualifications and Other Learning, NQF from 2009 covers validation issues comprehensively. The Finnish education system has practically no dead ends. An individual is able to move to HE via general upper secondary or the VET route. It makes no difference if the individual has gained a full qualification through validation. The certification is identical via validation or school based route.
Comprehensive national Strategy
The national strategy derives from the adoption of a legal framework for validation, covering all sectors.
No Strategy
Although there is no national strategy for validation in place, there are arrangements on a sectoral level. The arrangements and approaches were de...
Although there is no national strategy for validation in place, there are arrangements on a sectoral level. The arrangements and approaches were developed because the validation was necessary to certify the level of knowledge, skills, and competences of individuals wishing to perform certain types of jobs.
No Strategy
The validation is developed at sectoral level within the framework of the New Hungary Development Plan (2007-2013). The first project was launched ...
The validation is developed at sectoral level within the framework of the New Hungary Development Plan (2007-2013). The first project was launched in July 2009. It aims to develop a validation model that can be implemented within the higher education sector. There has been a prior learning assessment scheme within the adult training system since 2001 (but it is not a complete validation procedure – it relates only to assessment and exemption in relation to a given course). The scheme aims to customise training programmes.
No Strategy
There is no formal national strategy for validation however the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland-NQAI (2005) Principles and Operational...
There is no formal national strategy for validation however the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland-NQAI (2005) Principles and Operational Guidelines for the Recognition of Prior Learning in Further and Higher Education and Training serve as the main national policy for the higher education sector and further education sector.
Some elements missing
A National strategy is in place for adults who have not completed Upper Secondary school and most of the measures are in place. A comprehensive nat...
A National strategy is in place for adults who have not completed Upper Secondary school and most of the measures are in place. A comprehensive national lifelong learning strategy is being implemented in Iceland on the basis of new laws for all education sectors. A law was passed in June 2008 for upper secondary schools, and in March 2010 the Adult Education Act was passed. Both contain provisions on individual entitlement to the validation of non-formal and informal learning towards credits/units at the upper secondary level. Based on a service contract with the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Education and Training Service Centre (ETSC) has the role of developing a national strategy in cooperation with accredited lifelong learning (LLL) centres, upper secondary schools, and social partners
No Strategy
Some Regions (such as Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Lombardia) have their own strategy, legal framework and arrangements. Veneto Region also formalised...
Some Regions (such as Emilia Romagna, Toscana, Lombardia) have their own strategy, legal framework and arrangements. Veneto Region also formalised a validation model that is currently being carrying out by the PES and other relevant actors of the employment services
In development
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of a NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunities ...
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of a NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunities to take part in a validation process are based on so-called dossiers in higher education
No Strategy
National qualifications framework (NQF) in development
Some elements missing
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). S...
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). Some qualifications delivered by the Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre are accessible via VAE.
No Strategy
No formal strategy of validation is in place except the Lifelong Learning Strategy, ‘Guidelines for Lifelong Learning 2007-2013’ that states th...
No formal strategy of validation is in place except the Lifelong Learning Strategy, ‘Guidelines for Lifelong Learning 2007-2013’ that states that formal, non-formal and informal learning policies are equally important.
In development
Progress has been made towards establishing a national strategy and framework for validation. The National Commission for Further and Higher Educa...
Progress has been made towards establishing a national strategy and framework for validation. The National Commission for Further and Higher Education (NCFHE) has been charged with introducing a national system for validation, including drafting National Guidelines for the validation of informal and non-formal learning, aligning with the Malta Qualifications Framework (MQF).
Some elements missing
The NLQF is currently being debated as a national platform for the registration of national and sectoral standards. The national quality code for V...
The NLQF is currently being debated as a national platform for the registration of national and sectoral standards. The national quality code for VPL-provision is the main steering element in the national strategy and written down in a policy law APL. There is no coherent professionalization programme for VPL-professionals. Specific target groups have an informal right to VPL (job-seekers; workers in some sectors) Some sectors use VPL for cashing in work-experience for qualifications (building sector, welfare, process industry) Some sectors use VPL for outsourcing (work-to-work) strategies, like military, telecom.
Some elements missing
There is no single all-encompassing strategy for validation at national level. However there is a comprehensive framework in place, made up of sev...
There is no single all-encompassing strategy for validation at national level. However there is a comprehensive framework in place, made up of several laws and regulations / strategies / policies relating to the different sectors of education and training. However, validation in the labour market (especially Human Resource Development (HRD) practices follow their own logic, are not reported on and there is no labour market actor with the aim of establishing a framework linked to a national strategy.
In development
In Poland, one cannot yet speak of a system of validation and recognition of learning outcomes acquired through informal learning or non-formal lea...
In Poland, one cannot yet speak of a system of validation and recognition of learning outcomes acquired through informal learning or non-formal learning processes. The current legal framework in the field of education does not define the concept of validation and thus there are no regulations at central level addressing validation of learning outcomes achieved in a mode other than formal education”. However, some legislation adopted specific arrangements whereby professional/vocational skills acquired through employment can be validated through qualification examinations. The new regulation also introduced mechanisms for awarding partial qualifications in recognition of competences obtained as a result of completing training in a non-school setting, and for recognising partial qualifications obtained in this way by adults who take up study in schools for adults providing vocational education and training
Comprehensive national Strategy
There is a formal national strategy for validation, in the non-higher education area, from level 1 to 4. It is linked to the National Qualification...
There is a formal national strategy for validation, in the non-higher education area, from level 1 to 4. It is linked to the National Qualifications Catalogue and to NQF. There are good connections between public, private and third sector. Yes, there is a relevant strategy at both a national and regional level. A comprehensive approach exists in practice, linking academic and professional validation.
Some elements missing
Although the legislation represents a move forward in the validation of learning gained outside the formal education system, it does not necessaril...
Although the legislation represents a move forward in the validation of learning gained outside the formal education system, it does not necessarily create a unitary framework for validation at the national level. Furthermore, there is a risk that some of the provisions regarding the vocational training of adults, particularly in the domain of the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, were still not fully enforced in Romania
No Strategy
Sweden does not have a fully developed system for the validation of informal and non-formal learning with roles, organisational structures and fina...
Sweden does not have a fully developed system for the validation of informal and non-formal learning with roles, organisational structures and financial responsibilities clearly stated and established. The work of the agency is intended to result in overall policies for validation. No other kind of overall policy or strategy for validation is planned. As stated in the 2007 update, the responsibility for validation in Sweden is still heavily decentralised at the local and regional level and strongly embedded in the municipal adult education system. Cooperation between educational authorities, business sector organisations, universities and municipalities in setting up structures for validation methods and the delivery of validation is also still emphasised.
No Strategy
Different education sectors develop and adopt their own strategy. For vocational education, a national strategy is in place while other levels deal...
Different education sectors develop and adopt their own strategy. For vocational education, a national strategy is in place while other levels deal with the subject individually
In development
Since the 2007 update of the inventory, which presented the formulation of the first steps towards a national approach to validation of non-formal ...
Since the 2007 update of the inventory, which presented the formulation of the first steps towards a national approach to validation of non-formal and informal learning, the law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.) has been adopted. This law sets the framework for recognition of non-formal and informal learning in view of achieving partial or full qualifications. It also sets the framework for providing quality assured non-formal learning. However, this law was only adopted in December 2009 (though it has been in preparation for several years – see the 2007 update of the inventory) and its implementation is in the very early stages
In development
The work for the establishment of the Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) started in 2006. The VQA acts at the national level for the validat...
The work for the establishment of the Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) started in 2006. The VQA acts at the national level for the validation of vocational qualifications
No Strategy
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place in relation to the QCF and within specific sectors of learning but in general...
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place in relation to the QCF and within specific sectors of learning but in general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider.
No Strategy
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportu...
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportunities and acquire credits on the national qualifications framework (SCQF). Work is ongoing to identify ways of using the SCQF to support RPL and to enable individuals to benchmark their attainments and achievements to the SCQF, thus facilitating participation in learning and the workforce. This work spans the different learning environments from higher education through to the workplace and the community. There is however no national strategy, which some see as a barrier to wider take-up by providers.
2014
In development
In Austria, there is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The development of an e...
In Austria, there is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The development of an explicit national strategy including all sectors on validation of non-formal and informal learning has started only recently. With the strategy for ‘Lifelong Learning 2020’ (2011) ministries have agreed on the establishment of a national validation strategy. The implementation of the LLL strategy is coordinated in the framework of the ‘national platform 20:20’ which is composed of representatives of different ministries, social partner organisations, federal states, PES as well as of higher education and adult education. A specific task force was appointed for strategically steering the implementation processes. The development of a national validation strategy will be based on status quo and needs analysis. Currently, analysis is carried out in three areas: ‘low-qualified people’, VET and higher education. The results will be brought together in the second quarter of 2014 and in a next step a consultation process for developing the national validation strategy and the definition of relevant measures will be carried out. The development of this strategy is also strongly linked to the development of the National Qualifications Framework.
In development
National (regional) strategy is in development. In Belgium there is not one single strategy in place for validation that covers the different poli...
National (regional) strategy is in development. In Belgium there is not one single strategy in place for validation that covers the different policy areas of education and training; work and social economy and culture, youth and sports. There are separate measures in place to encourage the take-up of validation and to ensure the quality of validation procedures in most of the sectors but there are currently not well established connections between the different parties. Flanders is at the moment working on a single comprehensive strategy linking all the different sectors.
No Strategy
Belgium and there is not one national strategy covering all sectors: - VDC in continuous vocational training - VAE in adult education (Enseignement...
Belgium and there is not one national strategy covering all sectors: - VDC in continuous vocational training - VAE in adult education (Enseignement de promotion sociale) - VAE in Universities, - VAE in Hautes Ecoles (higher education level)
No Strategy
In Bulgaria, a formal strategy or policy for the validation of non-formal and informal learning does not exist; (this is the case for all education...
In Bulgaria, a formal strategy or policy for the validation of non-formal and informal learning does not exist; (this is the case for all educational sectors)
In development
A complete strategy is in place in the VET sector, especially for the Upper-secondary Level of VET. A comprehensive national strategy is in develo...
A complete strategy is in place in the VET sector, especially for the Upper-secondary Level of VET. A comprehensive national strategy is in development to establish VNIL procedures for the education system as a whole, and to be in line with the NQF. There are gaps in the measures in place to establish good connections between validation in the public, private and third sector
In development
There is no comprehensive national strategy or policy in Cyprus for the validation of non-formal and informal learning. However, an important devel...
There is no comprehensive national strategy or policy in Cyprus for the validation of non-formal and informal learning. However, an important development occurred in 2013. The cabinet of Ministers approved the establishment (Decision No 74.676, 11/2/2013, proposal submitted by the Ministry of Education and Culture) of an interdepartmental Committee (here after the ‘Committee’), which has the task to develop and see to the implementation (by 2018) of a comprehensive action plan for the validation of non-formal and informal learning, in line with ‘Council Recommendation of 20.12.12 for the validation of the non-formal and informal learning’. The Committee consists of representatives of the Ministry of Education and Culture (coordinator), the Ministry of Labour and Social Security, the General Directorate for European Programmes, Coordination and Development (former Planning Bureau), the Human Resources and Development Agency (HRDA) and the Foundation for the Management of European Life Long Learning Programmes. In addition, the Commissioner of Volunteering and NGO Commissioner sits in the Committee. The Committee may expand to include more members, according to the needs which will occur. The Committee will take into account the work already done by the HRDA, (described below), so that it will be incorporated in a more comprehensive scheme, which will include the general and adult education sector as well as the non-formal learning that takes place within the volunteering and youth sector.
Some elements missing
There is a clear legislative framework for validation and it is linked to the national qualifications framework. However, validation of NFIL only c...
There is a clear legislative framework for validation and it is linked to the national qualifications framework. However, validation of NFIL only concerns vocational qualifications included in the qualifications register (NSK). These can be related but are not identical to the qualifications obtained through formal initial VET. It is possible to integrate initial VET programmes at different stages but this is the responsibility of heads of schools and does not fall under the main system for validation. VNFIL is not common in higher education
In development
Elements of a national strategy are in development. Elements of a national strategy are regulations of the Länder, such as access for qualified wo...
Elements of a national strategy are in development. Elements of a national strategy are regulations of the Länder, such as access for qualified workers to higher education, and on a federal level the External students’ examination in VET or the working group on validation. Furthermore, the NQF aims at promoting the recognition of non-formal and informal learning in the future. Another stimulus is the Council Recommendation on validation, but there is a restrictive annotation of the German Bundesrat that the decision whether, when and how to implement arrangements for the validation is a national issue.
Some elements missing
Comprehensive national arrangements on the validation of non-formal and informal learning are in place covering almost all qualifications include...
Comprehensive national arrangements on the validation of non-formal and informal learning are in place covering almost all qualifications included in the Danish qualification framework. Arrangements cover all education sectors and establish connections and links between them. Strong links between validation activities in the public, private and third sector is missing.
Some elements missing
National strategy for validation is clearly stated in higher education and vocational education. Validation principles are generally also used in ...
National strategy for validation is clearly stated in higher education and vocational education. Validation principles are generally also used in the system for awarding professional qualifications. In the field of general education, the RPL system has thus far not been initiated. Institutions providing non-formal education have started to implement learning outcomes as means to support validation practices
In development
Significant steps are taken towards the development of national approach and include the: Development of a comprehensive system for the validation...
Significant steps are taken towards the development of national approach and include the: Development of a comprehensive system for the validation and certification of “output”, in terms of the authorities of the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) Development of the Hellenic Qualifications Framework (HQF). The Referencing Report of the HQF to the EQF was presented at the EQF AG in 17 December 2013. The HQF will initially facilitate qualifications obtained in formal education. The next stage of its development will regard inclusion and referencing of qualifications acquired through non-formal and informal learning
Comprehensive national Strategy
The national strategy for validation was established with the approval of the Organic Law of Education (LOE) and the Organic Law of Universities (L...
The national strategy for validation was established with the approval of the Organic Law of Education (LOE) and the Organic Law of Universities (LOU), which increased the permeability of the education system and incorporated actions to validate non-formal and informal learning, such as access exams to VET and university studies, aimed at those people who do not have the required qualifications. Another measure is the possibility of work experience recognition, which exempts the student from studying the module of work place training, which is compulsory in all VET qualifications. Another measure is the possibility of getting a qualification through an examination, organised by the public administrations of the Autonomous Communities, for those people who have not undertaken any formal courses. Furthermore, the Royal Decree 1224/2009 established the recognition of skills acquired through work experience . This Royal Decree provides the possibility of evaluating professional competences through other non-traditional assessment methods. This procedure is common to gain qualifications from the Employment administration and the Education administration. However, this Royal Decree does not cover all education sectors, but it only focuses on VET and it only recognises professional competences acquired through work experience or non-formal learning. This Decree only applies to some levels of competence (modules for formal VET) but it does not apply to university studies. The calls for validation and accreditation of professional competences are usually restricted to some economic sectors in each call, depending on the available financial resources and the needs of the productive sectors by means of a call for proposals. The first relevant joint call for validation of professional competences was carried out in 2011: 75 % of accreditation targeted the following economic sectors : pre-primary education, care of dependent people, hospitality/catering and tourism; together with repair and maintenance of vehicles. The other 25 % was to be determined by each AACC depending on their regional needs. Autonomous Communities have been responsible for setting up the calls for examination in their territories and for carrying out the validation procedures. There are differences between Autonomous Communities in the implementation of the Royal Decree. The financing of the procedure was established according to the possibilities of each Autonomous Community, therefore the possibilities to have access to the validation process have been similar in all communities
Comprehensive national Strategy
In the Finnish government Education and Research 2011-2016 A Development Plan –publication, validation of non-formal and informal learning is dis...
In the Finnish government Education and Research 2011-2016 A Development Plan –publication, validation of non-formal and informal learning is discussed and recommended to be developed in all sectors. Also, the National Strategy for LLG discusses the importance of VNIL practices. Also the NQF covers validation issues comprehensively. The Finnish education system has practically no dead ends. An individual is able to move to HE via general upper secondary or the VET route. It makes no difference if the individual has gained a full qualification through validation. The certification is identical via validation or school based route.
Comprehensive national Strategy
The national strategy derives from the adoption of a legal framework for validation of prior experience (professional experience), covering all sec...
The national strategy derives from the adoption of a legal framework for validation of prior experience (professional experience), covering all sectors: qualifications delivered by the public or private sector, at all the levels, included Higher education. The national and regional strategies for VAE (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is strongly linked to the national and regional policies for employment. Validation (VAE) is theoretically possible for all qualifications covered in the French NQF which starts at level 3 and ends at level 8 of the EQF. The 2009 law on Guidance and LLL of the employees sets that VAE must be part of the negotiations between social partners in each sector (every three years).
No Strategy
Although there is no national strategy for validation in place, there are arrangements on a sectoral level. The arrangements and approaches were d...
Although there is no national strategy for validation in place, there are arrangements on a sectoral level. The arrangements and approaches were developed because the validation was necessary to certify the level of knowledge, skills, and competences of individuals wishing to perform certain types of jobs. Moreover, the new draft of the Strategy for Education, Science and Technology recognises validation as essential parts of adult education and higher education sector
No Strategy
There is a development model at sectoral level. The first phase of the development project on validation in Higher education (2009-2011) finished, ...
There is a development model at sectoral level. The first phase of the development project on validation in Higher education (2009-2011) finished, and the second phase started in July 2012. It aims to develop a validation model that can be implemented within the higher education sector. A prior learning assessment scheme in the adult training system has existed since 2001. The scheme aims to customise the training provision.
No Strategy
There is currently no single national system or no singly national strategy for validation. The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI)...
There is currently no single national system or no singly national strategy for validation. The National Qualifications Authority of Ireland (NQAI) principles and operational guidelines for the Recognition of Prior Learning (2005) continue to provide the current practice framework. In general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider. The 2012 QQI Green Paper on RPL states there is a need for a coherent co-ordinated national strategy and direction with regard to RPL, including interdepartmentally across government departments and agencies. Support for the development of a validation system of informal and non-formal learning is evident through funding provided by HEA.
Some elements missing
The national strategy for validation focuses on a specific target group – people with little formal education. A comprehensive national lifelon...
The national strategy for validation focuses on a specific target group – people with little formal education. A comprehensive national lifelong learning strategy is being implemented in Iceland on the basis of new laws for all education sectors. A law was passed in June 2008 for upper secondary schools, and in March 2010 the Adult Education Act was passed. Both contain provisions on individual entitlement to the validation of non-formal and informal learning towards credits/units at the upper secondary level. Based on a service contract with the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the Education and Training Service Centre (ETSC) has the role of developing a national strategy in cooperation with accredited lifelong learning (LLL) centres, upper secondary schools, and social partners.
Some elements missing
The National Law 92/2012 and Legislative Decree 13/2013 define a national comprehensive framework for validation. The Legislative Decree n.13/2013 ...
The National Law 92/2012 and Legislative Decree 13/2013 define a national comprehensive framework for validation. The Legislative Decree n.13/2013 is titled “Definition of general rules and basic level of performance for the identification and validation of non-formal and informal learning and minimum service standards of the national system of competence certification”. The legal framework is however recent and until now most developments occurred on a bottom-up basis.
In development
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of an NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunitie...
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of an NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunities to take part in a validation process based on so-called dossiers in higher education.
In development
Responsibility for education / training and employment policies are held at national level in Lithuania (i.e. the regional level does not play big ...
Responsibility for education / training and employment policies are held at national level in Lithuania (i.e. the regional level does not play big role in this respect). All policies in relation to validation are held at national level. Lithuania is building a national framework for validation at the moment. Building a system for validation is seen as a priority and related measures have been included in recent policy documents: National education strategy for 2013-2022; Programme for Increasing Employment for 2014-2020; draft Non-formal Adult Education Development Action Plan. There is currently no formal strategy in place, but there are some policies and arrangements that enable people to validate their learning in the VET and HE sectors, and employment (but the latter option is not fully developed as yet). Thus there is no national strategy in place, but some of the following elements are in development: - the national qualifications framework (NQF) is in line with the EQF; - the conceptual model of the national qualifications framework (NQF) does include qualifications acquired after validation of non-formal and informal learning; - arrangements cover the VET sector and HE sector, but connections between them are not established; - there are some validation possibilities appearing in the public, private and third sectors (but still mainly ad hoc initiatives); - however there are no concrete measures in place to support take-up of validation (this is relevant for all sectors); - quality assurance aspects are introduced with each validation initiative
Comprehensive national Strategy
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). S...
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). Some qualifications delivered by the Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre are accessible via VAE.
Some elements missing
In Latvia a national strategy is in place. It forms part of a wider education strategy. National legislation has also been introduced in support o...
In Latvia a national strategy is in place. It forms part of a wider education strategy. National legislation has also been introduced in support of validation. Involvement of the third sector and private sector is however underdeveloped.
In development
Progress has been made towards establishing a national strategy and framework for validation. The National Commission for Further and Higher Educa...
Progress has been made towards establishing a national strategy and framework for validation. The National Commission for Further and Higher Education (NCFHE) has been charged with introducing a national system for validation, including drafting National Guidelines for the validation of informal and non-formal learning, aligning with the Malta Qualifications Framework (MQF).
Some elements missing
NLQF is building up. The first classifications of non-formal qualifications in the context of NLQF have been realised. NLQF still needs to become...
NLQF is building up. The first classifications of non-formal qualifications in the context of NLQF have been realised. NLQF still needs to become more visible to employers, employees, sectoral bodies and organisations. Only the quality of VPL-provision is addressed at national level. Nothing yet on the issue of motivating citizens and organisations at national level. Nor is there a coherent professionalization programme for VPL-professionals. The national government together with the covenant parties are making a proposal for a new system based on two approaches for APL: one for formal and one for non-formal education.
Some elements missing
Lifelong learning, including good systems of validation, has been on the political agenda since the 1998 White Paper on the Competence Reform (‘S...
Lifelong learning, including good systems of validation, has been on the political agenda since the 1998 White Paper on the Competence Reform (‘St.meld. nr.. 42 (1997–98) Kompetansereformen’). Validation was again underlined in the 2009 White Paper Education Strategy (‘St.meld. nr.. 44 (2008–2009) Utdanningslinja). There is no single all-encompassing strategy for validation at national level. However there is a comprehensive framework in place, made up of several laws and regulations / strategies / policies relating to the different sectors of education and training. Validation in the labour market (especially Human Resource Development (HRD) practices) follow their own logic, are not reported on and there is no labour market actor with the aim of establishing a framework linked to a national strategy. In relation to the third sector, there is more to be done to ensure that learning which takes place outside of the formal sector can be recognised through validation
Some elements missing
The National Development Strategy 2020, adopted by the government in 2012, underlines the necessity of creating a system for recognising and valida...
The National Development Strategy 2020, adopted by the government in 2012, underlines the necessity of creating a system for recognising and validating competencies acquired outside of the formal school system. The NQF is in final development stage. Arrangements cover vocational education and higher education sectors separately. There are connections between validation in the public, private and third sector. Measures to favour take-up of validation and ensure the quality of validation procedures are still in a design and implementation phase
Some elements missing
There is a national strategy regarding validation. A new network of centres has been introduced and has been implemented since January 2014.
Some elements missing
importance of lifelong learning with a special focus on the validation of formal and non-formal learning and lifelong learning counselling. In orde...
importance of lifelong learning with a special focus on the validation of formal and non-formal learning and lifelong learning counselling. In order to be fully operational, a set of specific methodologies on validation were drafted, but not all of them were in place at the end of 2013. - National strategy is in place, but some of the above elements are missing: - validation in formal education system - validation of other learning experiences that are not directly linked with qualifications - lack of integrated approach between the validation institutional framework and methodologies and counselling and guidance and employment - quality assurance at the outcomes level
No Strategy
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education has developed criteria for validation and guidelines for quality assurance and document...
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education has developed criteria for validation and guidelines for quality assurance and documentation of validation processes. The criteria and guidelines for validation of prior learning provide a common approach to validation, documentation, process description of quality assurance, description of a person’s path through the validation process and guidelines for methods of assessment for the different stakeholders involved in validation in Sweden. The roles and responsibilities of the different actors regarding validation, processes and methods are described. They are generally applicable to both educational and labour market oriented validation. Adult education has a legal framework that in some parts overtake these guidelines. According to an ordinance by the Government 2011:1162, the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education coordinates and supports a national structure for validation of prior learning and in cooperation with concerned national agencies, promote the participation from public education and sector organizations when strategies, methods and information about validation is being developed. Information and guidance for individual people about validation, processes and organisations providing validation etc. are available on the website: https://www.valideringsinfo.se/ The possibility for validation is regulated in the Ordinance for Adult Education (SFS 2011:1108). The Swedish National Agency for Education has the responsibility for promoting validation within adult education.
In development
The NQF (Slovenian qualification framework) has been developed and is being implemented. A overarching policy has been adopted, but legislation sti...
The NQF (Slovenian qualification framework) has been developed and is being implemented. A overarching policy has been adopted, but legislation still has to be updated in terms of validation; so far there is a specific act for each education level, though validation is not (equally) included in each Act
In development
As indicated in the 2010 Inventory report, the main emphasis of the Slovak approach to recognising non-formal and informal learning is set out in t...
As indicated in the 2010 Inventory report, the main emphasis of the Slovak approach to recognising non-formal and informal learning is set out in the law on lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z). At the time of writing this 2014 country update, the situation is rather complex. While some aspects of the legislation have been implemented and already revised (in particular with regard to quality assurance of non-formal education) others have not yet been implemented.
In development
The Vocational Qualification Authority (VQA) carries out the validation of vocational non-formal and informal qualifications at the national level....
The Vocational Qualification Authority (VQA) carries out the validation of vocational non-formal and informal qualifications at the national level. Since the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) is in development, the validation strategy is not finalised
No Strategy
There are guidelines / arrangements in place in relation to the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) / higher education / non-accredited adult...
There are guidelines / arrangements in place in relation to the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) / higher education / non-accredited adult learning, but there is not a comprehensive national system in place.
No Strategy
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportu...
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportunities and acquire credits on the national qualifications framework (SCQF). Since 2010, work has been taken forward to look at the use of the RPL tools offered by the SCQF Partnership and how these can be improved. Notable activity is also taking place in the HE sector, where there is an active RPL network. There is however no national strategy, which some see as a barrier to wider take-up by providers. SCQF RPL strategy encompasses all sectors, including the HE sector. However the HE sector is also working on a Framework for RPL specific to HE.
No Strategy
The Welsh Qualifications Framework provides a means of recognition of prior non-formal learning through its Quality Assured Lifelong Learning (QALL...
The Welsh Qualifications Framework provides a means of recognition of prior non-formal learning through its Quality Assured Lifelong Learning (QALL) pillar. Alongside this, learners in Wales can also make use of the other validation routes available in the UK: - Recognition of Prior Learning, RPL (relating to QCF qualifications) - RPL in the HE Sector - Recognising and Recording Progress and Achievement in Non-Accredited Learning (RARPA) - Access to HE courses However although there are opportunities to have non-formal and informal learning recognised in Wales, there is no national strategy relating specifically to validation
Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
No sectoral strategies
Various ministries and institutions have developed measures and initiatives for identifying and formally recognising competences acquired through n...
Various ministries and institutions have developed measures and initiatives for identifying and formally recognising competences acquired through non-formal and informal learning.
Strategies in some sectors
The sectors of higher education, work and social economy and sports have comprehensive strategies in place with concrete measures to increase take-...
The sectors of higher education, work and social economy and sports have comprehensive strategies in place with concrete measures to increase take-up and to ensure quality of validation procedures. The sectors of adult and secondary education and the socio-cultural and youth sectors do so as well to a certain extent. However procedures of validation can differ between the organisations. In the socio-cultural sector there is not really a framework for quality assurance developed since no assessment of competences takes place but rather the identification and recognition of competences.
Strategies in some sectors
Strategy exists in CVET sector (coordinated by a Consortium of five main public training providers) and in VAE in universities (VAE platform). Unde...
Strategy exists in CVET sector (coordinated by a Consortium of five main public training providers) and in VAE in universities (VAE platform). Under development in VAE for Hautes Ecoles
No sectoral strategies
A model system for validation was designed in 2009 as a part of the project. ‘Promoting adults’ vocational training and employability in Bulgar...
A model system for validation was designed in 2009 as a part of the project. ‘Promoting adults’ vocational training and employability in Bulgaria’. This included the development of elements and stages of a validation procedure, as well as criteria for the accreditation of providers of validation.
No sectoral strategies
Individual HE institutions can decide to recognise prior learning and allocate credits when they evaluate entry or transfer requirements.
Strategies in some sectors
There is a comprehensive strategy for VNFIL in the sector of further education (addressing adults). This is not the case in formal initial VET or g...
There is a comprehensive strategy for VNFIL in the sector of further education (addressing adults). This is not the case in formal initial VET or general education nor in higher education. A strategy for non-formal education in the youth sector was in development in 2010
No sectoral strategies
There are different approaches like the examples mentioned above. Concerning the External student’s examination there is a federal law (BBiG). Co...
There are different approaches like the examples mentioned above. Concerning the External student’s examination there is a federal law (BBiG). Concerning the access to higher education, there are different regulations enacted by the Länder.
Strategies in some sectors
No information
Strategies in some sectors
Sectoral strategies are in place for HE and VET. General education has no clear strategy for validation. Adult education (non-formal education) has...
Sectoral strategies are in place for HE and VET. General education has no clear strategy for validation. Adult education (non-formal education) has no strategy in place. Developments in HE (e.g. the HE strategy for validation) are leading developments in other areas. Sectoral development plans mention validation as an important tool for lifelong learning, access and learner mobility
No sectoral strategies
Participants of CVET programmes, especially regarding adult learning, can obtain a certificate
Strategies in some sectors
In higher education since the 1970s, individuals over 25 and without upper secondary education can access higher education upon satisfactory perfor...
In higher education since the 1970s, individuals over 25 and without upper secondary education can access higher education upon satisfactory performance in ‘over-25s’ access exams –although without receiving a secondary school qualification. In 2010, the Ministry of Education was working on the legal framework for this level of education to validate non-formal and informal learning up to 15 % of a university degree. Up to 2010, some universities had set up validation initiatives, deciding on their own standards and ‘it is not clear if this will change with the new Decree’ (p.5). Adults can also gain the Diploma of Compulsory Secondary Education and the Baccalaureate Diploma (post-compulsory upper secondary education) through examinations, without having undertaken the corresponding formal studies. As explained above, there is a strategy for recognising professional competences acquired through work experience. It applies to formal VET (FP) or qualifications from levels 1-5 of the National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications
Strategies in some sectors
Policies / strategies in adult VET (Competence Based Qualifications) are the most detailed and comprehensive. There is a national qualification sys...
Policies / strategies in adult VET (Competence Based Qualifications) are the most detailed and comprehensive. There is a national qualification system with extensive QA measures. HEIs and non-formal sector do not have comprehensive strategies or policies.
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
No sectoral strategies
The Act on Trades and Crafts regulates validation of informal and non-formal learning in the field of trades and craftsmanship.
No sectoral strategies
The validation is developed at sectoral level within the framework of the New Hungary Development Plan (2007-2013). The first project was launched ...
The validation is developed at sectoral level within the framework of the New Hungary Development Plan (2007-2013). The first project was launched in July 2009. It aims to develop a validation model that can be implemented within the higher education sector. There has been a prior learning assessment scheme within the adult training system since 2001 (but it is not a complete validation procedure – it relates only to assessment and exemption in relation to a given course). The scheme aims to customise training programmes.
No sectoral strategies
In general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider.
Strategies in some sectors
Sectoral strategies are in place within the certified trades through LLL centres for the trades based on contracts with the ETSC
Strategies in some sectors
University and VET sectors have legal frameworks for validation but, on this basis, they are scarcely promoted. Access is difficult and there is no...
University and VET sectors have legal frameworks for validation but, on this basis, they are scarcely promoted. Access is difficult and there is no quality assurance.
Strategies in some sectors
No information
No sectoral strategies
No information
Strategies in some sectors
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). S...
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). Some qualifications delivered by the Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre are accessible via VAE.
No sectoral strategies
On 10 June 2010 the Parliament approved amendments in the Vocational Education Law declaring the following: (1) the assessment of vocational compet...
On 10 June 2010 the Parliament approved amendments in the Vocational Education Law declaring the following: (1) the assessment of vocational competence shall take into account the requirements of the respective Occupational Standard. (2) The accredited education institutions and accredited examination centres can be delegated to perform the validation process of competence acquired through non-formal and informal learning. (3) The regulation on the validation process of competence acquired through non-formal and informal learning is defined by the Cabinet of Ministers.
Strategies in some sectors
As part of the development of a national system for validation, the framework will cover all sectors. With regard to vocational frameworks, Occupat...
As part of the development of a national system for validation, the framework will cover all sectors. With regard to vocational frameworks, Occupational Standards supporting a validation framework have been established for the childcare sector. This will be done for other sectors as the national system is developed.
Strategies in some sectors
It is mostly in VET (levels 2-4) and some in HE at universities of applied sciences (level 6).
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
Legislation / strategies / policies covering vocational education, adult education (access to upper secondary education for adults) and HE.
No sectoral strategies
The country does not yet have a clear national strategy in one or more education and training sectors (HE, VET, adult education). However, as menti...
The country does not yet have a clear national strategy in one or more education and training sectors (HE, VET, adult education). However, as mentioned in the previous point, the legislation from 2006 adopted specific arrangements whereby professional/vocational skills acquired through employment can be validated through qualification examinations. The new regulation also introduced mechanisms for awarding partial qualifications in recognition of competences obtained as a result of completing training in a non-school setting, and for recognising partial qualifications obtained in this way by adults who take up study in schools for adults providing vocational education and training.
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
HE sector institutions are autonomous with respect to the development of their own practices of validation, under the national framework legislatio...
HE sector institutions are autonomous with respect to the development of their own practices of validation, under the national framework legislation (Ministry of Education). Yes, there is a relevant strategy at both a national and regional level. A comprehensive approach exists in practice, linking academic and professional validation.
No sectoral strategies
There are no regional structures responsible for the validation of non-formal and informal learning. At sectoral level, the “sectoral committees...
There are no regional structures responsible for the validation of non-formal and informal learning. At sectoral level, the “sectoral committees”, which are social dialogue structures comprising employee and employer representatives (set up under the tutelage of the CNFPA) are involved in this area through their main activities. However, for the time being their role in the validation as such is minimal, although there are plans to involve them more in the validation of the instruments and methods used by validation centres in Romania in the future
In development
The work, initiated by the Swedish National Commission on Validation, to establish common processes and methods for validation is now being continu...
The work, initiated by the Swedish National Commission on Validation, to establish common processes and methods for validation is now being continued, coordinated and supported by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education. The work is still, to a large extent, based on project-based government validation initiatives where the agency and the Swedish Public Employment Service are the main coordinators. Cooperation with education and training providers, sector organisations, the social partners, universities and municipalities is an essential part of this work. Validation performed within adult education by municipalities or official regional associations, or validation within higher education institutions, is handled and monitored within that local or regional setting. The responsibilities presented in the 2010 update are current for the validation of non-formal and informal learning performed outside, but in close cooperation with, the formal education and training system and mainly aim to enhance the individual’s possibilities to access employment
Strategies in some sectors
Different education sectors develop and adopt their own strategy. For vocational education, a national strategy is in place while other levels deal...
Different education sectors develop and adopt their own strategy. For vocational education, a national strategy is in place while other levels deal with the subject individually
No sectoral strategies
In theory, the recognition of non-formal and informal learning defined in the law on lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z) applies to both vocational ed...
In theory, the recognition of non-formal and informal learning defined in the law on lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z) applies to both vocational education and training, and higher education. The practical aspects of how it will apply to higher education still need to be defined. One of the obstacles to the application to higher education is the fact that higher education is based on accredited programmes and not on full qualifications based on qualifications standards as such. There is a willingness to ensure that at least components of Bachelor degrees should be achievable through recognition of non-formal and informal learning
Strategies in some sectors
The VQA defines measures for the vocational sector. The basic features are in place and a development process continues.
No sectoral strategies
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place within specific sectors of learning, e.g. adult and continuing education, hig...
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place within specific sectors of learning, e.g. adult and continuing education, higher education but in general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider.
No sectoral strategies
SCQF RPL strategy encompasses all sectors, including the HE sector.
2014
No sectoral strategies
In Austria, there is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The development of an e...
In Austria, there is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The development of an explicit national strategy including all sectors on validation of non-formal and informal learning has started only recently. With the strategy for ‘Lifelong Learning 2020’ (2011) ministries have agreed on the establishment of a national validation strategy. The implementation of the LLL strategy is coordinated in the framework of the ‘national platform 20:20’ which is composed of representatives of different ministries, social partner organisations, federal states, PES as well as of higher education and adult education. A specific task force was appointed for strategically steering the implementation processes. The development of a national validation strategy will be based on status quo and needs analysis. Currently, analysis is carried out in three areas: ‘low-qualified people’, VET and higher education. The results will be brought together in the second quarter of 2014 and in a next step a consultation process for developing the national validation strategy and the definition of relevant measures will be carried out. The development of this strategy is also strongly linked to the development of the National Qualifications Framework.
Strategies in some sectors
The sectors of higher education, work and social economy and sports have comprehensive strategies in place with concrete measures to encourage take...
The sectors of higher education, work and social economy and sports have comprehensive strategies in place with concrete measures to encourage take-up and to ensure quality of validation procedures. The sectors of adult and secondary education and the socio-cultural and youth sectors do so as well to a certain extent but procedures of validation can differ between the organisations. In the socio-cultural sector there is not really a framework for quality assurance in place. There is no assessment of competences taking place although there are procedures for identifying and documenting competences
Strategies in some sectors
The four VFNIL systems cover three education sectors (HE, adult education, continuous VET). They have developed strategies and measures regarding...
The four VFNIL systems cover three education sectors (HE, adult education, continuous VET). They have developed strategies and measures regarding VNFIL – to a lesser extent in adult education, where VNFIL is devolved to the training providers
No sectoral strategies
In relation to the VET sector, initiatives have been taken towards the development of a system for validation. For example, the Ministry of Educati...
In relation to the VET sector, initiatives have been taken towards the development of a system for validation. For example, the Ministry of Education and Science in partnership with the National Agency for Vocational Education and Training – NAVET and social partners is currently implementing the project, ’System for validation of non-formal acquired knowledge, skills and competences’ (2013-2014).The project is based on the results achieved in the previous project, ‘Promoting adults’ vocational training and employability in Bulgaria’ (2008-2009), mentioned also in the 2010 European inventory report. The Methodology, developed in the project contains some strategic priorities.
Strategies in some sectors
A complete strategy is in place in the VET sector, especially for the Upper-secondary Level of VET. A comprehensive national strategy is in develo...
A complete strategy is in place in the VET sector, especially for the Upper-secondary Level of VET. A comprehensive national strategy is in development to establish VNIL procedures for the education system as a whole, and to be in line with the NQF. There are gaps in the measures in place to establish good connections between validation in the public, private and third sector
Strategies in some sectors
The Human Resources Development Authority (HRDA) has developed a System of Vocational Qualifications where validation of non-formal and informal le...
The Human Resources Development Authority (HRDA) has developed a System of Vocational Qualifications where validation of non-formal and informal learning is in place. According to national sources, the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance is considering to make HRDA’s vocational qualifications obligatory for professionals in certain sectors/occupations. The Ministry of Education and Culture, Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance, the General Directorate for European programmes, Coordination and Development, the HRDA, and the Foundation for the Management of European Life Long Learning Programmes will develop an action plan for the validation of non-formal and informal learning in Cyprus in 2018. Non-formal and informal learning is recognised for awarding vocational qualifications in the System of Vocational Qualifications. Non-formal and informal learning are not recognised in formal education in general. However, higher education institutions being autonomous can, in specific occasions recognise credits from prior learning. Also, the Cyprus Council for the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications (KYSATS), which recognises higher education qualifications, can recognise, as part of an individual’s qualification, credits that come from work experience and credit transfers from recognised examinations of foreign education systems. Also, there are ICT certificates that any individual can get after successfully passing examinations, regardless of how and when the knowledge was developed.
Strategies in some sectors
There is a comprehensive strategy for VNFIL in the sector of further education (CVET) (addressing adults). There is a comprehensive strategy for VN...
There is a comprehensive strategy for VNFIL in the sector of further education (CVET) (addressing adults). There is a comprehensive strategy for VNFIL in the field of non-formal education for children and young people (youth field) This is not the case in formal initial VET or general education nor in higher education
No sectoral strategies
There are different approaches like the ones mentioned above. Concerning the External students' examination there is a federal law (BBiG), concerni...
There are different approaches like the ones mentioned above. Concerning the External students' examination there is a federal law (BBiG), concerning access to higher education there are different regulations enacted by the Länder and different procedures enacted by the universities.
Strategies in some sectors
Comprehensive arrangements and measures in place in VET and adult education and training but not to the same extent in higher education.
Strategies in some sectors
Sectoral strategies are in place for HE and VET. Also in relation to the NQF. General education has no clear strategy for validation. Adult educat...
Sectoral strategies are in place for HE and VET. Also in relation to the NQF. General education has no clear strategy for validation. Adult education (non-formal education) has no clear strategy in place. HE strategies and developments are leading developments in other areas. Sectoral development plans mention validation as an important tool for lifelong learning, access and learner mobility
No sectoral strategies
Currently, there is no comprehensive strategy in any education sector regarding validation. However, as IVET institutions are recognised as offerin...
Currently, there is no comprehensive strategy in any education sector regarding validation. However, as IVET institutions are recognised as offering non-formal learning, it should be noted that: IVET graduates (Institutions of Vocational Training (IEKs) and since September 2013 of the Vocational Training Schools (SEKs)) can be certified by EOPPEP. EOPPEP has established a robust certification process. The system for certification of teaching competences of adult trainers in non-formal learning entails processes for the recognition and validation of prior learning and experience, leading to exemption, regarding enrolment to train-the-trainer program and even to direct certification for candidates who fulfil specific criteria
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
In university education (there is a VET stage that belongs to higher education) since the 1970s, those over 25 years old can access university upon...
In university education (there is a VET stage that belongs to higher education) since the 1970s, those over 25 years old can access university upon satisfactory performance of ‘over-25’ access exams –but without getting a qualification in post-compulsory upper secondary education. In 2010, the Royal Decree 861/2010 established the recognition of work experience for up to 15 % of the total number of credits that constitute the curriculum of an official degree (undergraduate or master degree). Adults can also gain the Diploma of Compulsory Secondary Education and the Baccalaureate Diploma (post-compulsory upper secondary education) through examinations, without having undertaken the corresponding formal studies. As mentioned above, the procedure for assessment and accreditation of professional competences acquired through work experience applies to formal IVET, and also to qualifications accredited by the Employment administration
Strategies in some sectors
This should be completed from the point of IVET Policies / strategies in adult VET (Competence Based Qualifications are the most detailed and compr...
This should be completed from the point of IVET Policies / strategies in adult VET (Competence Based Qualifications are the most detailed and comprehensive). There is a national qualification system with extensive Quality Assurance measures. HE has relatively well developed strategies and policies, but not as comprehensive as CBQs. Non-formal sector and working life have the least developed strategies.
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
The national strategy derives from the adoption of a legal framework for validation of prior experience (professional experience), covering all sec...
The national strategy derives from the adoption of a legal framework for validation of prior experience (professional experience), covering all sectors: qualifications delivered by the public or private sector, at all the levels, included Higher education. The national and regional strategies for VAE (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is strongly linked to the national and regional policies for employment.. Validation (VAE) is theoretically possible for all qualifications covered in the French NQF which starts at level 3 and ends at level 8 of the EQF. The 2009 law on Guidance and LLL of the employees sets that VAE must be part of the negotiations between social partners in each sector (every three years).
Strategies in some sectors
In place in adult education and trades and crafts. The Act on Trades and Crafts regulates validation of informal and non-formal learning in the ...
In place in adult education and trades and crafts. The Act on Trades and Crafts regulates validation of informal and non-formal learning in the field of trades and craftsmanship. There is a sectoral approach in adult education as defined by the ‘The Adult Education Act (Article 11) and the Ordinance on Standards and Specification in Adult Education Institutions (Article 32) which describe the possibility of the implementation of validation
No sectoral strategies
There is a development model at sectoral level. The first phase of the development project on validation in Higher education (2009-2011) finished, ...
There is a development model at sectoral level. The first phase of the development project on validation in Higher education (2009-2011) finished, and the second phase started in July 2012. It aims to develop a validation model that can be implemented within the higher education sector. A prior learning assessment scheme in the adult training system has existed since 2001. The scheme aims to customise the training provision.
No sectoral strategies
No specific sectoral strategies in place, although one is flagged by DES for Early Childhood Care and Education; HEA have put in place a performanc...
No specific sectoral strategies in place, although one is flagged by DES for Early Childhood Care and Education; HEA have put in place a performance framework for individual higher education institutions which includes RPL actions.
Strategies in some sectors
Sectoral strategies are in place within the certified trades through LLL centres for the trades based on contracts with the ETSC.
Strategies in some sectors
University and VET sectors have legal frameworks for validation but, on this basis, they are scarcely promoted. Access is difficult and there is n...
University and VET sectors have legal frameworks for validation but, on this basis, they are scarcely promoted. Access is difficult and there is no quality assurance.
Strategies in some sectors
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of an NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunitie...
The strategy/policy is at national level mainly with regard to the development of an NQF including non-formal and informal learning. Opportunities to take part in a validation process based on so-called dossiers in higher education.
Strategies in some sectors
Sectoral policies are place in the VET sector. They are quite comprehensive, for instance, there are measures to ensure the organisations deliverin...
Sectoral policies are place in the VET sector. They are quite comprehensive, for instance, there are measures to ensure the organisations delivering validation meet certain quality requirements, but, concrete measures that would favour take-up of validation are missing; - A sectoral policy is in place that covers the HE sector. However the documents are very general. Responsibility for the entire content of the validation procedures and the organisation of the process is transferred to HE institutions themselves. According to a recent report on the effectiveness of lifelong learning ‘(The Development of Non-formal Adult Education’) by the National Audit Office (June, 2013), HE institutions would prefer to have more guidance on validation of non-formal and informal learning in the HE area; - There are no specific sectoral strategies / polices in place in relation to validation in the labour market / employment (some aspects are covered in the policies relating to the VET sector, but they are not sufficient to boost validation in this sector, despite the great potential). Surprisingly, the Lithuanian Labour Exchange (a national network of job centres across the country) has no initiatives or even discussions in place in relation to validation of non-formal and informal learning of jobseekers
Strategies in some sectors
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). S...
Validation is possible for all formal qualifications delivered in Luxembourg except the general upper secondary education diploma (Baccalaureat). Some qualifications delivered by the Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre are accessible via VAE.
No sectoral strategies
In Latvia no formal sectoral strategy for validation is in place except the Lifelong Learning Strategy. ‘Guidelines for Lifelong Learning 2007-20...
In Latvia no formal sectoral strategy for validation is in place except the Lifelong Learning Strategy. ‘Guidelines for Lifelong Learning 2007-2013’ emphasises that formal, non-formal and informal learning policies are equally important. There is a legal framework in place (in relation to the NQF), and methods and guidelines enable validation to be conducted in different sectors. In general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, with validation considered to be the responsibility of educational institutions and thus falling under the supervision of the State Service of Education Quality. The State Service of Education Quality delegates the validation task to accredited vocational education institutions and examination centres. The HE sector operates on a more autonomous basis. Validation practice in the HE sector is regulated by the Law on Higher Education Institutions. The forthcoming education policy document - Education Development Strategy 2014-2020 (approved by the Cabinet of Ministers on January 2014, is due to be submitted to Parliament (Saeima). This document points out the growing awareness about the assessment of professional competencies obtained outside formal education and foresees a growth of these cases in the period up to 2020.
Strategies in some sectors
As part of the development of a national system for validation, the framework will cover all sectors. With regard to vocational frameworks, Occupat...
As part of the development of a national system for validation, the framework will cover all sectors. With regard to vocational frameworks, Occupational Standards supporting a validation framework have been established for the childcare and the printing sectors and also for motor damage assessors. This will be done for other sectors as the national system is developed.
Strategies in some sectors
Some sectors use VPL for responding to the demands from government to have qualified workers (Welfare, education). Other sectors use VPL for outsou...
Some sectors use VPL for responding to the demands from government to have qualified workers (Welfare, education). Other sectors use VPL for outsourcing (work-to-work) strategies, such as banks, the military. Other sectors use VPL for employability and HRD: such as process-industry, the police. It is mostly in VET (levels 2-4) and in HE at universities of applied sciences (level 6).
Comprehensive sectoral strategy
Legislation / strategies / policies covering vocational education and training, adult education (access to upper secondary education for adults and...
Legislation / strategies / policies covering vocational education and training, adult education (access to upper secondary education for adults and access to HE from VET to specifically designed higher education programmes, for example on the basis of Craft or Journeyman’s Certificate). Recognition of prior learning (RPL, validation) is common in access to higher education, and it is an aim to increase the use of RPL in recognition of parts of study programmes.
Strategies in some sectors
Polish national strategies are ‘horizontal’ or ‘integrated’, meaning that there are no specific strategies for selected sectors, rather the...
Polish national strategies are ‘horizontal’ or ‘integrated’, meaning that there are no specific strategies for selected sectors, rather the sectors have to apply elements of these horizontal strategies. The National Development Strategy 2020, adopted by the government in 2012 and the Human Capital Development Strategy 2020, adopted by the government in 2013, underline the necessity of the development of a national system of the recognition of qualifications and validation, including confirmation of the competences acquired outside of formal education. A comprehensive system of validation is going to be introduced together with the NQF. The Lifelong Learning Perspective is also adopted as a part of the Human Capital Development Strategy.
Strategies in some sectors
HE sector institutions have autonomy for the development of their own practices of validation, under the national framework legislation (Ministry o...
HE sector institutions have autonomy for the development of their own practices of validation, under the national framework legislation (Ministry of Education). In January 2014 validation practices in non-higher education will be developed in a comprehensive fashion at sectoral level. In the HE sector, the strategy is the one mentioned above.
No sectoral strategies
The approaches on validation are not sectoral or regionally driven, although some sectoral initiatives are in place in some sectors such as in the ...
The approaches on validation are not sectoral or regionally driven, although some sectoral initiatives are in place in some sectors such as in the teaching profession or social work field
In development
Validation within adult education 2013’, published by the Swedish National Agency for Education (Validering inom vuxenutbilding 2013, Skolverket)...
Validation within adult education 2013’, published by the Swedish National Agency for Education (Validering inom vuxenutbilding 2013, Skolverket) . The document states that adults have experience, knowledge and competences, which have been developed in different ways, e.g. in education, in the workplace, at home and in work with associations. Certain knowledge and competences can be documented with certificates from education institutions, while non-formal and informal learning can be documented e.g. with a certificate from an employer. Validation gives an opportunity for an adult to valorise, document and recognise the kind of learning that is not documented. The Swedish system could be described as a dual system, where formal education and training is one key provider and sector organisations and PES the other. The different sectors in the labour market are developing their own sector models (bransch modeller). These sector models are national, but need not have any relation to the education sector. The sector organizations themselves are responsible for ensuring the quality of validation procedures in sector models.
Strategies in some sectors
The vocational education sector has comprehensive sectoral strategies and unified measures for validation. Similarly, validation is unified for sec...
The vocational education sector has comprehensive sectoral strategies and unified measures for validation. Similarly, validation is unified for secondary education (non-vocational programmes) and for primary schools (compulsory education – the same country-wide). Post-secondary education and tertiary education institutions are autonomous in developing and implementing the technicalities of validation
No sectoral strategies
The legal framework covers the sector of vocational education and training and further education and training. It does not concern general educatio...
The legal framework covers the sector of vocational education and training and further education and training. It does not concern general education nor higher education. However, it concerns lifelong learning courses offered by higher education institutions
Strategies in some sectors
The VQA provides strategies with concrete measures for the validation of vocational qualifications. Ensuring the quality of the validation procedur...
The VQA provides strategies with concrete measures for the validation of vocational qualifications. Ensuring the quality of the validation procedures is in development
No sectoral strategies
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place within specific sectors of learning, e.g. adult and continuing education, hig...
No formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place within specific sectors of learning, e.g. adult and continuing education, higher education, non-accredited adult learning but in general the application of validation is devolved to the awarding organisation/ learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider.
In development
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportu...
An overarching methodology known as ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) is in place in Scotland, enabling learners to access learning opportunities and acquire credits on the national qualifications framework (SCQF). Since 2010, work has been taken forward to look at the use of the RPL tools offered by the SCQF Partnership and how these can be improved. Notable activity is also taking place in the HE sector, where there is an active RPL network. There is however no national strategy, which some see as a barrier to wider take-up by providers. SCQF RPL strategy encompasses all sectors, including the HE sector. However the HE sector is also working on a Framework for RPL specific to HE.
No sectoral strategies
See above detail of validation opportunities relating to different sectors of learning. None of these would constitute a formal strategy / policy -...
See above detail of validation opportunities relating to different sectors of learning. None of these would constitute a formal strategy / policy - there are methods / guidelines in place within specific sectors of learning, e.g. adult and continuing education, higher education, non-accredited adult learning but in general the application of validation is devolved to the learning provider, or at times to departments within the learning provider.
Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
Not yet in place
No information
In place for some years and implemented
In place for some years and implemented in practice. See above [indicator 3] for sector detail
Recently introduced but well implemented
In CVET validation has developed from a top down perspective – in 2010 the system had been running for five years, and was already implemented in...
In CVET validation has developed from a top down perspective – in 2010 the system had been running for five years, and was already implemented in practice. In HE the implementation was very recent (2008 and 2009). In Hautes Ecoles the system has not really been implemented yet
Not yet in place
The provisions of the VET Act mentioned above have limited practical application
Not yet in place
HRDA is developing a Competence-Based System of Vocational Qualifications that will be included in the (forthcoming) NQF. This System will allow fo...
HRDA is developing a Competence-Based System of Vocational Qualifications that will be included in the (forthcoming) NQF. This System will allow for the recognition of an individual’s prior learning, towards the attainment of a vocational qualification. The second phase of implementation, 2007-2013, will provide opportunities for access to all citizens: employed and unemployed, students, economically inactive etc. This System can be considered as the first step towards a more holistic approach to validation of non-formal and informal learning
Recently introduced but not well implemented
At the time of writing the 2010 inventory, the implementation of VNFIL for vocational qualifications was relatively new (only launched in 2009) and...
At the time of writing the 2010 inventory, the implementation of VNFIL for vocational qualifications was relatively new (only launched in 2009) and the number of candidates was modest
In place for some years and implemented
The External student’s examination has been in place since 1969 and implemented in practice; access to higher education has been in place since 2...
The External student’s examination has been in place since 1969 and implemented in practice; access to higher education has been in place since 2009 and implemented in practice
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
The strategy has been in place since 2004. Legislation from 2000, 2003, 2007
In place for some years and implemented
The policies that are in place have been implemented. As indicated above, the higher education sector is leading the way in terms of validation. Ot...
The policies that are in place have been implemented. As indicated above, the higher education sector is leading the way in terms of validation. Other sectors are slower to follow suit
In development
The aforementioned law in compliance to and following the former National System for linking Vocational Education and Training with Employment (ESS...
The aforementioned law in compliance to and following the former National System for linking Vocational Education and Training with Employment (ESSEEKA). The provisions of the law are enacted by the relevant competent national authorities
In place for some years and implemented
The strategies for validation of the education system were introduced with the Organic Law of Education, (2006) and the Organic Law of Universities...
The strategies for validation of the education system were introduced with the Organic Law of Education, (2006) and the Organic Law of Universities (2007). A common strategy between the Education administrations and the Employment administrations was introduced with the Royal Decree 1224/2009. The first joint call for validation of professional competences was to be carried out in 2011
In place for some years and implemented
The CBQ system has had legal status since 1994 and implemented since 1995. HEIs have had supporting legislation for ca. 10 years, but systematic i...
The CBQ system has had legal status since 1994 and implemented since 1995. HEIs have had supporting legislation for ca. 10 years, but systematic implementation is not in place as of yet
In place for some years and implemented
No information
Not yet in place
No information
In place for some years and implemented
The recognition of the prior work experiences of students (based on HE Act 2005 regulations) is in practice working in close connection with the cr...
The recognition of the prior work experiences of students (based on HE Act 2005 regulations) is in practice working in close connection with the credit-transfer scheme. It is common practice for evening and correspondence programmes in some fields of education. The prior learning assessment in the adult training sector is a scheme to support the customisation of training provision but the practice is not really widespread. This is because the need for customisation is contradictory to the group-based organisation of the training provision
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
Though the 1999 Act frames arrangements for RPL and the NQAI (2005) Principles and Operational Guidelines for the Recognition of Prior Learning in ...
Though the 1999 Act frames arrangements for RPL and the NQAI (2005) Principles and Operational Guidelines for the Recognition of Prior Learning in Further and Higher Education sets out arrangements FE and HE, the implementation of RPL in practice is limited though growing in importance. There is evidence of RPL in practice across a number of FE and HE institutions and as such, progress in the implementation of validation can be considered from both a ‘bottom-up’ and ‘top-down’ perspective.
Recently introduced but well implemented
The Adult Education Act (2010) was developed based on practice in the field for the target group
In development
No national framework, a few regional frameworks in development or in place. There are many experiences. Mainly bottom up approaches
Recently introduced but not well implemented
More a tendency towards top-down
Not yet in place
No information
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
In the case of higher education and adult learning. At the secondary level, since 2010
In development
The action programme of the above-mentioned Lifelong Learning Strategy identified that the definition of the procedure of validation of knowledge, ...
The action programme of the above-mentioned Lifelong Learning Strategy identified that the definition of the procedure of validation of knowledge, skills and competences acquired outside of the formal education system among the tasks to be carried out during the period 2008-2013
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The legal framework is in place and provides the context for the development work on the national framework for validation which is currently being...
The legal framework is in place and provides the context for the development work on the national framework for validation which is currently being undertaken and is led by the NCFHE
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
Validation has been in place for: - prior formal learning since 1994. - non-formal and informal learning has been part of education-laws since 1998...
Validation has been in place for: - prior formal learning since 1994. - non-formal and informal learning has been part of education-laws since 1998-2001. - In the financial sector it has been embedded since 2006.
In place for some years and implemented
Adult Education Act dates back to 1976, Law on Vocational Training to 1980 and adults could be admitted to HE on basis of validation since 1992
Not yet in place
No information
In place for some years and implemented
In 2001 a national system for the validation of non-formal and informal learning was created — the National System for the Recognition, Validatio...
In 2001 a national system for the validation of non-formal and informal learning was created — the National System for the Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences (SNRVCC) by the Ministry of Education (Ministério da Educação) and the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (Ministério do Trabalho e da Segurança Social), under the coordination of the National Agency for the Education and Training of Adults, (Agência Nacional para a Educação e Formação de Adultos, ANEFA), which launched the first network of Centres for the Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competencies in 2000. Since 2007, under ANQ coordination, RVCC centres became CNO centres. The current crediting framework in HE has been in force since 2006
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The frameworks is in place, but the access of wide beneficiaries is still a concern and the institutional capacity of the validation centres needs ...
The frameworks is in place, but the access of wide beneficiaries is still a concern and the institutional capacity of the validation centres needs to be further developed in order to be effective
In development
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education has, since it was established on 1 July 2009, been given the responsibility to support ...
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education has, since it was established on 1 July 2009, been given the responsibility to support a national structure for validation. The work is done in cooperation with the relevant authorities to promote the involvement of educational institutions and business sector organisations (e.g. the Swedish Trade Federation (Svensk Handel), the Swedish Construction Industry Training Board (Byggnadsindustrins Yrkesnämnd), the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council - Transport Trades, TYA)
In development
The national vocational qualification framework is being implemented, a project for developing a Higher education qualification framework is runnin...
The national vocational qualification framework is being implemented, a project for developing a Higher education qualification framework is running and there are initiatives to develop a common qualifications framework
In development
Legal framework in place since December 2009: law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.)
In place for some years and implemented
The VQA was established in 2006. Initial implementations are already in place and in development
In development
QCF due to be fully embedded in 2011.
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
Guidelines on RPL included in the SCQF Handbook, first drafted in 2005. Work is ongoing to identify ways of using the SCQF to support RPL and to en...
Guidelines on RPL included in the SCQF Handbook, first drafted in 2005. Work is ongoing to identify ways of using the SCQF to support RPL and to enable individuals to benchmark their attainments and achievements to the SCQF.
2014
In development
Development started only recently. The main drivers are the LLL 20:20 strategy, NQF development as well as the implementation of ECVET, and the Cou...
Development started only recently. The main drivers are the LLL 20:20 strategy, NQF development as well as the implementation of ECVET, and the Council Recommendation on validation.
In place for some years and implemented
All sectors have been implementing their validation policy for several years now with the exception of the socio-cultural sector which has develope...
All sectors have been implementing their validation policy for several years now with the exception of the socio-cultural sector which has developed their policy more recently. The approach in the work sector is more top-down whereas the approach in the higher education sector is more bottom-up.
In place for some years and implemented
Three main VFNIL systems have had a legal framework in place for about ten years, and implemented in practice since the latter part of 2000s. In th...
Three main VFNIL systems have had a legal framework in place for about ten years, and implemented in practice since the latter part of 2000s. In the VET sector VFNIL has developed from a top down approach
Not yet in place
At the current stage of development, validation arrangements have been implemented within single projects, and there is no overall strategy or fram...
At the current stage of development, validation arrangements have been implemented within single projects, and there is no overall strategy or framework. With respect to the private sector, the implementation of Article 40 of the Law on Vocational Education and Training has been successful in the following examples : 1. The organisation of short training courses in the form of in-house training which are intended for employees who work for the company, or unemployed people who want to take up a job in a company 2. Employers which successfully manage their human resources practice in partnership with training providers
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The complete framework for VET is in place since 2009. The regulated experiences in HE started in 2008. In all sectors, validation practices are av...
The complete framework for VET is in place since 2009. The regulated experiences in HE started in 2008. In all sectors, validation practices are available only for a limited number of qualifications.
Not yet in place
The existing System of Vocational Qualifications has been in place since 2005. The second phase, when the process was fully operational and more vo...
The existing System of Vocational Qualifications has been in place since 2005. The second phase, when the process was fully operational and more vocational profiles and qualifications were developed, has run since 2007. The anticipated new route for the validation of non-formal and informal learning is expected to affect public policies during the programming period 2014-2020
Recently introduced but well implemented
Since 2010 the numbers of applications and assessment have grown significantly
In place for some years and implemented
External students’ examination has been in place since 1969 and implemented in practice; access to higher education has been in place since 2009 ...
External students’ examination has been in place since 1969 and implemented in practice; access to higher education has been in place since 2009 and implemented in practice; Vocational Qualifications Assessment Law has been in place since 2012; NQF has been in place since 2013
In place for some years and implemented
The strategy/frameworks has been in place since 2004. Legislation from 2000, 2003, 2007
In place for some years and implemented
The policies that are in place have been implemented. As indicated above, the higher education sector is leading the way in terms of validation. Ot...
The policies that are in place have been implemented. As indicated above, the higher education sector is leading the way in terms of validation. Other sectors are slower to follow suit
In development
No information
In place for some years and implemented
The strategies for validation of the education system were introduced with the Organic Law of Education, (2006) and the Organic Law of Universities...
The strategies for validation of the education system were introduced with the Organic Law of Education, (2006) and the Organic Law of Universities (2007). A common strategy between the education administrations and the employment administrations was introduced with the Royal Decree 1224/2009. The first joint call for validation of professional competences was carried out in 2011 and the Autonomous Communities have opened calls
In place for some years and implemented
The CBQ system has had a legal status since 1994 and it has been implemented since 1995. - In VET there has been a legal status since 1998 and ren...
The CBQ system has had a legal status since 1994 and it has been implemented since 1995. - In VET there has been a legal status since 1998 and renewed Recognition of prior learning is regulated by Act and Degree on VET, in force 1.1.2006. - Recognition is based on learning outcomes, not on learning time. HEIs have had supporting legislation for ca. 10 years, but systematic implementation has taken place only recently on a larger scale
In place for some years and implemented
VAE has been implemented since 2002 by all the ministries awarding qualifications
Not yet in place
No information
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
A Law on the validation of work experience in HE has existed since 2008. Recognition of prior learning in the adult training system has been in pla...
A Law on the validation of work experience in HE has existed since 2008. Recognition of prior learning in the adult training system has been in place since 2001 but implementation is limited
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
There is no simple, coherent, consistent strategy or framework in place and the commentary provided here should be treated with caution due to rece...
There is no simple, coherent, consistent strategy or framework in place and the commentary provided here should be treated with caution due to recent structural and institutional changes. In summary, the 1999 Act framed arrangements for RPL and the NQAI 2005) Principles and Operational Guidelines for the Recognition of Prior Learning in Further and Higher Education sets out arrangements FE and HE.
In place for some years and implemented
The Adult Education Act (2010) was developed based on practice in the field for the target group
Recently introduced but not well implemented
National framework recently introduced. 1/3 of the Regions (7 out of 21) have frameworks in place
Recently introduced but not well implemented
In VET engagement of all stakeholders. Only HE framework is in place so far. Not the overall framework
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The majority of relevant laws were amended / adopted in the last three years, i.e. since 2010. In relation to VET, first of all laws / policies wer...
The majority of relevant laws were amended / adopted in the last three years, i.e. since 2010. In relation to VET, first of all laws / policies were put in place before any initiative had been initiated “on the ground”. Take-up is still very low and information is not collected systematically, therefore there is no evidence regarding users of validation. Additionally, VET providers may validate previous experience of individual learners and it is difficult to say how widespread this is – it differs among providers. In relation to HE, single initiatives (ad hoc – i.e. number of ESF-funded projects) were appearing ‘on the ground’ before any legal framework at the national level was introduced. However, the legal framework which is in place is very general, therefore there is considerable room for manoeuvre for HE institutions on how these possibilities will look at individual HE establishments. Opportunities for validation of non-formal and informal learning in the HE sector were available in two universities (Mykolas Romeris University and Vytautas Magnus University) before 2010, but the take-up still remains relatively low. According to universities, this is not cost effective – these opportunities do require marketing, but they do not help to attract more students to universities. There are no legal arrangements in relation to validation of non-formal and informal learning in the third sector so far. There is only one initiative “on the ground” (a national project called “The Development of an Integrated Youth Policy” , implemented by the Department of Youth Affairs under the Ministry of Social Security), that includes validation (among many activities of the Project, is the implementation of the youth worker certification system along with a competence assessment mechanism covering validation of non-formal and informal learning of youth workers, including those working in the third sector). On one hand, this is a project that aims at boosting inter-sectoral cooperation and integration to some extent between the public and the third sectors in terms of delivering youth policies, but on the other hand – this is an initiative that is responding more to the needs of the public sector than the specific needs of the third sector. No validation initiatives specifically developed for particular third sector areas are currently implemented on Lithuania.
Recently introduced but well implemented
At the secondary level, since 2010
Recently introduced but well implemented
The legal framework for vocational education has been introduced recently and is implemented well in practice. In other sectors there is no publicl...
The legal framework for vocational education has been introduced recently and is implemented well in practice. In other sectors there is no publicly available information on the extent of implementation due to the high degree of autonomy in the HE sector
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The legal framework is in place and provides the context for the development work on the national framework for validation which is currently being...
The legal framework is in place and provides the context for the development work on the national framework for validation which is currently being undertaken and is led by the NCFHE
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
Validation has been in place for: prior formal learning since 1994. non-formal and informal learning as part of education-laws (VET and HE) since 1...
Validation has been in place for: prior formal learning since 1994. non-formal and informal learning as part of education-laws (VET and HE) since 1998-2001.
In place for some years and implemented
In place for some years and implemented in practice for most levels and types of education and training. For post-secondary VET (‘fagskole’, IS...
In place for some years and implemented in practice for most levels and types of education and training. For post-secondary VET (‘fagskole’, ISCED 4), however, validation of parts of programmes was only introduced through regulations of 1 August 2013. The strategies have emerged gradually but some historical pillars are the Law on Vocational Training of 1952 and the Adult Education Act of 1976. Adults can be admitted to HE on the basis of validation since 2001. Before that date, the universities had a traditional ‘third’ access route
In place for some years and implemented
The validation framework in the case of the craft system has been in place since 1950, while in the case of the school system the framework was int...
The validation framework in the case of the craft system has been in place since 1950, while in the case of the school system the framework was introduced in 2012
In development
Portugal has created a new legislation / policy for RVCC processes (2013) and its implementation is still in progress. The current crediting frame...
Portugal has created a new legislation / policy for RVCC processes (2013) and its implementation is still in progress. The current crediting framework in HE has been in force since 2006. Since August 2013, there is new legislation that modified the previous one, aiming to ensure validation practices are more transparent and clear. According to the new legislation, the crediting process is set out in a regulation approved by each institution, which must be made public
Recently introduced but not well implemented
The frameworks are in place, but access to them by large numbers of beneficiaries is still a concern and the institutional capacity of the validati...
The frameworks are in place, but access to them by large numbers of beneficiaries is still a concern and the institutional capacity of the validation centres needs to be further developed in order to be effective
In development
The national structure for validation is being coordinated by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education in cooperation with actor...
The national structure for validation is being coordinated by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education in cooperation with actors from public authorities and the private sector which have responsibilities for validation. The national guidelines for validation have been in place since 2012 and are currently implemented in the validation practice of PES. The responsibility for validation in Sweden is decentralised at local and regional levels and embedded in the municipal adult education system and PES. The responsibility for validation is divided between different actors, e.g. the Swedish National Agency for Higher Vocational Education Myndigheten för yrkeshögskolan), the Swedish Public Employment Service (Arbetsförmedlingen), the Swedish National Agency for Education (Statens skolverk), the Swedish Council for Higher Education (Universitets- och högskolerådet). The central social partner organisations are also involved in the development and implementation of sector models of validation
In place for some years and implemented
Vocational level, primary and secondary education, tertiary education NQF, voluntary work
In development
Legal framework in place since December 2009: law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.)
In place for some years and implemented
The VQA was established in 2006 and the first VQA certificates were issued in 2010. The application of the framework has gradually widened; however...
The VQA was established in 2006 and the first VQA certificates were issued in 2010. The application of the framework has gradually widened; however, it is still rather limited since the NQF is not yet operative
Recently introduced but not well implemented
QCF Regulatory Arrangements were introduced in 2008, Quality Code for HE has been introduced in 2013. Data not available at national level but it a...
QCF Regulatory Arrangements were introduced in 2008, Quality Code for HE has been introduced in 2013. Data not available at national level but it appears that the actual implementation of RPL is relatively low.
In place for some years and implemented
Guidelines on RPL included in the SCQF Handbook, first drafted in 2005. Notable RPL activity taking place in the HE sector, and the SCQF Partnershi...
Guidelines on RPL included in the SCQF Handbook, first drafted in 2005. Notable RPL activity taking place in the HE sector, and the SCQF Partnership is working to support RPL in other sectors of learning, the labour market and third sector.
In place for some years but insufficiently implemented
The CQFW was adopted in 2002. QALL provision is now substantial, with over 1,000 units registered.
Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
No information
N/A
Data collected between September and December 2008 indicate that 294 applicants were examined by the VAE jury and that 185 registered as students. ...
Data collected between September and December 2008 indicate that 294 applicants were examined by the VAE jury and that 185 registered as students. In 2008 the objective for VDC was 650 beneficiaries and the actual number 987. In 2009 the number of beneficiaries reached 1364, compared to a target of 780. Nevertheless, the beneficiaries of the VDC procedure is still relatively low due to low visibility and only recent implementation
N/A
No information regarding trends (increase/decrease)
N/A
Contrasting
Access to higher education External students’ examination
Increased
See table in the 2010 inventory
No information
In the period 2003-2009 about 230, 000 people participated in the examinations. The state ICT certificate has also been popular (61,392 people in ...
In the period 2003-2009 about 230, 000 people participated in the examinations. The state ICT certificate has also been popular (61,392 people in 2006 sat the exams). The ECDL certificate is very popular both in the private sector as well as in the public, in terms of employment. ECDL was chosen by the Ministry of Employment in the context of the Programme, Training in Basic ICT Skills, leading to the certification of 20, 000 unemployed and soldiers
NA (the analysis is based in the 2014 report)
Increased
In 2007, 63,637 individuals participated in CBQs. There was an increase of 1.8% from the previous year. 31,985 gained a full qualification and 14,7...
In 2007, 63,637 individuals participated in CBQs. There was an increase of 1.8% from the previous year. 31,985 gained a full qualification and 14,787 a part qualification. In 2008, 65,267 individuals participated in CBQs. This was an increase of 2.6% from the previous year. 32,344 gained a full qualification and 16,094 a part qualification. These figures do not include the number of apprenticeship courses (where CBQs are also solely used)
Information not included in 2010 report
No data available
No data available
Not possible due to insufficient data
Increased
Number of individuals going through validation: In 2007 there were 105 In 2008 there were 238 In 2009 there were 242
No information
No information
N/A
No information
Remained the same
The first 100 persons that have obtained a qualification by using the validation system of non-formal learning validation were expected in 2010 (as...
The first 100 persons that have obtained a qualification by using the validation system of non-formal learning validation were expected in 2010 (as it was anticipated in the ‘Programme for Implementation of Guidelines for Lifelong Learning 2007-2013 in 2008-2013’). However, taking into account the delays in the development of the legal framework, these numbers will not be achieved
N/A
The number of Ervaringscertificaten issued has increased from 9,900 in 2007 to 12,500 in 2008 and 15,700 in 2009.
Remained the same
Around 6,000 individuals take the crafts examination based on practical work experience each year. 3,162 of the 9,439 adults who applied for enro...
Around 6,000 individuals take the crafts examination based on practical work experience each year. 3,162 of the 9,439 adults who applied for enrolment in upper secondary education and training in 2008 had undergone validation of non-formal and informal learning Between 2007 and 2009, 8,832 adult learners in 15 counties of Norway (data only available for this number) undertook validation for exemptions in relation to vocational certificates or entrance qualifications for higher education. In HE, around 1.3% of students admitted each year have had their prior learning recognised during the admissions process (this equated to 2,565 learners in 2008). Between 2001 and 2004, only 123 applications for exemptions from parts of studies on the basis of prior learning were received by all HE institutions
Information not collected in the 2010 Inventory
Decreased
N/A
Increased
Between 2006 and 2009, the assessment centres authorised by CNFPA have issued over 25,000 certificates for 150 occupations or qualifications. In Oc...
Between 2006 and 2009, the assessment centres authorised by CNFPA have issued over 25,000 certificates for 150 occupations or qualifications. In October 2010, the total number of certificates was up to 28,000. This marks significant progress in this field
Data not available
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2014
Contrasting
Some are slightly increased, some are slightly decreased. Since this information is not collected centrally, it is not possible to give a general a...
Some are slightly increased, some are slightly decreased. Since this information is not collected centrally, it is not possible to give a general answer. The number of apprenticeship exam passes in second-chance education has slightly decreased since 2010 (7 266 in 2010 and 6 982 in 2012). The number of admissions to degree programmes at universities and universities of applied sciences without taking the Reifeprüfung exam has slightly increased. The number of wba certificates/diplomas issued has increased. There are many separate initiatives and it is not possible to list all of them here.
Contrasting
Higher education: decreased Socio-cultural and sports sector: increased
Increased
VDC: In 2012, 2,758 candidates registered to attend validation sessions and about 1,500 Certificates were eventually awarded (the target was 1,170...
VDC: In 2012, 2,758 candidates registered to attend validation sessions and about 1,500 Certificates were eventually awarded (the target was 1,170 Certificates) . In 2009, 1,364 applicants had registered for a VDC procedure. VAE in HE: more than 1,000 candidates were supported in 2012 compared to 696 in 2011 and 750 in 2010. In terms of admission, 662 were admitted through VAE in 2012, while this was the case for 485 candidates in 2011 and only 302 in 2010
Increased
The number of certificates for professional qualification issued by CVTs (according to Art. 40 of VET Act) has increased: in 2011 - 1 172 certifica...
The number of certificates for professional qualification issued by CVTs (according to Art. 40 of VET Act) has increased: in 2011 - 1 172 certificates were issued compared to 502 certificates in 2010. There is no available information on whether the increase of certificates is due to an increase in the number of applicants
Increased
Globally the number has increased, thanks to the fact that more courses are now accessible via validation. This is true especially in the Upper Sec...
Globally the number has increased, thanks to the fact that more courses are now accessible via validation. This is true especially in the Upper Secondary Level of VET where the number of validation applications went from 489 in 2010 to 702 in 2011
Increased
There is no yearly data for the applicants or people received validation through HRDA’s System of Vocational Qualifications. Overall, during 2006...
There is no yearly data for the applicants or people received validation through HRDA’s System of Vocational Qualifications. Overall, during 2006-2010, 232 certifications were realised. During 2013, 1 100 applications have been submitted. In the first phase of the system, only companies could apply to seek certification of their employees. In the second phase, all individuals can apply. At the same time, more calls for applications have been issued, so it can be inferred that the flow of beneficiaries has increased and will further increase
Increased
The number of assessments increased significantly until mid-2012, when it steadily fell again, although it remains higher in December 2013 than it ...
The number of assessments increased significantly until mid-2012, when it steadily fell again, although it remains higher in December 2013 than it was in January 2010. On average there were 1,822 assessments carried out per month in the period 2010-2013
Contrasting
Increased: Access to higher education Remained the same: External students’ examination
Remained the same
It is difficult to estimate if there has been an overall increase or decrease of validations across all the different educational programmes. The n...
It is difficult to estimate if there has been an overall increase or decrease of validations across all the different educational programmes. The number of validations has increased within VVU and diploma programmes, basic adult education (GVU) and General upper secondary education (HF), remained more or less the same within General adult education (AVU) and dramatically decreased within vocational adult education and training (AMU) (see table in section 2.7.3 of the inventory)
Increased
In HE the number of applications has increased. In 2009 there were 6,986 applications (6,040 fully accepted). In 2010 there were 7,642 applicatio...
In HE the number of applications has increased. In 2009 there were 6,986 applications (6,040 fully accepted). In 2010 there were 7,642 applications (6,641 fully accepted) In 2011 there were 8,673 applications (8,248 fully accepted) In 2012 there were 9,168 applications (8,184 fully accepted). In VET data are available only on school level
Increased
There is no specific data available for comparison; it should also be taken into consideration that EOPPEP’s responsibilities have expanded signi...
There is no specific data available for comparison; it should also be taken into consideration that EOPPEP’s responsibilities have expanded significantly since 2010 (at that time, OEEK and successively EOPP was the competent organisation for the certification of IVET graduates). The demand for certification of qualification of IVET graduates is quite steady through the past decade. According to EOPPEP, there has recently been rising demand from the side of private security services personnel who do not hold a recognised professional title. Hence, quite a great share of Adult Trainers of non-formal education (16,042) await for certification while EOPPEP anticipates that other 15,000 will have applied by the end of 2015. There is also a very pressing demand, according to EOPPEP, considering the certification of technical occupations blue collar workforce, e.g. in terms of the implementation of EU environmental regulations regarding gas emission
Increased
In relation to access exams, in 2010-2011, 51 720 students gained access to Intermediate VET and 58 711 students gained access to Higher VET. 1.7 %...
In relation to access exams, in 2010-2011, 51 720 students gained access to Intermediate VET and 58 711 students gained access to Higher VET. 1.7 % of the admissions in public universities corresponded to individuals who passed access exams for people over 25; and 0.5 % of university access exams corresponded to people over 40 and 45 years of age. In relation to the assessment and accreditation process of professional competences acquired through work experience the number of applications has been especially high in 2011, it decreased in 2012, and it increased again in 2013 although the number of applications was not as high as in 2011). The number of applications is related to the number of calls set up and the number of competence units or modules to be evaluated. Approximate data [as of May 2014] : 2010: 1 310 2011: 38 754 2012: 5 055 2013: 22 292
Increased
All CBQ candidates in 2010 and 2011 (including basic, further and specialist qualifications and apprenticeship training) 2010 201...
All CBQ candidates in 2010 and 2011 (including basic, further and specialist qualifications and apprenticeship training) 2010 2011 BQ: 47,547 50,073 FQ: 46,709 45,312 SQ: 23,347 23,234 Tot: 117,603 118,619 Statistics for 2012 for CBQs will be available on the 6.11. Renewed statistics tool: http://vipunen.csc.fi/fi-fi/ohjeet/Pages/default.aspx
Remained the same
Not info
No data available
No data available
Not possible due to insufficient data
Increased
Number of individuals going through validation: In 2010 there were 384 In 2011 there were 411 In 2012 there were 423 In 2013 there were 369
Increased
Libretto Formativo only: Toscana: 25.000 beneficiaries ISFOL estimates: 50.000 beneficiaries
Remained the same
No information
Decreased
Validation in the HE sector (at two universities) was available in 2010. These did not engage large numbers of people, and in general have decrease...
Validation in the HE sector (at two universities) was available in 2010. These did not engage large numbers of people, and in general have decreased even further since then, because project funding has ended and universities did not provide further funding to keep the sustain the opportunities. According to the Ministry of Education and Science, 646 people in 2012 and 341 people in 2013 have validated their competences at higher education establishments. Validation in VET was available before 2010 as well. Numbers were not high but there were persons who went through recognition procedures in Chambers of Commerce, industry and Crafts and received a qualification diploma (certificate).According to the Ministry of Education and Science, 47 people in 2013 have validated their competences in the system of VET
Increased
validation has only been implemented in practice since 2010
Increased
The first candidate for validation in vocational education took the examination of assessing the professional competences acquired in other than fo...
The first candidate for validation in vocational education took the examination of assessing the professional competences acquired in other than formal education system and successfully had his competences validated in July 2011. Since then the number of successful candidates has risen considerably. Thus in 2012 400 persons acquired a document certifying their skills and knowledge. In 2013 803 persons have validated their skills and knowledge
N/A
Remained the same
The number of applications fluctuates between 15,000 and 20,000 every year. The latest registered number is 17.700 in 2011. We do not know what th...
The number of applications fluctuates between 15,000 and 20,000 every year. The latest registered number is 17.700 in 2011. We do not know what the influence of the economic crisis has been from 2012.
Remained the same
There is a decrease in the number of adults applying for validation relating to upper secondary education, the main reason is that there was a ‘s...
There is a decrease in the number of adults applying for validation relating to upper secondary education, the main reason is that there was a ‘surge’ of applications when validation was first introduced, especially in the social and healthcare sectors. Now that this backlog of applications has been processed, there is a more steady number of applications each year. In the school year 2010-2011, 12.5% (2,457 from a total of 19,609) of adult learners taking part in upper secondary education and training had their prior learning assessed. This represents a fall in comparison to the school year 2009-2010, when 14% of adult learners participating in upper secondary education and training had their prior learning assessed. In both 2012 and 2013, 7% of the students in post-secondary vocational colleges had been admitted on the basis of their non-formal and informal learning. In 2013, 67% of the students (as opposed to 56% in 2012) had been admitted on the basis of vocational qualifications, and 20% (30 in 2012) on the basis of general admission requirements to higher education
Increased
According to data provided by the Central Examination Board, in the case of the school sector there has been an increase of 11 % in the number of s...
According to data provided by the Central Examination Board, in the case of the school sector there has been an increase of 11 % in the number of students / applicants taking the vocational exam (this includes learners who have undertaken both formal (school) and non-formal (extra-mural) learning) from 230 267 graduates in 2010 to 255 874 graduates in 2013
Decreased
In January 2014 the numbers were effectively reduced to zero, given that the new network of centres is currently being implemented and there are no...
In January 2014 the numbers were effectively reduced to zero, given that the new network of centres is currently being implemented and there are no numbers available. . There is no national data from HE
Increased
In 2010, the total number of certified applicants was 28.000. In only 3 years (2010-2013) the total number was almost doubled, reaching 49.900 cert...
In 2010, the total number of certified applicants was 28.000. In only 3 years (2010-2013) the total number was almost doubled, reaching 49.900 certified persons
Data not available
Remained the same
According to information of individual schools, the numbers are fluctuating but the differences are small. However, there is no aggregated data to ...
According to information of individual schools, the numbers are fluctuating but the differences are small. However, there is no aggregated data to make inferences from
Increased
Given that the process was not yet operational in 2010 the numbers have increased.
Increased
2011: 182 2012: 4 626 2013: 7 115
Data not available
Data not available
Data not available. Anecdotal evidence suggests that take-up of RPL is very small in scale

The 2012 Recommendation iIdentifies four distinct phases: IDENTIFICATION of an individual's learning outcomes acquired through non-formal and informal learning; DOCUMENTATION of an individual's learning outcomes acquired through non-formal and informal learning; ASSESSMENT of an individual's learning outcomes acquired through non-formal and informal learning; CERTIFICATION of the results of the assessment of an individual's learning outcomes acquired through non-formal and informal learning in the form of a qualification, or credits leading to a qualification, or in another form, as appropriate (Council of the EU, 2012, p. 3, points 2a to 2d).

Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the purpose of validation: - acquisition of qualifications/certificates/ entitlements that are part of the formal education and training...
Depends on the purpose of validation: - acquisition of qualifications/certificates/ entitlements that are part of the formal education and training system – focus is on assessment and certification; - acquisition of certificates without a corresponding qualification in the formal system; – depending on the sector, all four stages or only some (such as documentation and assessment) are used; - access to certain exams or HE programmes (such as continuous higher education courses offered at universities) requires relevant professional work experience: the focus might be on documentation; - exemption from courses at HE (mainly Bachelor study programmes at universities of applied sciences): the focus might be on documentation and certification; - guidance, supporting the process of self-reflection, and recording individual development processes etc. (in the third sector): the focus is more on identification and documentation.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Overall, a validation procedure consists of three steps: recognising/identifying an individual’s competences (‘herkennen’) (this step include...
Overall, a validation procedure consists of three steps: recognising/identifying an individual’s competences (‘herkennen’) (this step includes documenting); assessing an individual’s competences on the basis of evidence - by comparing it with the standard and then validation. Validation is carried out by an accredited body of the competences of an individual acquired in a non-formal or informal setting assessed on the basis of prior determined criteria and in accordance with a standard which then leads to certification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
CVET: most assessment and certification (validation sessions involve simulation); less on identification. In HE: VAE in universities in based on ...
CVET: most assessment and certification (validation sessions involve simulation); less on identification. In HE: VAE in universities in based on the portfolio approach. Documentation is therefore the core of VAE. Identification with a VAE counsellor is an important stage. Certification: a jury will determine whether credits are given for admission or exemptions.
Information not provided in 2010 Inventory
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The stages of validation are not clearly implemented in Cyprus. All practices available regard identification and recognition of prior learning; ce...
The stages of validation are not clearly implemented in Cyprus. All practices available regard identification and recognition of prior learning; certification may be achieved, as for example for ICT competences.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The system for VNFIL concerning vocational qualifications is more focused on the process of assessment and certification
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All four stages are used in VET, higher education. These approaches aim at a certification for access or training qualification. In the third secto...
All four stages are used in VET, higher education. These approaches aim at a certification for access or training qualification. In the third sector, these approaches do not aim at a certification for access or training qualification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In public sector initiatives (sector of education) all four stages are used. In the private sector and third sector, recognition of prior learning ...
In public sector initiatives (sector of education) all four stages are used. In the private sector and third sector, recognition of prior learning only involves the identification and documentation stages. Assessment can only be carried out by education providers
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In higher education, all stages of the process are used. VET has not yet implemented validation on a large scale and only some cases exist. The OQ ...
In higher education, all stages of the process are used. VET has not yet implemented validation on a large scale and only some cases exist. The OQ awarding bodies are using the stages of validation but do not clearly name the process as validation
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Immigrants can obtain the Greek Language Competence Certificate irrespectively of the way they have obtained the language skills. The same holds f...
Immigrants can obtain the Greek Language Competence Certificate irrespectively of the way they have obtained the language skills. The same holds for the validation of ICT competence by the state. The European Computer Driving License (ECDL) is an ICT competence certificate provided by the private sector through examination of individuals. 99 % of examinations are based on the automated test evaluation system (aTES). Non-formal learning is also assessed and recognised through public adult learning providers. Completion of training programmes at Vocational Training Centres (KEK) lead to a certificate of attendance and have recognition in the private sector, but not in the public sector. It should be noted that these are isolated examples; there is no coherent and systematic validation
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Validation is exclusively a public process. It always includes assessment and certification. In the case of partial exemptions documentation is als...
Validation is exclusively a public process. It always includes assessment and certification. In the case of partial exemptions documentation is also used. In relation to the assessment and accreditation procedures of professional competences acquired through work experience it is not clear, but it seems that all four stages will be used in the validation process in public sector initiatives. At the same time, the private sector is involved in small-scale initiatives and they seem strong in identification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Yes. It is made very transparent in the Individualisation process (CBQs). However, in Finland the aim is to gain a part qualification or a full qua...
Yes. It is made very transparent in the Individualisation process (CBQs). However, in Finland the aim is to gain a part qualification or a full qualification. The different stages are hardly used independently or separately at any sector.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The main type of validation in France (VAE) is a public sector initiative. VAE can lead to certification. However, there are other forms validation...
The main type of validation in France (VAE) is a public sector initiative. VAE can lead to certification. However, there are other forms validation of non-formal and information learning not leading to a formal certification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In private sector all four stages can be recognised in the examples of sectoral approaches (e.g. Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts). In the pub...
In private sector all four stages can be recognised in the examples of sectoral approaches (e.g. Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts). In the public sector: identification and documentation (e.g. Croatian Employment Service). In the third sector: identification and documentation.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Identification, documentation and assessment is typical in the higher education and adult training sector. The results of the assessments can inclu...
Identification, documentation and assessment is typical in the higher education and adult training sector. The results of the assessments can include exemption from some requirements of the study programmes (subjects, modules, obligatory internship). In employment services and in the voluntary work sector, the identification of skills is dominant.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is used for access, exemption or full award).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All four stages are used with the target group in adult learning. In Iceland, a validation process must include all four stages otherwise it is not...
All four stages are used with the target group in adult learning. In Iceland, a validation process must include all four stages otherwise it is not called validation. Some of the stages may be used in other sectors depending on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the higher education sector, prior learning may be used to support access, in the third sector, the focus tends to be on initial guidance, reflection and recognising and identifying skills, and gathering evidence in portfolio).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All the experiences share the same methodological framework. The certification process sometimes is not so foreseen in the procedure also because s...
All the experiences share the same methodological framework. The certification process sometimes is not so foreseen in the procedure also because some validation experiences are not included in institutional and formalised procedures
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Information and advice is the only stage taking place in Liechtenstein itself in vocational education and training (the rest takes place in Switzer...
Information and advice is the only stage taking place in Liechtenstein itself in vocational education and training (the rest takes place in Switzerland). In higher education, all steps are relevant and do take place for admission and crediting
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
i.e. in the HE sector
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The validation procedure follows a 4-step process: Eligibility check – Documentation – Assessment – Certification
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All four stages of the validation process (Identification, Documentation, Assessment and Certification) are used in the process of validation, but ...
All four stages of the validation process (Identification, Documentation, Assessment and Certification) are used in the process of validation, but it is impossible to say whether some stages are used more than others, as no such research has been conducted at national level
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The validation process is still in development. However, all four stages are present in the system of validation that has been developed for the ch...
The validation process is still in development. However, all four stages are present in the system of validation that has been developed for the childcare sector.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
It is more or less always the same process of raising awareness/target-setting, portfolio-build-up, assessment, validation.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the sector – e.g. in HE validation is more commonly used to support access, so there is less focus on certification, whereas assessmen...
Depends on the sector – e.g. in HE validation is more commonly used to support access, so there is less focus on certification, whereas assessment / certification is the focus of the law on vocational training which permits individuals to pass a crafts or journeyman’s examination based on practical work experience, rather than education and training in school and/or the apprenticeship which would normally be required.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The most common validation method applied in Poland represents a mixed approach. It usually consists of an examination in the form of a test of wor...
The most common validation method applied in Poland represents a mixed approach. It usually consists of an examination in the form of a test of work activity (próba pracy), based on checking the practical skills, accompanied by a theoretical part (written or oral examination).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Yes, they are all used in validation in the non-higher education area. In HE institutions, that have autonomy to decide on scientific and pedagogic...
Yes, they are all used in validation in the non-higher education area. In HE institutions, that have autonomy to decide on scientific and pedagogic issues, some of the validation stages are in practice. But usually they are more focused on assessment and crediting
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In the public sector, the legal framework covers all stages, while in the private sector; HR departments are more focused on the assessment during ...
In the public sector, the legal framework covers all stages, while in the private sector; HR departments are more focused on the assessment during the recruitment and selection phase, but also as a progress assessment. The third sector promotes to a higher degree the approach of identification and documentation, focusing on the awareness raising of non-formal and informal learning among beneficiaries
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The validation process is being developed according to EU guidelines
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
No information
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The focus is primarily on assessment and certification. The processes of identification and documentation are not prominent in the approach defined...
The focus is primarily on assessment and certification. The processes of identification and documentation are not prominent in the approach defined in the Act on Lifelong Learning. The identification process is present in the skills audits as used in public employment services however these are, in practice, rarely used
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Testing and certification
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, APEL is often used to support access, so is less about certification, in the third sector...
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, APEL is often used to support access, so is less about certification, in the third sector, the focus tends to be on initial guidance, reflection and recognising and identifying skills, and gathering evidence).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Question not specifically addressed in 2010 report. However SCQF handbook states that both formative and summative recognition are possible using R...
Question not specifically addressed in 2010 report. However SCQF handbook states that both formative and summative recognition are possible using RPL in Scotland, so it is assumed that all four stages are used in public sector initiatives, although not necessarily all at the same time.
2014
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
This depends on the purpose of validation : - acquisition of qualifications/certificates/ entitlements that are part of the formal education and tr...
This depends on the purpose of validation : - acquisition of qualifications/certificates/ entitlements that are part of the formal education and training system – the focus is on assessment and certification; - acquisition of certificates without a corresponding qualification in the formal system; – depending on the sector, all four stages or only some (such as documentation and assessment) are used; - access to certain exams or HE programmes (such as continuous higher education courses offered at universities) requires relevant professional work experience – the focus might be on documentation; - exemption from courses in higher education (mainly Bachelor study programmes at universities of applied sciences) – the focus might be on documentation and certification; - guidance, supporting the process of self-reflection, and recording individual development processes etc. (in the third sector) – the focus is more on identification and documentation.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Overall, a validation procedure consists of three steps: recognising/identifying an individual’s competences (‘herkennen’) (this step include...
Overall, a validation procedure consists of three steps: recognising/identifying an individual’s competences (‘herkennen’) (this step includes documenting); assessing an individual’s competences on the basis of evidence by comparing it with the standard and validating by an accredited body the competences of an individual acquired in a non-formal or informal setting assessed on the basis of prior determined criteria and in accordance with a standard which then leads to certification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
No information
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
So far, validation arrangements in Bulgaria are mostly carried out by the public sector. The use of all four stages depends on the purpose of valid...
So far, validation arrangements in Bulgaria are mostly carried out by the public sector. The use of all four stages depends on the purpose of validation, which may be different in the different projects. For example, in the project, ‘’System for validation of non-formal acquired knowledge, skills and competences’, all four stages are used to a similar extent. The project is funded by the ESF and co-funded by the state budget, and the target group includes employed as well as unemployed citizens. In the private sector, a priority is given to evaluation and certification, as a result of a final examination. The stages of identification and documentation slightly overlap in the context of the providers of vocational guidance working in the private sector
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In the public sector, all four stages of the validation process are considered. To be noted is that the identification and documentation stages are...
In the public sector, all four stages of the validation process are considered. To be noted is that the identification and documentation stages are executed together. An additional stage, accreditation, was added between the assessment and certification stages. In the private and third sector, the stages that are more used are identification and documentation. In a few cases assessment stages are in place, however this assessment does not always lead to a certification
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The process of awarding a vocational qualification by the HRDA involves three stages. Although the terms of the Council Recommendation have not bee...
The process of awarding a vocational qualification by the HRDA involves three stages. Although the terms of the Council Recommendation have not been adopted, these stages can be recognised as: a. Diagnosis (identification) b. Examination of the applicant’s competences and knowledge (assessment) and c. Certification Validation of non-formal learning in ICT taking place by private providers and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry only involve examination/formal assessment.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The system for VNFIL concerning vocational qualifications is more focused on the process of assessment and certification The system in the youth fi...
The system for VNFIL concerning vocational qualifications is more focused on the process of assessment and certification The system in the youth field is more concerned with identification and documentation
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Please note, the emphasis on in theory. In practice, mostly the time of working experience (VET), the formal qualification or the comparison of cur...
Please note, the emphasis on in theory. In practice, mostly the time of working experience (VET), the formal qualification or the comparison of curricula (access to HE and BQFG) are bases for the assessment. These approaches aim at a certification for access or training qualification. In the third sector, these approaches do not aim at a certification for access or training qualification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In public sector initiatives (sector of education) all four stages are used. In the private sector and third sector, recognition of prior learning ...
In public sector initiatives (sector of education) all four stages are used. In the private sector and third sector, recognition of prior learning only involves the identification and documentation stages. Assessment can only be carried out by education providers
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In higher education, all stages of the validation process are used. The VET sector has started to implement validation and all stages are present....
In higher education, all stages of the validation process are used. The VET sector has started to implement validation and all stages are present. The Qualification Authority /Awarding bodies are using the stages of validation but does not clearly name the process as validation
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Validation almost exclusively regards assessment (mainly through examination) that leads to certification. This is evident in all validation practi...
Validation almost exclusively regards assessment (mainly through examination) that leads to certification. This is evident in all validation practices, from the certification of IEKs and professionals of non-regulated professions run by EOPPEP; to the third sector, where participants in seminars are examined to get certified. However, in the certification of adult trainers of non-formal learning, documentation partially takes place: when applying for the certification, candidates need to prove their teaching experience, so that their competences are assessed. Assessment is also the dominant stage regarding non-formal learning acquired through public sector seminars. Certification in the third sector also regards examinations/assessment stage
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Validation is exclusively a public process. It always includes assessment and certification. In the case of partial exemptions documentation is als...
Validation is exclusively a public process. It always includes assessment and certification. In the case of partial exemptions documentation is also used. In relation to the assessment and accreditation procedures of professional competences acquired through work experience, the four stages are used
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Yes. It is made very transparent in the personalisation process (CBQs). In HEIs and VET the processes are similar, but not as detailed or specified...
Yes. It is made very transparent in the personalisation process (CBQs). In HEIs and VET the processes are similar, but not as detailed or specified nationally. However, in Finland the aim is to gain a qualification unit or units or a full qualification. The different stages are hardly used independently or separately at any sector.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The main type of validation in France (VAE) is a public sector initiative. VAE leads to a partial or full certification. However, there are other f...
The main type of validation in France (VAE) is a public sector initiative. VAE leads to a partial or full certification. However, there are other forms of validation of non-formal and informal learning not leading to a formal certification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In the private sector all four stages can be recognised in the examples of sectoral approaches (e.g. Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts). In the...
In the private sector all four stages can be recognised in the examples of sectoral approaches (e.g. Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts). In the public sector: identification and documentation (e.g. Croatian Employment Service). In the third sector: identification and documentation. It is planned to be defined in the Ordinance on recognition and validation of non-formal and informal learning that all four stages of the validation process will be used across all sectors.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Identification, documentation and assessment is typical in the higher education and adult training sector. The result of the assessment can be: a) ...
Identification, documentation and assessment is typical in the higher education and adult training sector. The result of the assessment can be: a) exemption from some requirements of the study programmes (subjects, modules, obligatory internship); b) award of ECTS credits for a unit of study programme towards a qualification. In the employment services; and in the voluntary work sector, the identification of skills is dominant.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is used for access, exemption or full award. Within FET it is predominantly used for ...
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is used for access, exemption or full award. Within FET it is predominantly used for access and exemptions and sometimes for achievement of major awards.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All four stages are used with the target group in adult learning. In Iceland, a validation process must include all four stages otherwise it is not...
All four stages are used with the target group in adult learning. In Iceland, a validation process must include all four stages otherwise it is not called validation. Some of the stages may be used in other sectors depending on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the higher education sector, prior learning may be used to support access. In the third sector, the focus tends to be on initial guidance, reflection and recognising and identifying skills, and gathering evidence in portfolio).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The certification process sometimes is not so foreseen in the procedure; also some validation experiences are not included in institutional and for...
The certification process sometimes is not so foreseen in the procedure; also some validation experiences are not included in institutional and formalised procedures
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Information and advice is the only stage taking place in Liechtenstein itself in vocational education and training (the rest is in Switzerland). I...
Information and advice is the only stage taking place in Liechtenstein itself in vocational education and training (the rest is in Switzerland). In higher education, all steps are relevant and do take place for admission and crediting
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
There is no systematic collection of data, so it is difficult to provide an answer here, but in general: - All four stages used to a similar extent...
There is no systematic collection of data, so it is difficult to provide an answer here, but in general: - All four stages used to a similar extent in the validation process in HE sector initiatives; - All four stages used to a similar extent in the validation process in the youth (in public sector and third sector to some extent) sector, however only one initiative is available so far; - Some of the four stages used in the validation process are dominant in the VET / private sector (Assessment and Certification – people have to undertake a theory exam and practical tasks as part of the assessment procedure and in this way previous experience and knowledge is tested)
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The validation procedure follows a 4-step process: Eligibility check – Documentation – Assessment – Certification.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Validation in VET includes the use of identification, assessment and certification. In HE all four stages are used.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The validation process is still in development. However, all four stages are present in the system of validation that has been developed for the ch...
The validation process is still in development. However, all four stages are present in the system of validation that has been developed for the childcare sector.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
It is more or less always the same process of raising awareness/target-setting, portfolio-build-up, assessment, validation.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the needs of the individual and the purpose of the validation application. Also depends on the sector – e.g. in post-secondary VET an...
Depends on the needs of the individual and the purpose of the validation application. Also depends on the sector – e.g. in post-secondary VET and in HE validation is more commonly used to support access, so there is less focus on certification, whereas assessment / certification is the focus of the VET sector, since the Education Act permits individuals to take a final craft or journeyman’s examination based on practical work experience, rather than solely on education and training in school and/or the apprenticeship which would normally be required. (It is not possible to acquire a full Craft or Journeyman’s Certificate through validation. The candidates must still take the final exam.)
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
No information
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In non-higher education, centres will develop all the four stages In the HE sector validation is linked to ECTS
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
In the public sector, the legal framework is covering all stages, whilst in the private sector, the HR departments are more focused on assessment i...
In the public sector, the legal framework is covering all stages, whilst in the private sector, the HR departments are more focused on assessment in the recruitment and selection phase, but also assessment as a tool to measure progress. The third sector promotes to a higher degree the approach of identification and documentation, focusing on the awareness raising of the benefits of non-formal and informal learning among beneficiaries.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
All four stages of the validation process are used to a similar extent in the validation process in the national criteria and guidelines for valida...
All four stages of the validation process are used to a similar extent in the validation process in the national criteria and guidelines for validation of competence in Sweden. The four stages are used in the national strategy to describe the stages of an individual person’s steps through the validation process. In addition, Information and Guidance activities precede the four stages in the strategy In adult education, Certification is accomplished thru a process named ”prövning”. The formal grading is set through the process of “prövning”, which can be defined as an assessment of knowledge and competences in relation to pre-set knowledge requirements in course syllabi.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Where validation takes place, it undergoes all stages. However, understanding and application of each stage may differ. For example, in formal educ...
Where validation takes place, it undergoes all stages. However, understanding and application of each stage may differ. For example, in formal education certification will be a “diploma”, while in the private sector it will be a promotion or a job position
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
The focus is primarily on assessment and certification. The processes of identification and documentation are not prominent in the approach defined...
The focus is primarily on assessment and certification. The processes of identification and documentation are not prominent in the approach defined in the Act on Lifelong Learning. The identification process is present in the skills audits as used in public employment services however these are, in practice, rarely used
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Assessment (testing) and certification stages are used.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is more often used to support access, so is less about certification, in the third se...
Depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is more often used to support access, so is less about certification, in the third sector, the focus tends to be on initial guidance, reflection and recognising and identifying skills, and gathering evidence).
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
SCQF handbook states that both formative and summative recognition are possible using RPL in Scotland, so it is assumed that all four stages are us...
SCQF handbook states that both formative and summative recognition are possible using RPL in Scotland, so it is assumed that all four stages are used in public sector initiatives, although not necessarily all at the same time. In the third sector the focus tends to be on the formative side of validation – generally in the process of engaging learners.
All public sectorSome public sectorAll private sectorSome private sectorAll third sectorSome third sector
For QALL – N/A. The purpose of QALL is to recognise as a formal unit, learning which otherwise would not have had a ‘value’ on the CQFW. The...
For QALL – N/A. The purpose of QALL is to recognise as a formal unit, learning which otherwise would not have had a ‘value’ on the CQFW. The four stages of validation do not really apply to this procedure, which is about recognising the unit of learning, rather than validating an individual’s learning. With regard to the other validation opportunities available, the use of the four stages depends on the sector and purpose (e.g. in the HE sector, RPL is more often used to support access, so is less about certification, in the third sector, the focus tends to be on initial guidance, reflection and recognising and identifying skills, and gathering evidence).

The 2012 recommendation underlines that the individual must be at the focus of validation arrangements: ‘[the] arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning which enable individuals to (a) have knowledge, skills and competences which have been acquired through non-formal and informal learning validated, including, where applicable, through open educational resources; (b) obtain a full qualification, or, where applicable, part qualification, on the basis of validated non-formal and informal learning experiences (Council of the EU, 2012, p. 3, point 1, emphasis added).

Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
No framework
There is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Nonetheless, in the educ...
There is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Nonetheless, in the education and training system, different Acts and Regulations include mechanisms and arrangements that enable education and training institutions to recognise learning outcomes acquired in non-formal and informal settings.
Multiple
With regard to higher education, the validation process of non-formal and informal learning is defined by the 30 April 2004 decree on making higher...
With regard to higher education, the validation process of non-formal and informal learning is defined by the 30 April 2004 decree on making higher education more flexible. On 15 June 2007, the Flemish Parliament approved the Flemish decree relating to (formal) adult education. The decree pays great attention to the validation of acquired competences, both with regard to dispensations and the certification of acquired competences. The decree sets out a clear approach to the assessment and certification of acquired competences in adult education. In April 2004, the Flemish government recognised non-formal and informal learning via the Decree on 'Titles of Professional Competence', which later became known as ‘certificates of vocational experience’
Multiple
Multiple framework: one for continuous vocational training (Validation of Competences, VDC), one for higher education, VAE procedure (no links betw...
Multiple framework: one for continuous vocational training (Validation of Competences, VDC), one for higher education, VAE procedure (no links between the two). In higher education, the recognition of non-formal and informal learning was introduced in 1994/1995 and since the Act of March 2004 as VAE. VDC was introduced in 2003/2004. The VDC Skills Certificates (CVET) are recognised by law.
No framework
There is no uniform legal framework encompassing all sectors. In relation to VET, Art.40 of the VET Act regulates the opportunities for validation ...
There is no uniform legal framework encompassing all sectors. In relation to VET, Art.40 of the VET Act regulates the opportunities for validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The condition is to have at least six months of practical experience and have successfully passed the national examinations in Theory and Practice of Profession. The Law for amending and expanding the Employment Promotion Act (introduced in 2008), focuses on adult training and stipulates that the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Science should create conditions for the assessment and recognition of the knowledge and skills of adults acquired through non-formal and informal learning. The provisions of the VET Act mentioned above have limited practical application. The majority of the validation arrangements relate to the VET sector.
No framework
No information
Multiple
There is a legal framework for further education. The possibility to exempt students from formal studies is also embedded in the legal frameworks f...
There is a legal framework for further education. The possibility to exempt students from formal studies is also embedded in the legal frameworks for school education and initial VET. No legal framework in higher education
Multiple
No information
Multiple
The key legislation on validation of prior learning in Denmark is Act no. 556 of 6 June 2007 . The legislation for VET (2003) includes a general p...
The key legislation on validation of prior learning in Denmark is Act no. 556 of 6 June 2007 . The legislation for VET (2003) includes a general principle of individual competence assessments as a basis for the preparation of personal education plans for each individual. The personal education plan is based on an assessment of the trainees’ competences and outlines an individual pathway through the VET system. Since 2007, individuals can gain access to short-cycle and medium-cycle Higher Education (Bachelor-level degrees) based on an individual competence assessment.
Multiple
Validation is regulated by various Acts and standards related to the sector e.g. specific legislation relating to HE, VET and occupational qualific...
Validation is regulated by various Acts and standards related to the sector e.g. specific legislation relating to HE, VET and occupational qualifications. Validation in HE is regulated by the University Act and The Standard of Higher Education. Validation in VET is regulated in the Standard of Vocational Education and the OQ (occupational qualifications) are regulated in the Professions Act
No framework
The 3879/2010 law entails certain provisions regarding non-formal learning. It has also introduced a new organisation, the National Organisation fo...
The 3879/2010 law entails certain provisions regarding non-formal learning. It has also introduced a new organisation, the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications (EOPP). EOPP bears the responsibility for the validation of non-formal and informal learning
Multiple
There are different laws that frame validation in Spain (Qualifications and Vocational Training Act of 2002, Employment Act from 2003, Education Ac...
There are different laws that frame validation in Spain (Qualifications and Vocational Training Act of 2002, Employment Act from 2003, Education Act from 2006, Higher Education Act from 2007). Their links are not clear. The most relevant one for validation is the Royal Decree 1224/2009 on the recognition of professional competences acquired through work experience
Multiple
There are separate laws for each educational sector (University, university of applied sciences, vocational adult education and training, Vocationa...
There are separate laws for each educational sector (University, university of applied sciences, vocational adult education and training, Vocational education and training and general upper secondary training). Each sectoral piece of legislation recognises VNIL procedures. There are no dead ends between sectors, but individuals are free to move from one sector to another regardless of how they have gained their qualifications.
Single
Law of 17 January 2002 (VAE)
No framework
The Croatian Qualification Framework (CROQF) is under development, which is a foundation for the legal framework.
Link to others
In accordance with the current Act on HE, it is possible to gain credits based on prior work experience (but the number of credits permitted is li...
In accordance with the current Act on HE, it is possible to gain credits based on prior work experience (but the number of credits permitted is limited to 30). According to the Adult Training Act of 2001, adults entering a training programme can ask for the assessment of their prior learning in relation to a given programme (in order to get exemption from some modules).
Link to others
The Qualifications (Education & Training) Act, 1999 itself, while referring to RPL, does not legislate specifically for a detailed RPL system but r...
The Qualifications (Education & Training) Act, 1999 itself, while referring to RPL, does not legislate specifically for a detailed RPL system but rather brought into being a range of institutions which through their policies and procedures has ensured that RPL is now a key issue and one which is being addressed by all sectors of the educational system. The Qualifications Act allows for RPL to be used for access, transfer/progression and the awarding of full awards.
Link to others
There is the Adult Education Act that gives a framework for validation practices for the target group of those who have not completed education on ...
There is the Adult Education Act that gives a framework for validation practices for the target group of those who have not completed education on upper secondary school level.
Multiple
Legal frameworks are active at Regional level (where the validation system is formally defined) and in sectoral employers’ associations
No framework
No information
Link to others
The legal framework for validation in the VET sector was already in place prior to 2010’
Multiple
Legal basis for validation includes: - 2008 law on VET completed by Règlement grand-ducal of 11 January 2010 - law of 19 June 2009, law creating t...
Legal basis for validation includes: - 2008 law on VET completed by Règlement grand-ducal of 11 January 2010 - law of 19 June 2009, law creating the University of Luxembourg (2003)
No framework
The National Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning has indeed been developed, its tertiary levels and descriptors are defined in accordanc...
The National Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning has indeed been developed, its tertiary levels and descriptors are defined in accordance with European Qualification Framework.
Single
The national framework for validation has been formalised through a Legal Notice implemented as part of a series of amendments to the Education Act...
The national framework for validation has been formalised through a Legal Notice implemented as part of a series of amendments to the Education Act , which came into force in 2012.The legal regulations provide a framework for validation and for the granting of awards within the Malta Qualifications Framework (MQF). Legal Notice 296/2012, Government of Malta, (2012), Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning Regulations, 2012, L.N. 295 of 2012, EDUCATION ACT (CAP. 327) 2012. http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lp&itemid=23720&l=1
Multiple
Validation is embedded as a form of examination or access-instrument in laws for VET and HE. The institutions for VET and HE are autonomous in the ...
Validation is embedded as a form of examination or access-instrument in laws for VET and HE. The institutions for VET and HE are autonomous in the way they accept VPL certificates
Multiple
Challenges identified at the time of writing included: the need for better coordination between different educational levels and their specific rul...
Challenges identified at the time of writing included: the need for better coordination between different educational levels and their specific rules and regulations (in particular between upper secondary and higher education), the need for cooperation between different sectors, such as between the labour market and the education system.
Link to others
The legal environment has been gradually adjusting to meet the demands in this respect and different aspects of non-formal education are regulated ...
The legal environment has been gradually adjusting to meet the demands in this respect and different aspects of non-formal education are regulated by separate legislation:- the Act of 27 June 2003 amending the Educational System Act; - Regulation of the Minister of National Education and Sport on accreditation of centres providing continuing education in out-of-school forms of 20 December 2003; - Regulation of the Minister of Education and Science of 3 February 2006 on arrangements for adults acquiring and broadening general knowledge, professional or vocational skills and qualifications in non-school settings; - the Act on Promotion of Employment and Institutions of the Labour Market of 20 April 2004; with subsequent amendments; - the Act on economic activity freedom of 2 July 2004; with subsequent amendments; and - the Labour Code of 26 June 1974, with subsequent amendments.
Link to others
Yes, there is a legal framework for the non-higher education area, linked to the national qualifications system. In the HE sector there is also a ...
Yes, there is a legal framework for the non-higher education area, linked to the national qualifications system. In the HE sector there is also a legal framework, leading institutions to develop their own practices
Link to others
In 2004, Law No. 559/2004 gave the National Council for Adult Training (CNFPA) the role of National Authority for Qualifications, with responsibili...
In 2004, Law No. 559/2004 gave the National Council for Adult Training (CNFPA) the role of National Authority for Qualifications, with responsibility for the coordination of the National Registry of Qualifications. The CNFPA also has the overall responsibility for validation of non-formal and informal learning at the national level for the authorisation of validation centres and for the certification of individual assessors of professional competences. The validation legal framework is not covering formal educational system and is only linked with full qualifications.
Multiple
The Bill on Adult Learning and the Future Development of Adult Education (Vuxnas lärande och utvecklingen av vuxenutbuldingen) (2000/2001:72) emph...
The Bill on Adult Learning and the Future Development of Adult Education (Vuxnas lärande och utvecklingen av vuxenutbuldingen) (2000/2001:72) emphasised the fact that any resident in Sweden should be able to have his or her knowledge and competences validated within the framework of municipal adult education, and this validation should be documented. In 2003, the Bill on Validation (Ds 2003:23) (Validering m.m. - fortsatt utveckling av vuxnas lärande) stated that more time should be given to pilot projects and to further discussion before deciding on regulations and passing acts. In December 2003, the Swedish government appointed the “Swedish National Commission on Validation” (Validerings-delegationen) for the period 2004-2007 to promote and further develop validation methods and enhance (regional) cooperation. In addition, the Education Act states that immigrants could be offered validation during their course Swedish for immigrants (Sfi), as one of many activities aimed at learning Swedish more efficiently. The municipality responsible for the Sfi course is required to cooperate with the Swedish Public Employment Service in determining and offering relevant activities to the Sfi-student.
Link to others
There is no covering legal framework for validation. Validation is included in individual acts and/or regulations for each sector separately. Legal...
There is no covering legal framework for validation. Validation is included in individual acts and/or regulations for each sector separately. Legal arrangements are better established in vocational education, there is some validation in the higher education act, while other education levels have no specific legal information on validation
Link to others
Framed by the law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.), adopted in December 2009
Single
The Vocational Qualifications Law No. 5544 frames the arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning
No framework
Not a ‘legal’ framework but ‘regulatory’ arrangements for the Qualifications and Credit Framework, which refer to the ‘Recognition of Pri...
Not a ‘legal’ framework but ‘regulatory’ arrangements for the Qualifications and Credit Framework, which refer to the ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL).
No framework
Aside from the guidelines, there are no formal regulations or requirements for the provision of RPL and thus implementation varies
2014
Multiple
There is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Nonetheless, in the educ...
There is no uniform legal framework to regulate validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Austria. Nonetheless, in the education and training system, different Acts and Regulations include mechanisms and arrangements that enable education and training institutions to recognise learning outcomes acquired in non-formal and informal settings.
Multiple
Flanders is currently working on an integrated approach towards recognition of acquired competences (RAC) including all sectors. (Exemptions are th...
Flanders is currently working on an integrated approach towards recognition of acquired competences (RAC) including all sectors. (Exemptions are the sports sector which is a participating partner but will still have its own validation policy; also the socio-cultural sector will not follow the integrated approach yet). At the moment there are still multiple frameworks covering the different sectors.
Multiple
Each of the four systems is governed by a specific legal framework. There is no plan to put a single framework in place
Multiple
There is no uniform legal framework encompassing all sectors. In relation to VET, Art.40 of the VET Act regulates the opportunities for validation ...
There is no uniform legal framework encompassing all sectors. In relation to VET, Art.40 of the VET Act regulates the opportunities for validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning. The draft Law for amendment and supplement of the VET Act includes texts on the validation of non-formal and informal learning. This is awaiting approval. The draft Law on Pre-school and School Education also includes some texts on validation in relation to non-formal and informal learning. Some aspects of validation, in terms of awarding credit units and access to higher education, are covered by the Higher Education Act. In relation to this requirement, it should be noted that Bulgarian universities have academic autonomy and are self-governing. Training providers implement these possibilities when organising in-house training for private sector clients
Multiple
A legal framework is in place for VET (Federal Vocational and Professional Education and Training Act, 2002; Federal Ordinance on Vocational and Pr...
A legal framework is in place for VET (Federal Vocational and Professional Education and Training Act, 2002; Federal Ordinance on Vocational and Professional Education and Training, 2003). Meanwhile there are plans (Message of Federal Council for the Promotion of education, research and innovation for 2013-2016, 2012; Federal law project about continuing education, 2003; Initiative aimed at fighting the shortage of qualified staff, 2011) to develop a comprehensive framework covering all types of learning,
No framework
Validation of non-formal and informal learning for vocational qualifications is realised by the HRDA through the System of Vocational Qualification...
Validation of non-formal and informal learning for vocational qualifications is realised by the HRDA through the System of Vocational Qualifications. The HRDA has run a study to improve the system focused specifically on validation of non-formal and informal learning that will again concern the attainment of a vocational qualification. A more comprehensive legal framework is expected to be developed through the work of the Committee working for the development of mechanisms for the validation on non-formal and informal learning until 2018.
Multiple
There is a legal framework for further education (CVET) The possibility to exempt students from formal studies is also embedded in the legal framew...
There is a legal framework for further education (CVET) The possibility to exempt students from formal studies is also embedded in the legal frameworks for school education and initial VET. No legal framework in higher education
Multiple
Frameworks cover VET, higher education, and the Vocational Qualifications Assessment Law, but there are not clear links. Developed as a comprehens...
Frameworks cover VET, higher education, and the Vocational Qualifications Assessment Law, but there are not clear links. Developed as a comprehensive framework, the NQF currently focuses on formal learning results but is to be extended to non-formal and informal learning results at a later stage.
Multiple
The key legislation on validation of prior learning in Denmark is Act no. 556 of 6 June 2007 . The legislation for VET (2003) includes a general p...
The key legislation on validation of prior learning in Denmark is Act no. 556 of 6 June 2007 . The legislation for VET (2003) includes a general principle of individual competence assessments as a basis for preparation of personal education plans for each individual. The personal education plan is based on an assessment of the trainees’ competences and outlines an individual pathway through the VET system. Since 2007, individuals can gain access to short-cycle and medium-cycle Higher Education (Bachelor-level degrees) based on an individual competence assessment.
Multiple
Validation is regulated by various Acts and standards related to the sector e.g. specific legislation relating to HE, VET, NQF. Validation in HE is...
Validation is regulated by various Acts and standards related to the sector e.g. specific legislation relating to HE, VET, NQF. Validation in HE is regulated by University Act and The Standard of Higher Education. Validation in VET is regulated in The Standard of Vocation Education and NQF is regulated in Professions Act
No framework
A comprehensive legal framework for the certification of ‘outputs’ is in the process of development (2013-2015). In terms of this single framew...
A comprehensive legal framework for the certification of ‘outputs’ is in the process of development (2013-2015). In terms of this single framework, EOPPEP will certify qualifications and will also include validation of non-formal and informal learning. A Presidential Decree is anticipated to define the criteria for the newly established certification and validation bodies
Multiple
Instead of having a single framework covering all types of learning, there are different laws that frame validation in Spain, targeting different e...
Instead of having a single framework covering all types of learning, there are different laws that frame validation in Spain, targeting different education sectors and with clear links between them. The following laws are the most relevant ones: Qualifications and Vocational Training Act of 2002, Employment Act from 2003, Education Act from 2006, Higher Education Act from 2007. The most recent one for validation is the Royal Decree 1224/2009 on the recognition of professional competences acquired through work experience, and the Royal Decree 861/2010 that affects university studies
Multiple
There are separate laws for each educational sector (University, university of applied sciences, vocational adult education and training, Vocationa...
There are separate laws for each educational sector (University, university of applied sciences, vocational adult education and training, Vocational education and training and general upper secondary training). Each sectoral piece of legislation recognizes VNIL procedures. There are no dead ends between sectors, but individuals are free to move from one sector to another despite how they have gained their qualifications.
Single
Law of 17 January 2002 (VAE)
No framework
The Croatian Qualification Framework (CROQF) Act (2013) sets the foundation for the establishment of the legal framework as the Ordinance on recogn...
The Croatian Qualification Framework (CROQF) Act (2013) sets the foundation for the establishment of the legal framework as the Ordinance on recognition and validation of non-formal and informal learning.
Link to others
The Act on HE changed in 2011 and 2012. The limitation on the credit available through validation of prior work experience was abolished. According...
The Act on HE changed in 2011 and 2012. The limitation on the credit available through validation of prior work experience was abolished. According to the new rule, at least one-third of the credits should be earned in the institution issuing the diploma (so two-thirds can be acquired in another way). The new Adult Education Act (2013) retained the previous scheme. Furthermore it made the assessment of prior learning an obligation in vocational education and language training but did nothing to eliminate the circumstances which make its application difficult or impossible in the case of state subsidised programmes.
Link to others
The Qualifications and Quality Assurance (Education and Training) Act of July 2012 established Quality and Qualifications Ireland (QQI). The 2012 Q...
The Qualifications and Quality Assurance (Education and Training) Act of July 2012 established Quality and Qualifications Ireland (QQI). The 2012 Qualifications and Quality Assurance Act is significant in so far that it is has revoked the Qualifications (Education and Training) Act 1999 and amends the Higher Education Authority Act 1971. The 2012 Act means that QQI will establish policies and criteria for access, transfer and progression (ATP), including credit and RPL.
Link to others
There is the Adult Education Act and a regulation that gives a framework for validation practices for the target group of those who have not comple...
There is the Adult Education Act and a regulation that gives a framework for validation practices for the target group of those who have not completed education at upper secondary school level.
Multiple
See Decree 13/13 above
No framework
But up to now the NQF of Liechtenstein for the Higher Educational System (NQFL-HS) is in place covering levels 6 to 8 of the EQF
Multiple
As mentioned above, sectoral policies are in place in the VET sector and HE sector. No specific sectoral strategies / polices are in place in rel...
As mentioned above, sectoral policies are in place in the VET sector and HE sector. No specific sectoral strategies / polices are in place in relation to validation in the labour market / employment No specific sectoral strategies / polices are in place in relation to validation in the third sector. Some discussions at the national level in Lithuania were initiated by the Symposium on Recognition of youth work and of non-formal learning, which was organised by the European Youth Forum taken place at the European Youth Centre in Strasbourg in November, 2011. However no credible solutions or initiatives taken by or involving youth organisations and voluntary organisations (except one – where a national project among other activities aimed to develop and implement a competence assessment mechanism for youth workers including those working in the third sector) have been taken so far in the last three years
Multiple
Legal basis for validation includes: - 2008 law on VET completed by Règlement grand-ducal of 11 January 2010 - law of 19 June 2009, law creating t...
Legal basis for validation includes: - 2008 law on VET completed by Règlement grand-ducal of 11 January 2010 - law of 19 June 2009, law creating the University of Luxembourg (2003)
Multiple
A legal framework for the processes of validation exists in the education sector which is based on Cabinet regulations. This framework regulates th...
A legal framework for the processes of validation exists in the education sector which is based on Cabinet regulations. This framework regulates the possibilities to use the recognition of prior learning for obtaining formal qualifications or to provide credits for formal education programmes. Within the context of the labour market, especially in the private sector. validation may lead to de facto recognition of skills and entry into employment on the basis of informal/ non-formal learning. The above can be applied also within non-regulated professions. The extent to which these validation processes are transparent is questionable. In Latvia the national qualifications framework or qualifications system are based on learning outcomes and are linked to arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning and, where these exist, to credit point systems.
Single
The national framework for validation has been formalised through a Legal Notice implemented as part of a series of amendments to the Education Act...
The national framework for validation has been formalised through a Legal Notice implemented as part of a series of amendments to the Education Act , which came into force in 2012.The legal regulations provide a framework for validation and for the granting of awards within the Malta Qualifications Framework (MQF).
Multiple
Validation is embedded as a form of examination or access instrument in laws for VET and HE. The institutions for VET and HE are autonomous in the ...
Validation is embedded as a form of examination or access instrument in laws for VET and HE. The institutions for VET and HE are autonomous in the way they accept VPL certificates. In some sectors VPL is also regulated as an examination-tool: such as in the financial sector for sector-certificates.
Multiple
Legal frameworks in place for all levels and types of education and training. Guidelines are developed for validation in lower and upper secondary...
Legal frameworks in place for all levels and types of education and training. Guidelines are developed for validation in lower and upper secondary education. A guide for validation was made in 2013 for access to post-secondary non-university vocational and for recognition of parts of higher education. Particularly the labour market is less legally regulated in this regard, for reasons of social partner autonomy.
Multiple
There are two main validation frameworks in place covering vocational education and training in general and another one for the craft system.. For ...
There are two main validation frameworks in place covering vocational education and training in general and another one for the craft system.. For example, vocational qualification or learning outcomes acquired in vocational school can be used to move on to a crafts examination, and vice versa. According to the project on the amendment of Higher Education Act the general rules of recognition of prior learning are going to be introduced in the higher education system.
Link to others
There is a legal framework in the non-higher education sector that provides the framework for validation. It has been implemented since January 201...
There is a legal framework in the non-higher education sector that provides the framework for validation. It has been implemented since January 2014. In the HE sector there is also a legal framework, enabling institutions to develop their own validation practices
Link to others
Currently, only qualification related validation is in place. A set of specific methodologies on validation of different forms of learning were dra...
Currently, only qualification related validation is in place. A set of specific methodologies on validation of different forms of learning were drafted, but not all of them were in place at the end of 2013. There is no clear link between the approaches of different initiatives
Multiple
The Education Act (Skollagen, 2010:800) states the intention to undertake validation in all types of adult education, including Swedish for immigra...
The Education Act (Skollagen, 2010:800) states the intention to undertake validation in all types of adult education, including Swedish for immigrants (Sfi). The definition states ”Validation is a process which involves a structured assessment, evaluation, documentation and recognition of knowledge and competences possessed by a person independently of how it is acquired”. The possibility for validation is regulated in the Ordinance for Adult Education (SFS 2011:1108). The Swedish National Agency for Education is responsible for promoting validation within adult education. The publication ‘Validation within adult education 2013’ was published by the Swedish National Agency for Education to support adult education providers with their responsibilities to perform validation. Validation is not regulated at other levels of formal education, but it is seen as a useful tool for admission to and credit transfer within higher education.
Multiple
Strong initiatives are in place to unify or at least transparently link the different sectors. At the moment, links exist within formal education a...
Strong initiatives are in place to unify or at least transparently link the different sectors. At the moment, links exist within formal education and the labour market. The links between voluntary sector and formal education, voluntary sector and the labour market, non-formal education and labour market depend on each subject in question (employer, school).
Link to others
Framed by the law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.), adopted in December 2009. However, this legislation does not cover general education nor hi...
Framed by the law on Lifelong learning (568/2009 Z.z.), adopted in December 2009. However, this legislation does not cover general education nor higher education. the focus is on professional qualifications
Single
The Vocational Qualifications Law No. 5544 frames the arrangements for validation of non-formal and informal learning
No framework
There is no ‘legal’ framework. There are ‘regulatory’ arrangements for the QCF, which refer to the ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL...
There is no ‘legal’ framework. There are ‘regulatory’ arrangements for the QCF, which refer to the ‘Recognition of Prior Learning’ (RPL) and there is a Quality Code for HE, which also refers to RPL.
No framework
Aside from the SCQF guidelines, there are no formal regulations or requirements for the provision of RPL and thus implementation varies. There is a...
Aside from the SCQF guidelines, there are no formal regulations or requirements for the provision of RPL and thus implementation varies. There is also now a UK-wide Quality Code for HE, which refers to RPL.
No framework
There is no specific legislation relating to validation, or legal right to validation

The recommendation pays particular attention to the role of guidance and counselling in taking forward validation. Member States should ensure within validation arrangements information and guidance on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures, are available to individuals and organisations’ and ‘the validation of non-formal and informal learning is supported by appropriate guidance and counselling and is readily accessible’ (Council of EU, 2012, p. 3, points 3b and 3e).

Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
no info
Information and guidance to individual candidates is only provided in certain cases (usually by the institution offering the validation measure, su...
Information and guidance to individual candidates is only provided in certain cases (usually by the institution offering the validation measure, such as adult education providers) and only in some cases is it publicly financed (e.g. as part of career guidance)
yes, for certain aspects
Publicly financed for labour market sector and private provision for higher education sector
Yes
Some level of guidance provided by validation centres (CVET) which are publicly funded for implementing validation. Focus on assessing candidates...
Some level of guidance provided by validation centres (CVET) which are publicly funded for implementing validation. Focus on assessing candidates’ chances of success for validating the chosen Units (prior to registering for validation session), rather than strictly speaking professional, career or education guidance. Guidance provided in universities by VAE counsellors (focusing on identifying and documenting competences) but still in development
no info
Validation arrangements generally include provision for information and guidance to candidates. Information regarding sources of funding, aspects a...
Validation arrangements generally include provision for information and guidance to candidates. Information regarding sources of funding, aspects and stages of the validation process is not provided in 2010 Inventory
No publicly financed
Higher education institutions inform individuals on their validation procedures. An EU-funded project, “Diaplus”, in which Cyprus participated ...
Higher education institutions inform individuals on their validation procedures. An EU-funded project, “Diaplus”, in which Cyprus participated also focused on information and guidance provision in the information and communications technology sector
No publicly financed
This was one of the shortcomings underlined in the 2010 inventory
yes, for certain aspects
Concerning approaches provided by the Federal Government or the Länder. Concerning different bottom-up-approaches with mainly public funding
Yes
No information
Yes
Guidance is provided in all HEIs for prospective applicants. To some extent, guidance is provided in VET institutions. For occupational standards e...
Guidance is provided in all HEIs for prospective applicants. To some extent, guidance is provided in VET institutions. For occupational standards each awarding body organises the process of assessment and may include guidance as the first step
Yes
Information has been provided in the form of campaigns, regarding Greek language certificate for immigrants and ICT and language competences for th...
Information has been provided in the form of campaigns, regarding Greek language certificate for immigrants and ICT and language competences for the public
Yes
Yes, Information, advice and guidance on validation of professional competences is provided by the education and employment administrations (at nat...
Yes, Information, advice and guidance on validation of professional competences is provided by the education and employment administrations (at national and AC level), local governments, social partners, Chambers of Commerce, and other authorised institutions. A web platform was to be designed during the first year of the application to provide information and advice to individuals
Yes
Guidance is the right of the individual in the validation process in CBQs (VET). In HEIs guidance procedures in validation are being developed in a...
Guidance is the right of the individual in the validation process in CBQs (VET). In HEIs guidance procedures in validation are being developed in a national development project (University of Turku)
Yes
Initial information and guidance is always provided free of charge to candidates as VAE is an individual right. However, some intensive guidance me...
Initial information and guidance is always provided free of charge to candidates as VAE is an individual right. However, some intensive guidance measures during the second phase of the procedure can be charged to candidates). Guidance services are generally provided free of charge to jobseekers. Different forms of financial support are available (depending on the awarding authority, status of the candidate, etc.)
No publicly financed
The information and guidance is available for the existing validation practice in some sectors. It is, however, not available yet on national level...
The information and guidance is available for the existing validation practice in some sectors. It is, however, not available yet on national level as part of the national validation system
No publicly financed
Institutional level pilots in higher education provide preliminary information and guidance during the process. In these cases, the guidance servic...
Institutional level pilots in higher education provide preliminary information and guidance during the process. In these cases, the guidance service is based on the voluntary activity of teachers and/or some administrative staff
Yes
General view that the information and guidance available is very disparate and there is a significant gap in the level of advice and guidance avail...
General view that the information and guidance available is very disparate and there is a significant gap in the level of advice and guidance available to the learner. Guidance in terms of both quality and quantity is improving but as the base was very low there is still much to be done.
Yes
Information and guidance are embedded in the defined validation process (regulation). The LLL centres managing validation projects have career coun...
Information and guidance are embedded in the defined validation process (regulation). The LLL centres managing validation projects have career counsellors available and trained for validation through contracts with the ETSC. The majority of counsellors have a diploma or a master´s degree in Educational and Vocational Counselling
Yes
Information and guidance is envisaged namely in the earlier steps of the process at regional level. Information and guidance also necessary to ensu...
Information and guidance is envisaged namely in the earlier steps of the process at regional level. Information and guidance also necessary to ensure the real need and awareness of the individual and avoid waste of time and resources in providing services not really necessary
Yes
Information and guidance are provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures
No publicly financed
Information and guidance within the two HE initiatives were provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the releva...
Information and guidance within the two HE initiatives were provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures
Yes
Guidance is provided by different agencies (Ministry of Education, education and training institutions, University of Luxembourg, and Luxembourg Li...
Guidance is provided by different agencies (Ministry of Education, education and training institutions, University of Luxembourg, and Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre). Different types of guidance are provided: - General guidance (provided by all stakeholders having a basic knowledge of VAE) - Support to candidates during the elaboration of their application - Advice concerning the possibility of applying for partial validation
Yes
Individual information and guidance is aimed to be provided (as stipulated by the legislative acts) by the educational institutions conducting the ...
Individual information and guidance is aimed to be provided (as stipulated by the legislative acts) by the educational institutions conducting the validation process. The public educational institutions will allocate public funding for ensuring the function. However, there is no stand-alone and targeted public funding foreseen for the implementation of this function. In the HE sector the degree of public funding that could be earmarked for ensuring this function depends thus on the degree of availability of public funding (consider for example private HEIs). There are several public institutions (e.g. State Employment Agency) that are involved in providing information, advice and guidance, but basically they do so as part of their everyday activities and responsibilities
Yes
Whilst the national system of validation is being developed, the childcare sector already has a system of validation up and running. As part of thi...
Whilst the national system of validation is being developed, the childcare sector already has a system of validation up and running. As part of this, the Employment Training Centre (ETC) has main responsibility for providing information and guidance to candidates throughout the process
Yes
EVC-providers (about 115) have this as their responsibility.
Yes
Provision of guidance varies. In the education and training sector, the responsibility for information and guidance is held at directorate and coun...
Provision of guidance varies. In the education and training sector, the responsibility for information and guidance is held at directorate and county levels in upper secondary education and training, and at institutional level in higher education. The Norwegian Labour and Welfare Service (NAV) is responsible for information and guidance in their labour market institutions but they are dependent on input from the education sector in relation to educational matters
no info
Information about the process of validation of non-formal and informal learning at the current stage is scarce and the discussion on the issue rema...
Information about the process of validation of non-formal and informal learning at the current stage is scarce and the discussion on the issue remains limited to a narrow group of specialists and educators. It is still a new element in the Polish educational reality that will require wide dissemination. In validation related projects the validation process is preceded by instructions on the procedure, the conditions of recruitment, location and time of a course, and the principles of successful completion. The organiser of the validation process provides also relevant information and instructions related to the exam
yes, for certain aspects
Information and guidance are stages of the validation system; they are publicly financed and available in CNO. Universities and Polytechnics that o...
Information and guidance are stages of the validation system; they are publicly financed and available in CNO. Universities and Polytechnics that offer validation practices to their students have information and guidance stages in this process
No publicly financed
Pre-service guidance tends to be provided only by the evaluators who work for validation centres
Yes
Individuals are normally informed about validation through student or work counsellors in municipalities (adult education at upper secondary level)...
Individuals are normally informed about validation through student or work counsellors in municipalities (adult education at upper secondary level) and the national employment service. The national Agency is also about to develop an online tool on http://www.valideringsinfo.se where individuals can be guided to different actors and answers depending on their current situation and the reason why validation might be of interest to them
Yes
Again, VET level is more organised and provides better information and guidance, prevalently on the internet, but seminars are also organised and l...
Again, VET level is more organised and provides better information and guidance, prevalently on the internet, but seminars are also organised and leaflets printed and distributed. For the higher education level, each institution is responsible for informing regarding their specific processes on validation. Labour market and third sector are not particularly active in informing about validation
No publicly financed
Guidance infrastructure is in general a weak point of Slovak lifelong learning policies and its improvement is one of the aspects of the Slovak lif...
Guidance infrastructure is in general a weak point of Slovak lifelong learning policies and its improvement is one of the aspects of the Slovak lifelong learning strategy. There is, for the moment, no national and systematic structure of educational guidance aimed at adults. Consequently it remains unclear what the role of guidance institutions in the process of recognition of NFIL will be
Yes
No information
Yes
Insufficient evidence to assess this indicator –indicator selected based on author’s own assessment. IAG is available at the level of the lear...
Insufficient evidence to assess this indicator –indicator selected based on author’s own assessment. IAG is available at the level of the learning provider but is not necessarily specifically dedicated to validation / or is not specifically dedicated IAG (e.g. in a HE institution, guidance on an APL application may be given by a member of academic staff rather than by an IAG member of staff).
Yes
Skills Development Scotland (SDS) provides career information, advice and guidance services and works closely with the SCQF Partnership in the impl...
Skills Development Scotland (SDS) provides career information, advice and guidance services and works closely with the SCQF Partnership in the implementation of RPL and the SCQF in Scotland. Apart from the role of Skills Development Scotland, responsibility for information, advice and guidance is devolved to the learning providers and provision therefore varies.
2014
yes, for certain aspects
Information and guidance to individual candidates is only provided in certain cases (usually by the institution offering the validation measure, su...
Information and guidance to individual candidates is only provided in certain cases (usually by the institution offering the validation measure, such as adult education providers) and only in some cases is it publicly financed (e.g. as part of career guidance).
yes, for certain aspects
Publicly financed information and guidance for labour market sector; and private provision equivalent for higher education sector
Yes
Yes, important, recent initiative: 2013 Year of Competences. Generally, commitment of public authorities on the issue
Yes
The stages are identification, documentation and assessment. There is no integrated national system for validation of non-formal and informal lear...
The stages are identification, documentation and assessment. There is no integrated national system for validation of non-formal and informal learning, and therefore statements refer to validation arrangements implemented within specific projects. In relation to the project, ‘System for validation of non-formal acquired knowledge, skills and competences’, validation arrangements include provision of information and guidance at all stages of the validation process and this is publically financed
yes, for certain aspects
It is necessary to distinguish between individual information to access validation (free in all sectors) and the guidance during the procedure for ...
It is necessary to distinguish between individual information to access validation (free in all sectors) and the guidance during the procedure for the production of the required documents or portfolios. In HE the guidance is charged to the user, and in the Upper Secondary Level of VET it is usually free for those who want to achieve a first qualification
Yes
Provision of guidance to individuals is given within the current System of Vocational Qualifications of the HRDA. During the diagnosis stage (ident...
Provision of guidance to individuals is given within the current System of Vocational Qualifications of the HRDA. During the diagnosis stage (identification), candidates discuss with the internal examiner their goals and knowledge-skills-competence (as identified in their self-assessment). However, this is not a structured guidance process. This weakness has been highlighted by HRDA and so the proposed new route of validation of non-formal and informal learning for vocational qualification includes a structured provision of guidance
Yes
Jobseekers can be guided to VNFIL as part of the advice given by public employment services but the extent to which this actually takes place remai...
Jobseekers can be guided to VNFIL as part of the advice given by public employment services but the extent to which this actually takes place remains unclear
yes, for certain aspects
Concerning approaches provided by the Federal Government or the Länder. Concerning different bottom-up-approaches with primarily public funding
Yes
No information
Yes
Guidance is provided in all HEI for prospective applicants. Guidance is provided in VET institutions. For occupational standards each awarding body...
Guidance is provided in all HEI for prospective applicants. Guidance is provided in VET institutions. For occupational standards each awarding body organises the process of assessment and may include guidance as the first step
Yes
Information on the certification offered by EOPPEP can be found in the organisation’s website. The authority and responsibility for provision of ...
Information on the certification offered by EOPPEP can be found in the organisation’s website. The authority and responsibility for provision of information falls into the Guidance and Counselling Division of EOPPEP, which holds specific responsibilities and implements various initiatives towards this aim
Yes
Yes, Information, advice and guidance on validation of professional competences is provided by the education and employment administrations (at nat...
Yes, Information, advice and guidance on validation of professional competences is provided by the education and employment administrations (at national and Autonomous Community level), local governments, social partners, chambers of commerce, and other authorised institutions. For example the web platform TodoFP portal- was designed to provide information and advice to individuals. Information is also provided in the website of the National Public Employment Service (SEPE, Ministry of Employment) ACREDITA is the tool that the Ministry of Education offers individuals to see if they can apply for the accreditation of competencies and to explain them the process http://www.todofp.es/acreditacion/ServletEligeIt?opcion=1 https://sede.sepe.gob.es/portalSedeEstaticos/flows/gestorContenidos?page=recexIndex
Yes
Guidance is the right of the individual in the validation process in CBQs (VET) and IVET. In HEIs guidance procedure also cover the entire procedur...
Guidance is the right of the individual in the validation process in CBQs (VET) and IVET. In HEIs guidance procedure also cover the entire procedure where validation practices are in place
yes, for certain aspects
Initial information and guidance is always provided free of charge to candidates as VAE is an individual right. However, the counselling which is p...
Initial information and guidance is always provided free of charge to candidates as VAE is an individual right. However, the counselling which is proposed during the second phase of the procedure (filling up the portfolio) is charged to candidates. Different forms of financial support are available (depending on the awarding authority, status of the candidate, etc.)
no info
The information and guidance is available for the existing validation practice in some sectors. Information and guidance to candidates are forese...
The information and guidance is available for the existing validation practice in some sectors. Information and guidance to candidates are foreseen as an important part of the Ordinance on recognition and validation of non-formal and informal learning N/a for validation on national level as the system is not yet implemented
No publicly financed
Institution level pilots in higher education provide preliminary information and guidance service during the process. In these cases, the guidance ...
Institution level pilots in higher education provide preliminary information and guidance service during the process. In these cases, the guidance service is based on the voluntary activity of teachers and/or some administrative staff
Yes
General view that the information and guidance available is very disparate and there is a significant gap in the level of advice and guidance avail...
General view that the information and guidance available is very disparate and there is a significant gap in the level of advice and guidance available to the learner. Owing to structural reform learners may engage directly with the education and social protection services and awareness of available RPL varies significantly. Guidance in terms of both quality and quantity is improving, but the base relating to RPL is low. A significant requirement is the agreement of a common language around RPL which would be helpful for learners.
Yes
Information and guidance are embedded in the defined validation process (regulation). The LLL centres managing validation projects have career coun...
Information and guidance are embedded in the defined validation process (regulation). The LLL centres managing validation projects have career counsellors available and trained for validation through contracts with the ETSC. The majority of counsellors have a diploma or a master´s degree in Educational and Vocational Counselling
Yes
Information and guidance is envisaged namely in the earlier steps of the process both at a national and regional level
Yes
Information and guidance are provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures
No publicly financed
Available validation arrangements generally include provision for information and guidance to candidates on an individual basis. Information and g...
Available validation arrangements generally include provision for information and guidance to candidates on an individual basis. Information and guidance is usually provided on the relevant validation procedures and less on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation
Yes
Guidance is provided by different agencies (Ministry of Education, education and training institutions, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg Lifelo...
Guidance is provided by different agencies (Ministry of Education, education and training institutions, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre). - Different types of guidance are provided: - General guidance (provided by all stakeholders having a basic knowledge of VAE and the qualification system) - Support to candidates during the elaboration of their application - Advice concerning the possibility of applying for partial validation
Yes
Individual information and guidance is provided (as stipulated by legislative acts) by the educational institutions conducting the validation proce...
Individual information and guidance is provided (as stipulated by legislative acts) by the educational institutions conducting the validation process. The public educational institutions thus allocate public funding for supporting this function. However there is no stand-alone and targeted public funding foreseen for the implementation of this function. In the HE sector the degree of public funding that could be earmarked for ensuring this function depends thus on the degree of availability of public funding (private HEIs). There are several public institutions (e.g. State Employment Agency) that are involved in providing information, advice and guidance, but basically they do so as part of their everyday activities and responsibilities
Yes
Whilst the national system of validation is being developed, the childcare sector already has a system of validation up and running. As part of thi...
Whilst the national system of validation is being developed, the childcare sector already has a system of validation up and running. As part of this, the Employment Training Centre (ETC) has main responsibility for providing information and guidance to candidates throughout the process
Yes
EVC-providers generally have the obligation to offer good information and advice on why, how and when to enter a validation-procedure. This obligat...
EVC-providers generally have the obligation to offer good information and advice on why, how and when to enter a validation-procedure. This obligation is stipulated in the code.
Yes
Information and guidance is the first of the four stages of validation in Norway. For example, the guidelines on validation relating to upper secon...
Information and guidance is the first of the four stages of validation in Norway. For example, the guidelines on validation relating to upper secondary education state that: The guidance stage starts when the applicant contacts the county administration. Through guidance, it becomes clear whether the purpose of the validation is to be enrolled in upper secondary education, or undergo validation in order to prove competence (knowledge and skills) in individual subjects at upper secondary level
Yes
No information
no info
None of these situations is adjusted. The financing of CQEP activity is global. Centres give information and guidance to individuals -which is a s...
None of these situations is adjusted. The financing of CQEP activity is global. Centres give information and guidance to individuals -which is a stage before the RVCC process - and these activities are supported by the funding of the centre
No publicly financed
Information and guidance should be provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures. This que...
Information and guidance should be provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures. This question excludes information campaigns about validation for the general public. The focus is on advice and guidance to individuals
Yes
Information and guidance should be provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures. Advice an...
Information and guidance should be provided on the benefits of, and opportunities for validation, as well as on the relevant procedures. Advice and guidance for candidates is available at: http://valideringsinfo.se and http://kolverket.se The public authorities, such as public employment service and education institutions etc. with responsibility for validation provide advice and guidance for individual candidates
Yes
No information
No publicly financed
A network providing information, advice and guidance is just in process of development
Yes
Information and guidance is provided on the benefits of, opportunities for validation and on the procedures before, during and after validation
Yes
IAG is available at the level of the learning provider but is not necessarily specifically dedicated to validation / or is not specifically dedicat...
IAG is available at the level of the learning provider but is not necessarily specifically dedicated to validation / or is not specifically dedicated IAG (e.g. in a HE institution, guidance on an APL application may be given by a member of academic staff rather than by an IAG member of staff).
Yes
Information on RPL is provided on the SCQF website. Apart from this, responsibility for information, advice and guidance is devolved to the learnin...
Information on RPL is provided on the SCQF website. Apart from this, responsibility for information, advice and guidance is devolved to the learning providers and provision therefore varies.
Yes
As in England and Northern Ireland, IAG is available at the level of the learning provider but is not necessarily specifically dedicated to validat...
As in England and Northern Ireland, IAG is available at the level of the learning provider but is not necessarily specifically dedicated to validation / or is not specifically dedicated IAG (e.g. in a HE institution, guidance on an APL application may be given by a member of academic staff rather than by an IAG member of staff) Not applicable to QALL process of recognising non-formal learning in CQFW units.
Year Austria Belgium-DE Belgium-FR Bulgaria Switzerland Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Croatia Hungary Ireland Iceland Italy Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia Turkey United Kingdom / England and Northern Ireland United Kingdom / Scotland United Kingdom / Wales
2010
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Ministries and the social partner organisations are the main actors in raising awareness on validation but the other actors listed also have an act...
Ministries and the social partner organisations are the main actors in raising awareness on validation but the other actors listed also have an active role
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
All actors are involved and an expertise network for EVC providers (around 200) was launched in 2009 which includes an official EVC website (see: w...
All actors are involved and an expertise network for EVC providers (around 200) was launched in 2009 which includes an official EVC website (see: www.vlaanderen.be/evc) and which is directed by a ‘promotoren’ (supervisors) team supported by AKOV
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The educational institutions and particularly the Centres for Information and Professional Orientation (licensed by NAVET) play a main role in supp...
The educational institutions and particularly the Centres for Information and Professional Orientation (licensed by NAVET) play a main role in supporting school and university students in choosing a future career or direction for an initial or further qualification
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No raising awareness activities have been found
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Trade unions may have a role but it is less apparent Youth stakeholders and volunteering stakeholders – this concerns in particular competence p...
Trade unions may have a role but it is less apparent Youth stakeholders and volunteering stakeholders – this concerns in particular competence profiles in non-formal education
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
All mentioned stakeholders assume an active role
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The most active role was taken by Foundation Archimedes, which was the coordinator of the ESF programme Primus. The Ministry of Education and Resea...
The most active role was taken by Foundation Archimedes, which was the coordinator of the ESF programme Primus. The Ministry of Education and Research have been leading the programmes TULE and KUTSE for HE and VET drop-outs to return to their studies, validating their non-formal and informal experience
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The General Secretariat for LLL, and OEEK provide guidance and support on validation of ICT and languages
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Education and employment administrations (at national and Autonomous Communities level), local governments, social partners, Chambers of Commerce, ...
Education and employment administrations (at national and Autonomous Communities level), local governments, social partners, Chambers of Commerce, the evaluation centres (e.g. National Centres of Reference).
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
This is a shared responsibility. Other stakeholders involved are regional authorities and sectoral training funds financed by employers’ contribu...
This is a shared responsibility. Other stakeholders involved are regional authorities and sectoral training funds financed by employers’ contributions and in charge of offering continuous vocational training
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Awareness raising is part of the development project on validation. In addition there are LLL programme related organisations engaged in awareness ...
Awareness raising is part of the development project on validation. In addition there are LLL programme related organisations engaged in awareness raising on validation as part of awareness raising on LLL (on their web site, work-shops and publications on the issue)
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The ETSC distributes information to stakeholders in validation projects being initiated. LLL centres provide information also to stakeholders and i...
The ETSC distributes information to stakeholders in validation projects being initiated. LLL centres provide information also to stakeholders and individuals in the target group. Trade unions and employer organisations also take part in spreading information about the concept and its possibilities
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Regions and Trade Unions have been the most active promoters of the validation perspective
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Central government: Liechtenstein Office for Vocational Education and Vocational Counselling (ABB)/Education Ministry (Schulamt) Volunteering stake...
Central government: Liechtenstein Office for Vocational Education and Vocational Counselling (ABB)/Education Ministry (Schulamt) Volunteering stakeholders: Foundation Adult Education Liechtenstein
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
This is a joint responsibility of stakeholders. Other stakeholders involved are - Luxembourg Lifelong Learning - Centre/Chambre des salaries as we...
This is a joint responsibility of stakeholders. Other stakeholders involved are - Luxembourg Lifelong Learning - Centre/Chambre des salaries as well as the Chamber of commerce
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
For example Ministry of Education and Science, State Service of Education Quality (mainly VE), State Employment Agency, Academic Information Centre...
For example Ministry of Education and Science, State Service of Education Quality (mainly VE), State Employment Agency, Academic Information Centre, all involved educational institutions
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The development of the validation system is led by the NCFHE, however all partners and stakeholders play (and in the future will play) an active ro...
The development of the validation system is led by the NCFHE, however all partners and stakeholders play (and in the future will play) an active role in raising awareness of this. Currently, with the validation system established for the childcare sector, the main source of information and advice is from the ETC, as lead delivery partner for the validation activity (until the establishing of the relevant Sector Skills Units)
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Responsibility for information provision is held at directorate and county levels in upper secondary education and training, and at institutional l...
Responsibility for information provision is held at directorate and county levels in upper secondary education and training, and at institutional level for HE. NAV is responsible for information and guidance in its labour market institutions. The Ministry of Education and Research and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation also provide information about validation on their websites. Many other stakeholders also provide web-based information, including the county authorities and higher education institutions
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
At a project level, the validation process usually addresses a specific group of people with experience in certain areas (e.g. in baking, in gas in...
At a project level, the validation process usually addresses a specific group of people with experience in certain areas (e.g. in baking, in gas installation, etc.) and the recruitment process is supported by promotion in the press, radio and television. Yet, direct contacts with potential ‘possessors’ of specific skills identified by the training institutions operating in the regions are considered as the most important means of raising awareness and recruitment. Hence, long-term functioning of a training company in a local or regional labour market is the most effective form of recruitment or promotion of validation
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
In the framework of the New Opportunities Initiative, not only does the government have an active role in raising awareness but also other types of...
In the framework of the New Opportunities Initiative, not only does the government have an active role in raising awareness but also other types of institutions are involved. In HE only HEIs assume an active role
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
There is still a lack of active promotion and dissemination of information regarding validation of non-formal and informal learning in Romania. The...
There is still a lack of active promotion and dissemination of information regarding validation of non-formal and informal learning in Romania. The recruitment and promotion is generally carried out by validation centres themselves through various means (leaflets, brochures, etc.). CNFPA has also been involved in raising awareness about validation and its benefits through its website and published brochures
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The Swedish National Agency for Higher Education has the main role in raising awareness on validation
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Given the very early stages of development of this approach no large scale awareness raising or information campaigns have been carried out
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Guidance published by Ofqual / QAA; Learning and Skills Council gave information to providers on RARPA; specialist advice and guidance on RPL to in...
Guidance published by Ofqual / QAA; Learning and Skills Council gave information to providers on RARPA; specialist advice and guidance on RPL to individuals mainly given by learning providers, other initiatives (e.g. third sector, private sector) are responsible for their own advice and guidance. Existing IAG providers may direct learners to NVQs.
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Guidance on RPL (most notably in the form of the SCQF handbook and an ‘RPL toolkit’) has been in place since 2005, which can be applied across ...
Guidance on RPL (most notably in the form of the SCQF handbook and an ‘RPL toolkit’) has been in place since 2005, which can be applied across all education and training sectors, including higher education . See notes for indicator 14
2014
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Ministries and the social partner organisations are the main actors in raising awareness on validation but the other actors listed also have an act...
Ministries and the social partner organisations are the main actors in raising awareness on validation but the other actors listed also have an active role.
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
All actors involved and an expertise network for EVC providers (around 200) was launched in 2009 which includes an official EVC website (see: www.v...
All actors involved and an expertise network for EVC providers (around 200) was launched in 2009 which includes an official EVC website (see: www.vlaanderen.be/evc) and which is directed by a ‘promotoren’ (supervisors) team supported by AKOV
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
At this stage of development, educational and training institutions, as well as youth information and counselling centres, assume the most active r...
At this stage of development, educational and training institutions, as well as youth information and counselling centres, assume the most active role in raising awareness
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Every organisation is responsible for raising awareness, but in general, level of sensitisation and information is low
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
HRDA promotes its System of Vocational Qualifications through advertisements in the media. Awareness-raising events for companies have also taken p...
HRDA promotes its System of Vocational Qualifications through advertisements in the media. Awareness-raising events for companies have also taken place at local level, where CEOs and sectoral representatives are invited by the HRDA. The Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry participates in an annual education fair, run by the Ministry of Education, to raise awareness on the ICT certificate it offers to any individual, irrespectively of the learning path taken. The Chamber also promotes awareness through its members (companies)
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Trade unions may have a role but it is less apparent Youth stakeholders and volunteering stakeholders – this concerns in particular competence p...
Trade unions may have a role but it is less apparent Youth stakeholders and volunteering stakeholders – this concerns in particular competence profiles in non-formal education
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
All mentioned stakeholders assume an active role
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The most active role was taken by Foundation Archimedes, which was the coordinator of the ESF programme Primus. As the programme is ending this yea...
The most active role was taken by Foundation Archimedes, which was the coordinator of the ESF programme Primus. As the programme is ending this year the responsibility for raising awareness goes to institutions themselves. Importantly, the Estonian RPL Association sees awareness building as one of their main goals. Foundation INNOVE is responsible for raising awareness and leading a RPL – specialists network RPL at VET institutions. Ministry of Education and Research have been leading programmes TULE and KUTSE for HE and VET drop-outs to return to the studies, validating their non-formal and informal experience
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No relevant activities found
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Education and employment administrations (at national and Autonomous Community level), local governments, social partners, Chambers of Commerce, th...
Education and employment administrations (at national and Autonomous Community level), local governments, social partners, Chambers of Commerce, the evaluation centres. In 2011, there were governmental campaigns at national level to raise awareness on the assessment and accreditation of professional competences acquired through work experience. At regional level, once the calls are set up there are usually campaigns too
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
All have their own roles and are active to the extent they find necessary. Main principles are in national legislation
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
This is a shared responsibility. All the actors listed play an active role in raising awareness. Other stakeholders involved are regional authoriti...
This is a shared responsibility. All the actors listed play an active role in raising awareness. Other stakeholders involved are regional authorities and sectoral training funds financed by employers’ contributions and in charge of offering continuous vocational training
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Includes EQF NCP
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The awareness raising is part of the development project on validation. Besides there are LLL programme related organisations engaged in awareness ...
The awareness raising is part of the development project on validation. Besides there are LLL programme related organisations engaged in awareness raising on validation as part of awareness raising on LLL (information on their web site, work-shops and publications on the issue)
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Generally speaking advice and guidance on RPL to individuals is mainly given by learning providers. Other initiatives (e.g. third sector, private s...
Generally speaking advice and guidance on RPL to individuals is mainly given by learning providers. Other initiatives (e.g. third sector, private sector) are responsible for their own advice and guidance. QQI, government departments, SOLAS (Department of Social Protection and Department of Education and Skills), funding authorities, HEA, SOLAS, and providers in higher and further education and training and within ETBs will potentially have a role to play in raising awareness on validation
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The ETSC distributes information to stakeholders in validation projects being initiated. LLL centres provide information also to stakeholders and i...
The ETSC distributes information to stakeholders in validation projects being initiated. LLL centres provide information also to stakeholders and individuals in the target group. Trade Unions and Employer organisations also take part in disseminating information about the concept and its possibilities
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Central government: Liechtenstein Office for Vocational Education and Vocational Counselling (ABB)/Education Ministry (Schulamt) Volunteering stake...
Central government: Liechtenstein Office for Vocational Education and Vocational Counselling (ABB)/Education Ministry (Schulamt) Volunteering stakeholders: Foundation Adult Education Liechtenstein
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
It is the author’s view that this is the weakest aspect of the validation initiatives that are available in Lithuania. In general the responsibil...
It is the author’s view that this is the weakest aspect of the validation initiatives that are available in Lithuania. In general the responsibility for raising awareness on validation is assigned to the institutions that offer such possibilities, but it does not really work in practice
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
This is a joint responsibility of stakeholders. Other stakeholders involved are Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre/Chambre des salaries as well as...
This is a joint responsibility of stakeholders. Other stakeholders involved are Luxembourg Lifelong Learning Centre/Chambre des salaries as well as the Chamber of commerce
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
The development of the validation system is led by the NCFHE, however all partners and stakeholders play (and in the future will play) an active ro...
The development of the validation system is led by the NCFHE, however all partners and stakeholders play (and in the future will play) an active role in raising awareness of this. Currently, within the validation system established for the childcare sector, the main source of information and advice is from the ETC, as lead delivery partner for the validation activity (until the establishing of the relevant Sector Skills Units)
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
EVC-providers generally have the obligation to offer good information and advice on why, how and when to enter a validation-procedure. This obligat...
EVC-providers generally have the obligation to offer good information and advice on why, how and when to enter a validation-procedure. This obligation is stipulated in the code.
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Various stakeholders have responsibility for promoting the opportunities, rights and benefits of validation at both local and national level. Vox, ...
Various stakeholders have responsibility for promoting the opportunities, rights and benefits of validation at both local and national level. Vox, the Norwegian Agency for Lifelong Learning, and the Directorate for Education and Training are active in this, along with the Ministry of Education and Research and the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Organisation that provide information about validation on their websites. For upper secondary education and training it is the responsibility of the county authorities to provide information on validation opportunities to the public. In HE Institutions, the staff providing guidance to validation candidates varies – it may be staff in charge of admission or teachers. As part of the follow-up of the 2005 White Paper Education Strategy, and to increase awareness, Vox received project funds from the Ministry of Education and Research to produce the validation guides mentioned above
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
No information
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
Since January 2014, central government and other public organisations are involved in the preparation of the new network centres. In higher educa...
Since January 2014, central government and other public organisations are involved in the preparation of the new network centres. In higher education, only HEIs assume an active role.
Central governmentOther government organisationsEducational InstitutionsEmployment servicesEmployersTrade UnionsYouth stakeholdersVolunteering stakeholdersNational Youth CouncilOther stakeholdersVPLno info
There is a lack of integrated approaches between the main institutions and networks responsible for counselling and guidance on one hand and the eq...
There is a lack of integrated approaches between the main institutions and networks responsible for counselling and guidance on one hand and the equivalent agen