The basis for a dual system was set in November 2012 together with further development of the training and apprenticeship contract in the legislation on labour market reform.
Its aim is to increase youth employment. The legislation aims to lay the groundwork for a progressive introduction of the dual principle in vocational education and training (VET) in Spain and to foster more collaboration with and participation of companies. Enterprises should participate more actively in the learning process and VET should adapt more to the demands of business and industry and the specific needs of companies. The dual system is intended to close ties between companies and VET providers, joining forces and promoting a greater involvement of learners in the workplace during the training period.
Dual training refers to all types of VET which combine work and learning with the aim to obtain vocational qualifications within the education system or VET for employed and unemployed people.
To prepare this royal decree, business organisations, trade unions and other representatives were consulted. The General Council of Vocational Training, the General Council of the National Employment System, the State Board of Education, the State Commission Training for Employment and the General Council on Disability issued a report on its content and the sectoral conferences on education and employment were informed.
According to the decree dual training may be delivered in any of the following formats:
- training exclusively at a training centre which complements and alternates with work-related activities in real-life situations;
- training with participation of enterprises, meaning the enterprises provide training centres with the spaces, facilities and experts required to deliver training programmes or modules;
- alternate training in an approved or accredited enterprise and at a training centre, in which the enterprise delivers specific modules that complement those of the training centre;
- alternate training whereby the share that the training centre and the enterprise contribute to the teaching and learning processes differ. The enterprise must obtain approval from the education authorities and/or accreditation from the relevant labour authority and must be enrolled at the centre with which it shares training duties;
- training exclusively at the enterprise under the training and apprenticeship contract.
Dual training is deemed to include both the training activity specific to an apprenticeship contract and training activities as part of participation in formal education (VET schools). In a dual programme that leads to a qualification the share of the training provided by the enterprise will be at least a third of the time (hours) required to obtain this qualification. This percentage could be expanded.