Reference year 2019

1Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?
Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

Modern Apprenticeships are aimed at those aged 16 and over providing that the apprentice is in employment.

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

 

With regards to Modern Apprenticeships, official published statistics for starts in 2018/19[1]:
- 16-19 yrs – 11,720
- 20 – 24 yrs - 6,710
- 25+ yrs – 8,840

 

[1] https://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/45688/modern-apprenti…

2Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No
Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?
Yes
No

Skills Development Scotland (SDS) administers the Scotland Apprenticeship Schemes (Programmes) on behalf of Scottish Government, including Modern Apprenticeships (MAs).

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Modern apprenticeships were introduced in the mid 1990s and are well established. As of January 2019, there are over 80 apprenticeship programmes[1] (“frameworks” in the Scottish policy) available to employers and apprentices. The approved apprenticeship programmes can be found at https://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/what-we-do/apprenticeships/…

 

[1] In Scotland, an individual apprenticeship is referred to as a framework given that the apprenticeship comprises of a number of qualifications which are then described in a Framework Document

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

Modern Apprenticeships (MAs) were originally developed to meet employers' demands for vocationally related qualifications with a job-specific content which could largely be delivered through workplace-based training http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2009/06/08142017/3.

Modern apprenticeships offer people aged 16 and over the opportunity to gain an industry designed and nationally recognised qualification while in paid employment.

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

For Modern Apprenticeships, Skills Development Scotland administers the public funding contribution towards the training costs. The contribution is paid directly to the organisation which will provide the training of the apprentice, this would normally be a college or an independent training provider.  The contribution rate is structured by programme (framework), age and level and is prioritised to support outcomes within the Scottish Government’s skills and economic strategies. 

To be able to access public funding for any Modern Apprenticeship training, all candidates regardless of age would need to be employed by a company. Employers are responsible for paying wages and any equipment required.

Scottish Government policy is to provide a contribution towards modern apprenticeship training based on a series of variables, with employers expected to make a contribution to additional costs of training.

For those aged between 16 and 24, the contribution rates vary from £1700 (Business Administration) to £10,200 (Engineering) [1]

For those aged 25 and over, the contribution rate varies from £400 (Rail Engineering) to £8000 (Engineering)[2].

Travel and Subsistence:

There is some additional funding to support travel and subsistence for Modern Apprentices who are required to attend structured and formal off-the-job training, as set out within the requirements of the Modern Apprenticeship programme (framework). The additional funding supports travel to training and overnight accommodation where appropriate. Only Apprentices resident in the following local authority areas are eligible: Argyll & Bute; Highland; Moray; Orkney; Shetland; Western Isles; and Isle of Arran.

Rural Supplement:

There is a supplementary payment of between £250 - £1000 (dependent on the duration and size of the apprenticeship) for training providers to recognise the additional costs for training provision for Modern Apprentices in rural communities. This additional support for apprenticeships based in Aberdeenshire, Argyll and Bute, Highland, Moray, Orkney, Perth and Kinross, Shetland, the Western Isles, Dumfries and Galloway, the Scottish Borders and the Isle of Arran. For the rest of Scotland, the rural uplift is based on whether the post code of the employer’s premises is classed as 'Remote Rural' or 'Remote Small Towns' by the Scottish Government's Urban/Rural Classification.

 

[1] https://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/44591/ma-contribution…

[2]https://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/44592/ma-contribution…

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

Modern Apprenticeships:

Adopt an Apprentice - If an employer takes on an apprentice who's been made redundant, - both if the apprentice is no longer in work because there is no more work available or because the employer goes out of business and all employees including the apprentices are made redundant - there's a financial incentive. If the business is in the oil and gas industry, the incentive is £5,000 and for all other industries it’s £2,000.

Scotland’s Employer Recruitment Incentive – Employers could get up to £4,000 if they recruit as an apprentice a young person who has faced significant barriers to employment.

 

See Annex A of https://www.ourskillsforce.co.uk/media/2416/seri-operating-rules.pdf

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

For the financial year April 2018 to March 2019[1], there were 27270 starts on the Modern Apprenticeship Scheme (Programme)

This is broken down by level of the programme (framework) as follows:

Level of Programme (Framework) - No of Starts

SCQF level 5 (EQF level 3) - 7,671

SCQF level 6 (EQF level 4) - 10,421

SCQF level 7 (EQF level 5) - 7,216

SCQF level 8 (EQF Level 5) - 723

SCQF level 9 (EQF level 6) - 932

SCQF levels 10 (EQF level 6) - 32

SCQF level 11 (EQF level 7) - 169

Besides publicly funded apprenticeships, there are also privately funded apprentices but it is not possible to know how many there are, given that there is no requirement to register the apprentices in a central database or equivalent. There are also some UK wide employers who offer the English apprenticeship in Scotland and, for them too, there is no way of collecting that data.

In the financial year 2018/19 there were an average of 36,000 learners on the Modern Apprenticeship scheme.

 

[1] https://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/45688/modern-apprenti…

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others

Modern Apprenticeships – the main mandatory qualification in the Modern Apprenticeships is a Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ). In some sectors, where the SVQ is not valued by the sector, an alternative competency based qualification (CBQ) can be used.  In addition to the SVQ (or CBQ), the MA Programme (Frameworks) at SCQF levels 5 to 7 (EQF levels 3-5) includes Work Place Core Skills (numeracy, literacy, ICT, Working with Others and Problem Solving).  For MA Programmes (Frameworks) at SVQF levels 8 (EQF level 5) and above, there is a range of Career Skills units.

The sector may decide that in addition to the SVQ (or CBQ) that additional qualifications are required and these may be either mandatory or voluntary. 

In addition to receiving their qualification certificates, Modern apprentices also receive a commemorative certificate recording the completion of the Modern Apprenticeship.

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?
Yes
No
There is no NQF

Depending upon the apprenticeship programme (framework) the qualification will sit between SCQF level 5 (EQF level 3) and SCQF level 12 (EQF level 8).
See https://scqf.org.uk/interactive-framework/ 

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

3Programme

4Duration

Q21. If the scheme is implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, what is its duration?

Each apprenticeship (framework) document now sets out what the expected minimum duration to be.  For some apprenticeships eg Customer Service, Retail, this is 12 months. For more technical apprenticeships eg Engineering, Construction Craft, this can be 36 to 48 months. However, apprentices can complete the programme in a shorter time.  

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other
Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

Off-the-job training is not compulsory but if it is foreseen by the apprenticeship programme, it is distinct from working and can take place in the employer’s premises or at a Further Education College or training provider.

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?
Yes
No

If the sector determines that there is no off-the-job training then the sector body, working with the sector is required to specify in the apprenticeship programme (framework) document how the underpinning knowledge and theory will be delivered.  Off-the-job training can be delivered at the employer’s premises or at a Further Education College or training provider.

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?
Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

On-the-job training varies across the apprenticeship programmes (frameworks) and there is no mandatory requirement to specify how much on-the-job training is required.  For some apprenticeship programmes, on-the-job training could be almost all of the programme whilst for other it could be 50% of the programme.

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

This is not specified within the apprenticeship (frameworks) in Scotland. This will be discussed and negotiated between the employer and the training provider and will vary across the apprenticeship programmes (frameworks). In most cases, such agreement will be on an individual basis. However, there are some exceptions to this: some of the more traditional apprenticeships are more structured. For example, in Construction Crafts (e.g. bricklaying, carpentry and joinery) the apprentices spend all of their first year in a Further Education College, most of their second year in College with some time at their employer, and all of their third and fourth years with their employer.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

All Modern Apprentices have an employment contract with their employer. For Modern Apprenticeships funded by Skills Development Scotland there is a requirement for an Individual Training Plan agreed and signed by the employer, the apprentice and the training provider or Further Education College.

If an employer chooses to privately fund an apprenticeship then they do not have to comply with the rules set out for Modern Apprenticeships other than the apprentice must be employed.

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?
Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

All Modern Apprentices are required to be employed. They can be recruited as a Modern Apprentice ie the vacancy being advertised is for a Modern Apprentice in eg Plumbing. Or they could be an existing employee Modern Apprentices are entitled to the same rights as other employees. As such, Modern Apprentices are entitled to rights such as statutory Maternity Leave, as well as an allowance of 20 days holiday per year plus bank holidays. Apprentices over 19, who have been in their apprenticeship for over a year are also entitled minimum wage for their age group.

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?
At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

The contract of employment will be held by the employer with the apprentice receiving a copy.

The Individual Training Plan is held by the training provider and monitored by Skills Development Scotland in the case of publicly funded apprenticeships.

Q30. What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

For Modern Apprenticeships, the apprentice is an employee.

7Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?
Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

For Modern Apprenticeships, the UK Government sets the National Minimum Wage and the National Living Wage. It also sets the Apprentice Rate (the minimum wage for apprentices) which is applicable to those under the age of 19 or over 19 and in the first year of their apprenticeship[1].

 

[1] https://www.gov.uk/national-minimum-wage-rates

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?
By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

National Minimum wage (NMW) regulations are a reserved matter for the UK Government, therefore the Scottish Government has no enforcement remit but remains committed to promoting fair work throughout Scotland and fully support payment of the real Living Wage and the real benefits to our economy of treating people who work more fairly.

Scotland Modern Apprenticeship rules state that training providers must advise both the participant and the employer of the obligations they are signing up to including information regarding the apprentice national minimum wage.

Many employers recognise the value of the apprentice to their business and choose to pay higher wages than the National Minimum Wage.

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

Employers pay the apprentices their wage.

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?
Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

The contract of employment should specify the number of working hours per week and time spent on off-the-job training is part of the working week[1]

 

[1] https://help.apprenticeships.scot/hc/en-gb/categories/360000628813-Indi…

8Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?
Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

As stated above, Skills Development Scotland requires that there is an Individual Training Plan in place between the employer, the apprentice and the training provider or Further Education College for publicly funded apprenticeships. 

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?
Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

As Modern Apprentices are employees, the employer is required to ensure that it provides the apprentice with the facilities, training and work place opportunities necessary to achieve the selected Framework outcomes specified in the apprentice’s Individual Training Plan.

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No

Skills Development Scotland undertakes on-going quality assurance monitoring of the delivery of the Modern Apprenticeships. This includes ensuring that the colleges, private training providers and employers who deliver Apprenticeship training programmes meet national quality assurance standards for national training programmes. A provider who does meet the quality standards may have their contract to deliver apprenticeships terminated.

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?
Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

Sector Bodies – typically these are Sector Skills Councils although other types of organisations are also involved. The Sector Bodies develop National Occupational Standards (NOS) which underpin SVQs and alternative Competence Based Qualifications.  When developing or reviewing NOS, the Sector Bodies are required to consult with industry (the consultation must include individual employers but can also include Trade Associations) and ensure that industry is content with the content of the NOS.

Once the NOS have been approved, the Sector Body will develop the structure for the SVQ or the CBQ.  Again, it is required to consult with industry regarding the structure of the qualification, and it is also required to include Awarding Bodies in this consultation to ensure that the structure is a meaningful structure and that there are no barriers to an individual undertaking the qualification.  Once the structure has been agreed by industry and awarding bodies, it is submitted to SQA Accreditation for approval.

Sector bodies also develop the Modern Apprenticeship framework. In so doing, the sector bodies again consult with the industry with regards to the contents of the framework. In addition, they must also consult with the relevant Trade Unions to get their support for the framework.  Once it has both employer support and Trade Union support, the framework is submitted to the Modern Apprenticeship Group for approval.

SQA Accreditation is the national accreditation body in Scotland and has a regulatory role. It approves awarding bodies and accredits qualifications (other than degrees. SVQs must be accredited by SQA Accreditation as are those CBQs which form the mandatory component of a Modern Apprenticeship. Once the SVQ or CBQ structure has been approved, awarding bodies approved by SQA Accreditation can develop the structure into a qualification and submit the qualification for accreditation.

Awarding Bodies design and develop qualifications and approve Further Education Colleges and training providers to deliver and assess the qualifications.  Awarding Bodies are responsible for the quality assurance of the qualifications and to ensure that the assessments conducted by the Further Education Colleges and Training Providers are of an appropriate standard.

SQA Accreditation regulates the Awarding Bodies and accredited qualifications by conducting audits of the Awarding Bodies and carrying out monitoring visits to a sample of each Awarding Bodies approved providers.

Skills Development Scotland (SDS) is the national skills body for Scotland. It delivers a range of services to individuals and employers across the country. These include:
•         providing  the national Careers Information, Advice and Guidance (CIAG) service
•         managing and developing the Scottish apprenticeship scheme
•         working with employers to support and respond to their skills needs
•         developing a robust evidence base to articulate the current and future skills demands of Scotland and ensure that skills investment is evidence-based and aligned with skills demand
•         managing a range of employability programmes to support individuals to take their first steps into the labour market, or to make successful career changes and progression 

The above describes the current situation with regards to the design, development, assessment and certification of apprenticeships. However, there are plans to change some aspects of this within the near future.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?
Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

Employers are responsible for employing the apprentices, supporting delivery of work based learning and in some cases assessing delivery (if they have in house assessors to undertake this)  

Normally the assessment of the qualifications is carried out by the Further Education Colleges or Training Providers that have been approved by the Awarding Bodies offering the qualifications in the apprenticeship framework, However, employers can also be approved by an Awarding Body as a Training Provider, providing that they meet the Awarding Body’s requirements. Most choose not and will work with a Further Education College or Training Provider to deliver and assess the qualification on their behalf.  However, employers can still be involved in the assessment process by providing Expert Witnesses or by providing Witness Testimonies to supplement the assessment carried out by the Further Education Colleges or Training Providers.

In addition, where on-the-job training is included within the apprenticeship, then employers will be required to ensure that they have the necessary resources and staff to be able to carry out the on-the-job training.

1Target group

Q7. What is the target group of this scheme?
Young people in initial vocational education and training (15-16 year-olds)
Young adults in education and training (above 16 year-olds)
Unemployed
Other (please specify in the description)

The age group covered by Modern apprenticeships is 16 plus. Modern apprentices must have reached the Scottish statutory minimum school leaving age. MAs were originally for young adults (aged 16-24), but the upper age limit has now been removed. Funding has been prioritised, however, for 16-17 year olds under a UK-wide government training guarantee, and the funding available to those 25 and over is currently still very limited. All Modern Apprentices are expected to have employed status.

Q8. What is the age of learners?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

2Overview of the scheme

Q9. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No

Modern Apprenticeships are not on the ISCED 2011 Mapping.

Q10 - Is the scheme part of the VET system?
Yes, it is the main route in the VET system
Yes, but it is considered a second-chance route
No, it is an alternative pathway outside of formal VET

As with the Apprenticeships described above Modern Apprenticeships in Scotland are considered a main route in the VET system.

Q11 - When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Modern apprenticeships were developed in the 1990s and were mainly available in traditional industries such as construction or plumbing. Since then the number, types and levels of modern apprenticeships have increased. In 2012/13, there were 70 types of modern apprenticeships available across a range of occupations including accounting, plumbing, hospitality and engineering.[1]

Q12 - How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
school-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
programmes for the unemployed (active labour market measures) to facilitate integration on the labour market
Other

Modern Apprenticeships (MAS) were originally developed to meet employers' demands for vocationally related qualifications with a job-specific content which could largely be delivered through workplace-based training.[1]

The aim of the MA programme is to increase the pool of people trained to intermediate level skills. MAs were originally for young adults (aged 16-24). The content of the apprenticeship frameworks that govern the content of the apprenticeships are developed by the relevant sector skills council.

Q13 - What are the major sources of financing of the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
By companies hosting apprentices
By employers through sectoral funds
By the state from the education budget
By the state from the labour / social security budget
By EU funding
Other

Funding policy in Scotland is based on making a market-tested contribution towards the costs of achieving an MA award with the balance of funding being provided by the employer.

Funding contributions made available by SDS vary between £1,500 to £9,000 depending on the level and type of MA award being undertaken and the age of the apprentice. [1]

Sectoral bodies help to design the frameworks but it is the government and employers who finance.

Q14 - Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

Employers can get up to £4,000 when your company commits to a new job or new Modern Apprentice (MA).

The funding is a contribution towards the additional costs of recruiting a young person during their first 52 weeks of sustainable employment.

If employers pay them the living wage there will be an additional payment of £500[1].

For employers willing to take on a redundant Modern Apprentice a one-off financial incentive of £2,000 is available.

Employers from the oil and gas industry will receive a one-off financial incentive payment of £5,000.

Q15 - Is the scheme temporary, meaning that it is financed for a limited period of time?
Yes
No

New legislation  in the UK will be introduced in 2016 and the levy itself will be payable from April 2017 onwards.

The levy will apply to all UK employers in both the private and public sectors with annual salary bills of more than £3 million. Employers with an annual salary bill smaller than this will not pay the levy.

The levy will be charged at a rate of 0.5% of an employer’s pay bill. Levy payments will be collected monthly by HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) through Pay as You Earn (PAYE), payable alongside tax and National Insurance.

The UK Government estimates that 2% of employers will be eligible to pay the levy, raising up to £3 billion per annum by 2019-20. Of this, it estimates that £2.5billion will be spent in England, with the remaining £500 m allocated to devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

 

Skills Development Scotland (SDS) is engaging with Scottish Government; employers and partners ahead of the levy’s introduction.

Q16. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?
25,247

25,247 Modern Apprentices (MAs) started training in 2014/15, exceeding the Scottish Government’s annual target[1].

 

Modern Apprenticeships are not on the ISCED 2011 Mapping.

Q17 - How many learners are enrolled in this scheme in relation to all VET students?
the main VET track (majority of VET learners - more than 60% of VET learners)
strong VET track (important share of VET learners - between 30%-60%)
minor track (small share of learners - between 10% and 30%)
very small track (less than 10%)
Apprentices are not considered as learners (they are employees)

Information on the number of apprentices enrolled in VET is not available, however there is information on the total number in FE colleges.

The overall headcount in Scottish colleges stood at 226,919 in 2014/15 – a reduction of more than 10,000 compared to the previous year, according to statistics published by the Scottish Funding Council (SFC)[1].

Q18 - How many learners are enrolled in the scheme in relation to all programmes for learners of the same age group?
the main track (majority of learners - more than 60% of all learners)
strong track (important share of all learners - between 30%-60%)
minor track (small share of learners - between 10% and 30%)
very small track (less than 10%)

Modern Apprenticeships are not on the ISCED 2011 Mapping and so this data is not readily available.

 

Q19 - Does the apprenticeship scheme result in a qualification?
Yes
No

MAs are built around an appropriate Scottish Vocational Qualification (SVQ) level 3 qualification or above. The other elements to a MA are a mixture of sector relevant SVQs/NVQs and core skills (communication, information technology, problem solving, numeracy and working with others) and, in some cases, other sector-specific qualifications[1].

Q20 - Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Educational qualification
Occupational / sectoral qualification

There are four levels of modern apprenticeships (2, 3, 4 and 5) which represent the level of SVQ that an apprentice can achieve and the job that an individual does. Originally, modern apprenticeships were mainly available at SVQ level 3. SVQ level 2 apprenticeships were introduced in 2009/10 in response to employer demand and to replace the Skillseekers training programme. Level 4 and level 5 apprenticeships were later introduced to give employers the opportunity to increase the skills of their workforce to a more advanced level. A level 5 apprenticeship is more likely to be undertaken by someone in a more senior job role. [1]

3Qualifications

Q21 - Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)
Yes
No
There is no NQF
Q23 - Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

These qualifications are recognised by higher education.

4Duration

Q25 - How is the length of stay in apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
Is defined as minimum and maximum
Is defined as minimum
Is defined as maximum
Is not defined by regulation

There are no set timescales for completing an apprenticeship and they typically take from around six months to three years to complete. [1]

Q26 - Is there a distinction between the training and working period for the time spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

 

Not stated 

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q27 - Is in-company training a compulsory part of the scheme, as per regulation?
Yes
No

There is no obligation for in-company training but only to provide access to a training provider.

Q29 - What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school / training centre?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at VET school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at VET school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at VET school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various - depends on VET school / training centre
Other
Not specified

The content varies according to the apprenticeship job level and job role.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q30 - Is any contractual arrangement between the learner, company and/or education and training provider, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

The ASCLA does not apply to Scotland and Northern Ireland; it is therefore more difficult to terminate an apprenticeship prematurely in Scotland and Northern Ireland, and early termination of a contract of apprenticeship may result in enhanced compensation.

 

Q31 - Which parties enter a contractual relationship?
Learner and employer
Learner, employer and the education and training institution
Education and training institution and the employer (not the learner)
Other
No contract is required

The ASCLA does not apply to Scotland.

Q32 - What is the nature of the contract?
Apprenticeships are a specific contract covered by the Labour Code
Apprenticeships are a form of employment contract
Formal agreement, not covered by the Labour Code

All Modern Apprentices are expected to have employed status. Modern Apprentices should be entitled to the same rights as other employees. As such, MAs are entitled to rights such as statutory Maternity Leave, as well as an allowance of 20 days holiday per year plus bank holidays. Apprentices over 19, who have been in their apprenticeship for over a year are also entitled minimum wage for their age group.[1]

Q33 - Where is the contract registered?
At the education and training institution
At the employment office
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

n/a

Q34 - What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

All Modern Apprentices are expected to have employed status.

7Remuneration

Q35 - Do apprentices receive a salary, allowance or compensation?
Yes, all apprentices receive a salary (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
Compensation is possible but not required
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

Employers can set your wages so long as they pay at or above the National Minimum Wage (NMW). There are different levels for the NMW, which depend on an employees age. The current level of National Minimum Wage is £3.30 per hour for apprentices aged under 19, or if an apprentice is 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. https://www.gov.uk/national-minimum-wage-rates

Paid per hour working with employer.

Q36 - Who pays the salary / allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

See Q36 above. ATA do not exist in Scotland.

Q37 - Is the company hosting apprentices required to provide training at the workplace?
Yes, obligation to provide training at the workplace is required in the contract
Yes, it is required by law
Yes, required by other regulations
No, not required formally

See in Q37  above.

The obligation of the employer is to give access to the training provided by the training provider.

8Responsibility of employers

Q38 - What are the requirements on training companies, as per regulation?
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Have to provide learning environment
Have to ensure learning support
Have to develop a training plan
Other

Training providers are under contract to the Enterprise Networks to agree provision of appropriate training throughout the apprenticeship, to assess competences, to develop individual learning plans with the employee and employer, and to administer the MA through contact with the Local Enterprise Company and by keeping the central MA management database updated.

Q39 - Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No

There are no sanctions but early termination of a contract of apprenticeship may result in enhanced compensation.

Q40 - What is the role of chambers, employers' and employees' representatives (social partners), sectoral councils (if existent), in apprenticeships, as per regulation?
Roles in designing qualifications/ curricula
Roles in final assessment of apprentices
Roles in quality assurance of work-based VET
Responsible for the regulation of the contract
Other
No role

Frameworks are designed by the sector skills body relevant to the industry sector, and are approved (and re-approved at least every 2-3 years) by the Modern Apprenticeship Implementation Group (MAIG). The MAIG is made up of representatives of Scottish Executive, Scottish Enterprise Network, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, Local Enterprise Companies, Careers Scotland, Scottish Qualifications Authority Accreditation Unit, Sector Skills Alliance Scotland, Scottish Further Education Training Unit and the Scottish Training Federation.[1]

As well as the apprentices, sector skills bodies and MAIG, other main stakeholders in the development and delivery of MAs are:

  • Scottish Enterprise and Highlands and Islands Enterprise provide funding for training to Local Enterprise Companies;
  • Local Enterprise Companies are responsible for administering the programme and distributing funding to training providers;
  • Employers are expected to ensure that the training fits with the apprentice's job, to ensure that on-the-job training is provided and to support the apprentice;
  • Careers Scotland has responsibility for raising awareness amongst individuals and school guidance teachers of MAs as an employment and training option;
  • Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) is responsible for certification and for quality assurance in relation to awards;
  • Scottish Quality Management System (SQMS) is responsible for quality assurance of training providers.