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The 2018 key competences framework

Following the review of political, social, economic, ecological and technological developments since 2006, especially in areas such as multilingualism, cultural diversity, communication, migration, sustainability issues and citizenship, the 2018 Council recommendation on key competences for lifelong defines eight key competences:

  1. literacy;
  2. languages;
  3. mathematical, science, technology and engineering;
  4. digital;
  5. personal, social and learning;
  6. civic;
  7. entrepreneurship;
  8. cultural awareness and expression.

Cedefop has supported the review process with its expertise, including:

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