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02. How many students participate in work-based IVET?

Indicator 1020: students in work-based upper secondary IVET
Figure 2 IVET work-based students as % of all upper secondary IVET

Work-based learning can provide a bridge to the labour market. It can aid transition from education to work and contribute to the development of highly relevant skills for the labour market.

The Bruges Communiqué and the Riga Conclusions call for work-based learning to become a key feature of IVET. Of particular interest is the extent to which students in IVET are enrolled in programmes combining a work-based and school-based component, as opposed to vocational programmes which are school-based.

The indicator below is defined as the percentage of upper secondary VET students that are enrolled in combined work- and school-based programmes ([1]). EU averages are estimated from available country data.

Figure 2: IVET work-based students as % of all upper secondary IVET

Source: Cedefop calculations based on Eurostat data/UOE data collection on education.

Key points

In 2015, 28.4% of students in upper secondary VET in the EU were enrolled in combined work- and school-based programmes (estimate based on available country data).

In Latvia and Hungary all and in Denmark nearly all (99.7%) upper secondary VET was reported to happen in combined work- and school-based programs. The share was also high in Germany (86.0%). Combined work- and school-based programmes accounted for about half of the students in upper secondary VET in the United Kingdom (54.1%) and 46.8% in Austria. The share was between 10% and 30% in France (24.7%), Luxembourg (22.1%), the Netherlands (21.3%), Poland (15.7%), and Finland (13.6%). The share was lower than 10% in Slovakia (9.1%), the Czech Republic (8.8%), Belgium (5.8%), Sweden (3.6%), Romania (2.8%), Estonia (1.4%), Spain (1.2%), and Malta (0.0%). In several countries, a statistical distinction of vocational programmes between combined work- and school-based, as opposed to school-based, was not applicable, due to the characteristics of their IVET systems or programmes (Bulgaria, Ireland, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia). For one Member State (Greece) 2015 data were not available. Among non-EU countries, more than 90% of upper secondary VET was work-based in Switzerland (90.4%).

On average, in the EU, the share of upper secondary VET students in combined work- and school-based programmes slightly dropped between 2013 and 2015 (down 1.0 percentage points). In the United Kingdom, the share decreased by 3.4 percentage points but (at 54.1% in 2015) remained well above the EU average. In France (at 24.7% in 2015 after a decrease by 2.5 percentage points) and Finland (at 13.6% in 2015 after a decrease by 1.7 percentage points), it dropped further below the EU average. The largest percentage point change (of 26.6%), however, was in Hungary where by 2015 all upper secondary VET students were enrolled in programmes combining a work-based and school-based component.

Table 2: IVET work-based students as % of all upper secondary IVET

Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative trend based on more than two data points and of magnitude 0.1 per year or more. Trends based on more than two data points but of smaller magnitude are indicated by →; trends based on two points only are marked ▪. Trends are estimated by means of regression models.
The UOE back reconstruction of the 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 is not yet available.
The EU28 values are based on data from 25 countries (missing: ES, PL, RO), with partial information for NL.
(F) Based on partial information (public sector). (b) Break after 2010. Therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: "low reliability". (z) Eurostat: "not applicable". (e) Eurostat: "estimated".

Source: Cedefop calculations based on Eurostat data/UOE data collection on education.

 

[1]       A vocational programme is classified as combined work- and school-based if 25% or more of the curriculum is presented outside the school environment; otherwise it is classified as school-based. Programmes where  the work-based component accounts for 90% or more of the curriculum are excluded. Under these conditions, apprenticeships are included in the work-based IVET component. (UOE, 2016)

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Annex 1: short description of indicators and additional notes

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01/02/2018